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GENERAL OFFICERS. All Officers above the Rank of a Colonel. General Officers, who are not Colonels of Regiments, nor in the receipt of Unattached Pay, receive the Full Pay of the Regimental Rank which they hold when they become General Officers, and continue to receive this Pay until they are elected into the limited number of General Officers, receiving the Unattached Pay of One Pound Five Shillings per diem, under the Warrant of the 18th February, 1818, or until they are appointed to be Colonels of Regiments or Battalions.

This Regulation, however, does not apply to any General Officer who was upon Half Pay when he became a General Officer, and who received the Difference when he went upon Half Pay; nor to any General Officer who was upon Half Pay when he became a General Officer, and who went upon Half Pay at his own request in time of War, after having obtained the Brevet Rank of Lieutenant-Colonel; or who went upon Half Pay at his own request in time of Peace, before he had served Six Years with the Rank of a Regimental Major, or Lieutenant-Colonel, either with his Regiment, or in some other Military Capacity in the Public Service.

GENERALISSIMO. The supreme Commander of an Army in the Field.

GENOUILLE RE. From the French Genou," a knee." It is that part of the parapet of a battery which remains above the Platform and under the Gun, after the opening of the Embrazure has been made. The height of the Genouillère is regulated by that of the Gun Carriage, generally from two to three feet. Vide Embrazure.

GEOMETRY. The Science which teaches the dimensions of lines, surfaces, and solids; a highly important branch of knowledge, extending to every Art and Science. It is not only a necessary introduction to Fortification, but also to Mechanics: for it is by the aid of Geometry that Engineers conduct their works, take the plans of towns, and the measure of inaccessible objects; while, from the same science, Architects derive their models for constructing Public Edifices and Private Mansions.

GESTURE. An action or posture of the body, expressive of some passion or emotion of the mind. Officers and Soldiers are strictly forbidden to use any reproachful or provoking speeches or gestures to others, upon penalty

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of confinement. Any individual using menacing words, signs, or gestures, in the presence of a Court Martial, is subject to punishment at the discretion of the Court.

GLACIS. The superior slope of the parapet of the Covered Way, produced in a gentle declivity to the level of the surrounding country. Vide Fig., also Fortification Cut, 0, 0, 0.

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GLANDERS. A virulent and contagious disease amongst horses, principally shewn in a mucous discharge from the nostrils. Vide the observations on the word Farcy. GORGE. The entrance into a Bastion, Demilune, or Redoubt.

It also implies any hollow between a chain of mountains, affording a passage into the open country.

GORGET. An ornament worn by Officers when on duty. It was originally a piece of armour defending the neck. GOVERNOR. An Officer placed by Commission from His Majesty in the military command of a Fortress, not only over the Garrison but over the Inhabitants. In time of War, it is an office of great responsibility; and at all times requires considerable experience and military information.

GRAND DIVISION. An epithet for a Division of Troops composed of two Companies.

GRAPPLING IRONS, are composed of from four to six branches bent and pointed, with a ring at the root. A rope being fastened through this ring, any object at which the grappling irons are thrown, may be dragged nearer.

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GRAVITATION. Gravitation is the natural tendency or inclination of all bodies towards the earth's centre. is owing to this general tendency, that our earth is a Globe: all its parts being drawn towards each other, that is, towards a common centre, the mass assumes the sphe

rical or rounded form. The Sun, Moon, and Planets likewise, are all round; proving that all are subject to the same law. The cause of this extraordinary phenomenon acts at all distances; the Moon, at a distance of 240,000 miles from the Earth, by her attraction, raises the water of the ocean under her, and forms what are called the Tides. The Sun exerts the same influence, and when acting in the same direction with the Moon, causes the Spring tides. (Arnott's Physics.)

GRAVITY, SPECIFIC. The comparative weights of equal bulks of different bodies, are called their Specific Gravities.

A TABLE OF THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SEVERAL BODIES.

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The several sorts of wood are supposed to be dry. This Table contains the weight of a cubic foot of each body in avoirdupoise ounces; and the following rules result from it.

