All these rules may easily be demonstrated, as they are founded on the doctrine of similar triangles being proportional.

HELMET. A piece of defensive armour, or covering for the head. Helmets are still worn by the Life Guards, Royal Horse Guards, and regiments of Heavy Cavalry. HEM IN. To surround.

HEPTAGON. A Polygon consisting of seven sides and angles.

HEXAGON. A geometrical figure having six sides and angles. The side of a regular Hexagon inscribed in a circle, is equal to the radius of that circle. Hence, a regular Hexagon may be inscribed in a circle, by applying the radius six times on the circumference.

HOLSTERS. Cases fixed to the front of a saddle to contain a horseman's pistols.

HONOURS. A general term for the external marks of respect paid by Troops to Sovereigns and General Officers, varying according to rank.

HONOURS OF WAR. This expression is more immediately applicable to the terms granted to a capitulating Enemy when evacuating a Fortress. As these terms depend entirely on the disposition of the victorious General, it is impossible to define their limits. It will suffice to mention that, in some instances, the Garrisons have been allowed to march out with colours flying, drums beating, with their cannon and baggage; in others, they have been only permitted to march out to a certain distance, where they have piled their arms, and, returning to the town, have surrendered themselves prisoners.

HORIZON. That line which bounds the view, and appears to separate the heavens from the earth. The horizon is distinguished into the sensible and real. The sensible horizon is the circular line which bounds the view the real, is that which would bound it, if it could include the hemisphere. Every part of the sensible horizon is 90° from the centre of it, over our heads; and this point is called the Zenith.


HORN WORK. A Horn Work is composed of two half Bastions and a Curtain, with two long branches, directed in Vauban's Systems upon the faces of the Bastions or Ravelins, so as to be defended by them.

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disposition, both of the Horn and Crown Works, required their branches to converge towards the place in a very disadvantageous manner, and the length of the branches only increased the evil. Cormontaingne, aware of these defects, augmented the number of their fronts without any limit, and was thus enabled to arrange them in such a manner as to enclose within them several fronts. By these means, their branches were shortened, and better flanked. These improvements gave importance to the Horn and Crown Works; fully adapting them to the numerous purposes for which they were intended. See Cut, where the Horn Work, a, is placed before the Curtain, B.

HOSPITAL. A place of reception for the Sick, where they are under medical treatment. The Surgeons of Regimental Hospitals are alone responsible for the order, regularity, and cleanliness of the Hospital; for the diet and care of the patients; and for the general conduct and economy of the whole establishment. The strictest obedience must be paid to his directions, by every individual connected with the Hospital. Regimental Medical Of

ficers perform their respective professional duties under the instruction and superintendence of the Director General of the Army Medical Board; but in every other respect than on points purely medical, they are under the control of the Commanding Officer of the regiment, who is enjoined, by the King's Regulations, minutely to investigate the economy and order established in the Hospital; to inquire into the state of the patients, their diet, and attendance of every kind; to check every abuse, and enforce the strictest observance of the Hospital Regulations.

The Captain and Subaltern of the day are to visit the Hospital at uncertain hours, and report any irregularity they may observe, to the Commanding Officer.

A Guard is to be constantly furnished to the Hospital; and the Surgeon is directed to signify to the Commanding Officer the particular orders which he wishes to be given to the Non-Commissioned Officer in charge of it, and to the Sentries.

When a Soldier is sent to the Hospital, his arms and accoutrements should be delivered into the charge of the Serjeant of his Company.

The practice in some Regiments, with regard to the Soldiers' necessaries is, that when taken to the Hospital, the man should be accompanied by a Non-Commissioned Officer, who delivers the man's necessaries into the charge of the Hospital Serjeant; two inventories being signed and exchanged. By this simple method, any subsequent disputes on the soldier's part are obviated; and in the event of his death, there is no possibility of a fraud being committed, as one of the inventories is lodged in the Orderly Room by the Company Serjeant.

Hospital dresses are provided under the authority of the Director General, for each patient, and consisting of a Flannel Gown, Trousers, Night Cap, and Slippers.

