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structed on a Square, and upon the Principles of Permanent Fortification. Their Lines of defence should not exceed the range of Musquetry. They are only resorted to on occasions of importance, such as the occupation of a Country for the purpose of laying it under contributions.

Being tedious and difficult in their construction, they require the superintendence of an Engineer. The dotted lines in the annexed Figure, shew the direction of the fire projected from the different sides of the work. Vide also Forts.

BASTIONS, TOWER. Are towers constructed in the form of Bastions, and provided with Casemates containing four guns, two in each flank. They were raised by Vauban in his second and third systems.

BASTIONS, CIRCULAR, are only to be found in ancient Fortifications. They are objectionable, in common with all circular works, in consequence of their fire being too diverging.

BATARD'EAUX. Vide Ditch.

BATON. A truncheon or staff, conferred upon Field Marshals as a symbol of authority.

BATTALION. A Regiment of Infantry. At present, a Battalion of the Line is composed of Ten Companies, each consisting of a Lieutenant, an Ensign, Three or Four Serjeants, and about 75 Rank and File, under the charge of a Captain. A Regular Staff of Field Officers, Adjutant, Pay-master, Surgeon, Assistant Surgeons, and Quarter-Master, is appointed to every Battalion; the whole

being under the immediate command of a Lieutenant-Colonel.

BATTERY. The name given to any place where Cannon or Mortars are mounted, either for the purpose of attacking the forces of an enemy, or of battering a Fortification. They are of various descriptions, such as Gun, Howitzer, Mortar, Barbette, and Coast Batteries; each adapted to the particular service for which it is required.

BATTERY, FLOATING. Vide Floating.

BATTLE. An action, in which the forces of two contending armies are engaged.

BATTLEMENTS. Notches or indentures on the top of a wall or building, resembling embrazures.

BAYONET. In French, Bayonette, Italian, Bayonetta, Spanish, Bayoneta. A kind of triangular dagger, made to fit on the muzzle of a firelock, so as not to interfere with the firing. This weapon is used with great effect in attacking an enemy, or in receiving the charge of cavalry. BELLIGERENT. An epithet applied to any country which is in a state of warfare.

BERM. A narrow path or space, two or three feet wide, left at the foot of the exterior slope of the Parapet, in order that the mass of which the Parapet is composed may not press with such force on the Escarp, as to cause its sides to give way, and also to prevent the earth of the Parapet from crumbling into the ditch.

BESIEGE. To invest any place with an armed force. BESIEGERS. The Army besieging a Town or Fort

ress.

BILLETTING. The temporary quartering of Soldiers in the houses of the inhabitants of any Town or Village.

The Constables and other Persons duly authorized are required to billet the Officers and Soldiers of the Army, and also the horses belonging to the Cavalry, Staff, and Field Officers, in victualling and other houses specified in the Mutiny Act; and they must be received by the occupiers of these houses, and provided with proper accommodations. In England they are to be supplied with Diet and Small Beer, and with Stables, Hay, and Straw, for the horses; paying for the same the several rates prescribed by law.

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Troops, whether Cavalry or Infantry, are in no case to be billetted above one mile from the place mentioned in the Route.

Where Cavalry are billetted, the men and their horses must be billetted in the same house, except in case of necessity. One man must always be billetted where there are one or two horses; and less than two men cannot be billetted where there are four horses; and so in proportion for a greater number.

No more billets are at any time to be ordered than there are effective Soldiers and Horses present; and all billets are to be delivered into the hands of the Commanding Officer.

Commanding Officers may, for the benefit of the service, exchange any men or horses billetted in the same town, provided the number of men and horses so exchanged does not exceed the number at the time billetted on each house; and the Constables are obliged to billet those men and horses accordingly.

Any Justice may, at the request of the Officer or Noncommissioned Officer commanding any Soldiers requiring Billets, extend the Routes or enlarge the District within which Billets shall be required, in such manner as may be most convenient to the Troops.

In Scotland, Officers and Soldiers are billetted according to the provisions of the laws in force in that country at the time of its union with England; and no Officer is obliged to pay for his lodging, where he shall be regularly billetted, except in the Suburbs of Edinburgh. Vide also the Remarks under the head Innkeepers.

