least One Year. General Officers at their Half Yearly Inspections are obliged to report confidentially, whether the Subalterns are active and intelligent, and whether they have acquired the necessary degree of information on all subjects connected with their duty. Vide Roll.

SUBDIVISION. A Company told off for the purpose of parade or manœuvre, is divided into two equal parts, each called a subdivision.

SUBSIDY. A stipulated sum of money paid by one Prince to another, in pursuance of a Treaty of Alliance for Offensive and Defensive War.

SUBSISTENCE. The pay and allowances which are daily issued to the men for their immediate support.

SULPHUR, OR BRIMSTONE. A mineral, composed of vitriolic acid and some combustible substance; when exposed to a moderate heat it liquefies, and sublimes into little tufts, called Flowers of Sulphur; thus it is purified from heterogeneous substances by sublimation. It is a principal ingredient in the manufacture of gunpowder.

SUMMON, as a military phrase, denotes a demand to the Enemy to surrender themselves and their post; this is done either in writing, by beat of drum, or by sound of trumpet.

SUPERNUMERARY. Beyond a fixed or stated number. It is also used to denote the Officers and NonCommissioned Officers, who, not being in the Ranks, are placed in the Rear, for the double purpose of supplying the places of those who fall in Action, and of preserving order and regularity in the Rear Ranks.

SUPERSEDE. To set aside. To deprive an Officer of Rank and Pay for any neglect or offence, and to gazette another Officer in his place. Officers absent without Leave are usually superseded in the next Gazette.

SURGEON. A Staff Officer who has charge of the Medical Department of a Regiment, or of a General Hospital. So far as regards choice of Quarters, Surgeons of Regiments rank as Captains. Vide Hospital.

SURPRISE. To fall upon an enemy unexpectedly, to attack him while in Camp, or engaged in passing a Defilé, River, &c. It also implies an attack upon a Town or Fortress, so sudden and vigorous, as to overpower the Garrison, and obtain possession of the place.

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SURROUND. In Sieges, to invest. outflank and cut off the means of retreating.

In tactics, to

SURVEYING is the art of obtaining the dimensions and forms of all figures, however irregular, upon the surface of the earth, whether the boundaries consist of Roads, Fences, Margins of lakes, Coasts or Rivers, such as they would be orthographically projected on a plane of the Horizon. From the geometrical principle of similar right lined figures having their sides and angles proportional, it is evident, that if a sufficient number of the sides and angles of any figure are measured on the ground, a similar figure may be projected upon paper, and by any scale that may be required. The actual performance of this operation in the Field constitutes the practice of Surveying, while the laying down the same features upon paper is called Plotting.

Surveying has three grand divisions, Trigonometrical, Topographical, and Land Surveying.

Trigonometrical Surveying is the art of carrying on a series of connected triangles, over an extensive tract of country, from a long and accurately measured base line, and of transferring upon paper, on a reduced scale, the true positions of the points of these triangles, which generally consist of the most conspicuous objects, as steeples, and summits of hills. Topographical Surveying comprehends the filling up of the space contained within these triangles, with the correct position and representation of the remaining objects, situated on and composing the surface of the country. It also means the Survey, independent of Trigonometry, of a space of country not exceeding 300 square miles. Land Surveying consists merely in planning the boundaries, and computing the areas of Fields and Gentlemen's Estates, without requiring a representation of the features of the ground.

This science, so very useful to an Officer, requires a previous knowledge of Trigonometry, and the Mensuration of Heights and Distances; the opportunity for its acquirement is open to every Officer, through the Medium of the Royal Military College at Sandhurst, where it forms a leading feature in the course of studies, but should want of time or other cause prevent advantage being taken of this admirable Institution, there are several Establish

ments in England, where Military Surveying may be studied under excellent masters, and at a moderate expense.

SUSPENSION. A Suspension of Arms is a short truce agreed upon by contending armies, either to await instructions from a higher authority, or for the purpose of burying the dead.

SUTLER. A Victualler who follows a Camp, and sells provisions of every kind to the Troops.

SYSTEM. In Fortification, a System is a particular arrangement and mode of constructing the different works surrounding a fortified place. The principal Systems now studied are the Three Systems of Marshal Vauban, and the improved method invented by the most successful of modern Engineers, Cormontaingne. On the subject of Field Works, there have been many writers, each strenuously urging the merits of his own mode and principles of construction, and severely criticising the works of others; among this array of authors, The Theory of Field Fortification, by M. C. Malorti de Martemont, and that of Noizé de St. Paul, are generally considered the best.