1. To find the magnitude of any body from its weight. By the common rule of three.

As the tabular specific gravity of the body
Is to its weight in avoirdupoise ounces,
So is one cubic foot, or 1728 cubic inches
To its content in feet, or inches, respectively.

2. To find the weight of any body from its magnitude. Also by the rule of three, say,

As one cubic foot, or 1728 cubic inches,

Is to the content of the body,

So is the tabular specific gravity

To the weight of the body in ounces..

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GREAT COATS. Every Soldier is supplied by the Government with a Grey Cloth Great Coat, except when in India, which is expected to last at least three years. They are to be obtained on application to the Secretary at War.

GREAVES. A sort of armour for the legs.

GRENADE. A Hand Grenade is a small shell about 2 inches in diameter, which being set on fire by means of a short fuse, and cast among the Enemy's troops, causes great damage by its explosion. They may be thrown to a distance of twenty-six yards.

GRENADIERS. The tallest and stoutest soldiers of every Regiment of Infantry, who are selected and formed into a Grenadier Company, taking post on the right of the Battalion, and leading it in every attack. Grenadiers wear fringed cloth wings on the shoulder, and their caps are different from those worn by the other soldiers: in every other respect, both as to pay and clothing, they are precisely on the same footing. Whenever a detachment of Grenadiers is ordered on any duty, its own Officers are to accompany it; and if they are upon any Regimental duties, they are to be relieved for that purpose.

GROUND. The field, or place of action.

GUARANTEE. An individual who undertakes to secure the performance of articles stipulated between any two parties.

GUARD. Is a certain portion of troops whose duty is to watch and protect any post from surprise.

Van Guard. Vide Advanced Guard.

Main Guard, is the principal Guard in a Garrison, or that from whence the other Guards are detached.

Baggage Guard, is an Officer's Guard in charge of the Baggage of a Corps on the march.

Quarter Guard. A small Guard commanded by a Subaltern Officer, and posted in front of each Battalion in Camp.

Rear Guard. That part of the army which brings up and protects the rear on a march. In point of formation, it is merely an Advanced Guard reversed.

The General Regulations contain the most ample instructions for every duty which is required from Guards, whether in Camp or in Garrison.

GUIDES. Men employed to direct the Army and its

detachments on their march, and to give intelligence respecting the country and the various roads intersecting it.

Officers commanding Outguards are to send Guides or Orderly Men to the Brigade Major, as circumstances may require, in order to conduct the new Guards, and carry such orders as may be necessary.

GUIDONS. The Silk Standards of Regiments of Dragoons and Light Dragoons. They are broad at one extreme, and almost pointed at the other.

GUNS. Are fire-arms which forcibly discharge shot through a cylindrical barrel, by means of gunpowder. The Evening or the Morning Guns, are those pieces of Ordnance which are fired Morning and Evening, to give notice to the Drums and Trumpets to sound the retreat and reveillé.

GUN FIRE. The hour at which the Morning or Evening gun is fired.

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GUNNER. A Soldier of the Royal Artillery. Master Gunners and Gunners serving under the Ordnance Department, are subject to the Articles of War, and liable to be tried by Courts Martial in the same manner with the other, troops. GUNNERY. managing cannon.

The science of artillery; the art of

GUNPOWDER. A composition of saltpetre, sulphur, and charcoal, mixed together and granulated; to which fire being applied, it expands and propels with great power. The proportion of ingredients for making Gunpowder in England, is 75 parts nitre (saltpetre), 15 charcoal, and 10 sulphur; in the whole, 100. On the continent these proportions are somewhat varied. The invention of this destructive composition is usually attributed to a German monk, Bartholdus Schwartz, about the year 1320. It is said to have been first used by the Venetians in the war against the Genoese, in the year 1380. There is, however, considerable obscurity respecting the date of its invention; and Roger, commonly known as Friar Bacon, makes express mention of it in his treatise, “De Nullitate Magia," published at Oxford in 1216. the Powder Marks used by the Ordnance Department, see the word Characters.

GUN-SHOT. The reach, or point blank range of a Gun.

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