BILL-HOOK. A small hatchet, used in cutting wood for fascines, and other military purposes. The Pioneers of the Infantry are always provided with them, and a sufficient supply is issued to Regiments engaged on Active Service.

BIVOUAC. From bis "double", and the German Wache, "a guard". An Army is said to bivouac, when it does not encamp at night.

BLACK HOLE. A military place of confinement for Soldiers. During the period of their imprisonment, by the sentence of a Court Martial, they forfeit their pay and service, and their food is restricted to bread and water.

BLAST. To blow up mines or rocks by the expansive force of gunpowder.

BLOCKADE. A Town or Fortress is said to be blockaded, when all ingress and egress is precluded by the Troops which surround it. The object of the Blockade is generally to compel the Garrison to surrender, when their provisions and ammunition are expended: it is consequently an operation requiring time.

BLOCK HOUSE. A work consisting of one or more stories, built almost entirely of the trunks of trees. It was formerly much used by the troops in the North of Germany and in North America, to protect their Military Posts during the Winter; but it has fallen into disuse of late, in consequence of its total incapacity to withstand the effects of Artillery, and also because its principal intention, that of sheltering the Troops during the winter, is now better effected by the erecting of barracks.

BOARD. An office under the control of the Executive Government, where the business of any particular department is conducted; as, the India Board, the Board of Admiralty, &c. The principal Military Boards are:

The Consolidated Board of General Officers, for the inspection and regulating of the Clothing and Appointments of the Army, the investigation of claims for losses, &c. Office, at No. 21, Spring Gardens, London.

The Board of Ordnance has the sole management of all affairs relating to the Artillery, Engineers, and Garrisons. The Barrack Department is under the control of this Board; by whose order, also, all issues of arms, ammunition, &c. are made. This office, which is one of great importance, is entrusted to a Master-General, assisted by a Lieutenant-General, Surveyor-General, Clerk of the Ordnance, Storekeeper, Clerk of Deliveries, Treasurer, Secretaries, and Aides-de-camp.

The Army Medical Board has the whole superintendance of all details connected with the Medical Department of the Army. All reports and communications on these subjects, must be addressed to the Director-General, at the Office, No. 5, Berkeley Street, Piccadilly, under cover and unsealed, to the Secretary at War, with the words 'Medical Department' on the left-hand corner. To prevent unnecessary delay, a separate letter must be written on each distinct head of Communication.

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Regimental Board, is a Board consisting of any number of Officers assembled by order of the Commanding Officer of a regiment, for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon such matters as may legally be brought before it.

BODY OF THE PLACE. The space enclosed by the enceinte, or line of Bastions and Curtains.

BOMBARD. To assault a Town or Fortress by projecting into it shells, &c. from mortars, in order to set fire to and destroy the houses, magazines, and other buildings.

BOOM. A strong beam of timber, a floating cable or chain, placed across the mouth of a River or Harbour, to prevent the entrance of an Enemy.

BONA FIDE. With good faith; i.e. without fraud or subterfuge.

BOUNTY.

men who enlist.

BREACH.

A sum of money given by Government to

An opening or gap effected in any part of the works of a fortified place, by the fire of the enemy's Artillery.

A breach is practicable, when a sufficient quantity of material has accumulated to render the ascent easy to the assailants.

BREAK GROUND. To open the Trenches, or commence the works of a Siege.

BREAST WORK.

A parapet thrown up as high as

the breasts of the Troops defending it. BREECH OF A GUN.

the cascabel to the bore.

The part extending from

BREVET. Is a rank in the army higher than the Regimental Commission held by an Officer. In Garrison and Brigade Duties, it confers precedence according to seniority.

BRIDGE. There are several descriptions of Military Bridges; the principal of which are, Bridges of Boats, Pontoon Bridges, and Bridges of Casks. The first are formed by uniting a number of boats to each other, at a distance of about six feet, by means of ropes, and securing them with anchors: they are connected by planks, and thus afford a safe passage for Troops. On a similar principle are constructed Bridges of Pontoons, which are described under the word Pontoon. The third description is of the same nature as the two former, and is composed of empty

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