TABLETTE. A flat coping stone, generally two feet wide and eight inches thick, placed at the top of the revêtement of the Escarp, for the purpose of protecting the masonry from the effects of the weather, and also to serve as an obstacle to the besiegers when applying the scaling ladders. It is always considered a matter of importance that the Tablette should be concealed from the Enemy's view, as he would otherwise be able to direct his artillery against it; therefore, the escarp of all the works enclosed within the Covered Way, is submitted at least six inches to the crest of the Glacis.

TACTICS. A word derived from the Greek, signifying "order." Tactics consist in a knowledge of the order, disposition, and formation of Troops required in warlike operations, according to the exigency of circumstances. TAKE. In a military sense, to take is to make prisoner, or to capture. It has also a meaning in Field


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Movements, viz. to adopt any particular formation, as to "take open order."

To take ground to the right or left, is to extend a line, or to move Troops in either of those directions.

To take down, is to commit to paper that which is spoken by another.

To take the field, is to encamp, to commence the operations of a campaign.

To take up the gauntlet, is to accept a challenge.

TANGENT. A right line raised perpendicularly on the extremity of a radius, and which touches the circle, but does not cut it.

TAR. A kind of liquid pitch: the turpentine of the fir and pine drained out by incisions made in the trunks of the trees for that purpose. It is of the nature of an essential oil, inflammable, and burns with much smoke.

TARGET. A mark used in the practice of ball-firing. The first target for the instruction of the Infantry recruit is made round, and eight feet in diameter, the practice commencing at thirty yards, so that it becomes impossible for the Recruit to miss it. This method is intended to produce confidence in the Recruit at the commencement of his practice, instead of the system hitherto observed, of placing him in front of a small target, at a long range, and by this means producing in his mind, from constant missing, a degree of despair of ever becoming a good shot. On the contrary, finding that he always hits at a certain distance, confidence ensues, and he feels determined to command his object at an increased range ever afterwards. This range is increased by degrees to 50, 80, and 100 yards at the same target.

The recruit is then made to practise at a target six feet by two, being divided by black lines into three compartments, the upper, centre, and lower divisions; the centre division having a bull's eye eight inches in diameter in its centre, and surrounded at two inches' distance by a circle one inch in breadth, and this target is placed at a range of 80 yards, increasing as improvement takes place to 100, 150, and 200 yards. Abstract of Field Exercise.

The charge for the expense of providing Targets is to

be supported by the Bills and Receipts of the Persons from whom the Articles were procured.

TELEGRAPH. A Machine employed to convey every species of intelligence to a distance, through the medium of signals. Vide Semaphore.

TELL OFF. A military term, expressing the dividing and practising a Regiment or Company in the several formations, preparatory to marching to the General Parade for Field Exercise. Thus, a Regiment is told off into Wings, Grand Divisions, and Divisions; these latter are again told off into Subdivisions, Sections, Right and Left Files, and into Sections of Threes.

TENAILLE is a work constructed upon the Lines of Defence before the Curtain, composed of two faces and a small curtain. The rear of the Tenaille is made parallel to its magistral line at a distance not exceeding eight Toises, so that it leaves at the angle of the flank, a triangular space of some extent, which is found admirably adapted for a safe recess for the boats and rafts employed in conveying the troops to their destination; while in dry ditches, it affords a clear space which is extremely serviceable for assembling the Sorties which are made in the ditch, to interrupt its passage by the Enemy. Its relief should be just sufficient to permit, without injury to the troops on its banquette, a fire of musquetry to be directed from the flank of one Bastion to the probable place of a breach in the next. It is provided with a parapet of the usual dimensions.

TENAILLON. The Tenaillon was a work constructed on each side of the Demilune, and intended for its protection, as well as to supply its want of saliency. It was composed of two unequal faces, one made on the prolongation of the face of the Demilune, thirty Toises, the other extending from the extremity of the former to a point on the Counterscarp of the Main Ditch, fifteen Toises from the re-entering angle. A small Reduit called a Bonnet was sometimes placed in the re-entering angle, formed by the two salients of the Tenaillons and of the Lunettes. The Tenaillons were separated from the Counterscarp by a ditch of the same dimensions as that of the Demilune. These works, however, failed in their intended object, as it was found by experience that while

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