The sum of ten-pence per diem on Home Service, and nine-pence per diem on Foreign Service, is deducted from each soldier's pay, during the time he remains in a General or Regimental Hospital. The balance of the accounts of men in Hospital, are not paid to them until they return to their duty; but their accounts must be regularly stated and explained to them at the proper periods.

For the punishment awarded for certain offences against the Hospital Rules vide Disgraceful Conduct.

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All sums necessary to meet the expenditure of the Regimental Hospital are received by the Surgeon from the Paymaster, upon Estimates.

"The wives and children of soldiers are allowed medicines from the chest, and the Medical Officers of the Regiment are to visit and prescribe for them, with the sanction of the Commanding Officer. The families and servants of Regimental Officers are also entitled to the same attention and indulgence." Vide "Instructions for the Regulation of Army Hospitals."


HOSTAGE. A person given up to an Enemy as a pledge or security for the performance of the articles of a Treaty.

HOUSEHOLD TROOPS. The Regiments of Life Guards and Horse Guards, together with the Foot Guards, are called the Household Troops. To these Corps is committed the duty of guarding His Majesty's person, and they enjoy many privileges and immunities.

When serving with other Troops, the eldest Officer, without respect to Corps, assumes the command of the whole. The Life Guards and Blues take precedence over every other Corps in the Service. The Foot Guards take the right of all Regiments of Infantry of the Line.

HOWITZER. A piece of ordnance of the nature of a mortar; they are of various calibres and dimensions.

HURDLES, are constructed in nearly the same manner as Gabions, excepting that the picquets are placed in a straight line instead of a circle. Hurdles are three feet high, two feet broad, and are found very useful during sieges; they serve to render batteries firm, to consolidate the passage over muddy ditches, and as a cover for the protection of the workmen in the trenches.

HURTOIR. A piece of timber eight inches square, and about eight feet long, placed at the head of the platform, next to the interior slope of the parapet. This beam prevents the wheels of the gun-carriages from rolling upon the interior slope, and it is also useful when the Artillery is fired during the night, as there are marks made upon it, from observations of the Enemy's position, taken during the day, by means of which the Guns are always preserved in the same direction.

ICHNOGRAPHY. Is the plan or horizontal representation of a Fortification, in which is shewn the length of the several lines, the angles, the breadth of the ditches, and the thickness of the different constructions of earth and masonry; but this plan does not represent either the elevation or depth of the various parts, a subject which properly belongs to the Orthography or Profile of a work. IMPREGNABLE. Any Work or Fortress which effectually resists all the attacks of an Enemy is said to be impregnable.

IMPRESSION. The effect produced upon any place or body of Troops by a hostile attack.

IMPRISONMENT. Officers may be sentenced to Imprisonment by a General Court Martial in any case where the Court may be authorized by the Mutiny Act, and may deem it advisable.

General, District, and Garrison Courts Martial may sentence Soldiers to Imprisonment, solitary or otherwise, with or without hard labour, in any Public Prison, or other place appointed by the Court, for various offences enumerated in the Articles of War. The powers of a Regimental Court Martial, in awarding Imprisonment, are limited to a sentence of Imprisonment, with or without hard labour, for any period not exceeding thirty days, or to Solitary Confinement, not exceeding twenty days.

Soldiers, when confined by the Sentence of a Court Martial, forfeit their pay and service during the period of their imprisonment.

When a Court awards Solitary Confinement as a punishment, it is necessary that the words "Solitary Confinement" should be expressed in the Sentence; and the form of Commitment in Page 104 of the General Regulations, is always to be used when the Commanding Officer of a Regiment finds it necessary to place a Soldier in the custody of the Civil Power, in pursuance of the sentence of a Court Martial.

INACCESSIBLE. An epithet for any height or distance which cannot be approached so as to be measured. INCH. A measure of length, supposed to be equal to three grains of barley laid end to end; the twelfth part of a foot.

An inch is the smallest lineal measure to which a name


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