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ence, such as Algebra, Trigonometry, and the Mensuration of Heights and Distances, and he will find no branch of knowledge more useful and attractive than that of Fortification and Military Drawing. This will prepare his mind for an advantageous perusal of those works which treat on the Theory and Practice of War. The habit of taking notes and making extracts should never be neglected, as it tends to improve the memory by impressing on it the leading facts and most important incidents, while at the same time the mind acquires additional strength and vigour. This judicious disposal of his time will prove the most effectual means of dispelling that ennui so often deplored in the Military Life.

Finally, it should be an object of emulation to every Subaltern to qualify himself for performing the duties of an Adjutant. It is in this situation that he will most readily acquire a complete knowledge of the mechanical part of the Military System, and no other rank is so well adapted for developing those talents, which all possess to a certain extent. Habitual regularity, promptitude, and decision, are indispensable to a correct discharge of his duty, and will seldom fail to establish the character of a good and efficient Officer, by preparing him to fill the higher ranks of his Profession with credit to himself, and advantage to the Service.

A

DICTIONARY

OF THE

CALIFORNIA

MILITARY SCIENCE.

ABBATIS. A species of intrenchment, affording an excellent and ready addition to the defence of a post; being simply trees felled, and laid with their branches so interwoven, as to present a thick row of pointed stakes towards the enemy. In extensive forests, a considerable space of country may be enclosed by abbatis, but they are generally used at a short distance from the parapets of Field Works; for, while the enemy is endeavouring to remove them, he is exposed to a destructive fire from the defenders. They are consequently found to be among the most effectual of all obstacles in retarding the enemy's advance.

ABREAST. A term formerly used for any number of men in front. They are at present determined by files.

ABSENCE, LEAVE OF. The permission which Officers in the British army occasionally obtain, to absent themselves from their regiments.

Officers, on their first appointment, or on being exchanged or removed, are usually allowed two months' Leave; at the expiration of which, or sooner if directed by the Adjutant-General, they are required to be present with their Corps. Every application for an extension of this indulgence, should be made to the Adjutant-General of the Forces, Horse Guards, London; by whom the de

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cision of the Commander-in-Chief will be communicated. No particular form is requisite for this purpose.

Officers doing duty with their Regiments, must apply in writing to the Commanding Officer; and any extension of Leave thus obtained, should be applied for through the same channel, as other Officers may be desirous of a similar indulgence. On occasions of emergency, however, a renewal of Leave may be obtained from the Adjutant-General, upon a proper representation being made.

Leave of Absence on account of Ill Health, may be procured in the following manner. If the Officer resides in the vicinity of London, he must apply at the Adjutant-General's office, where he will receive an order for his examination before the Army Medical Board. On the day appointed, he attends personally at the office, No. 5, Berkeley Street, Piccadilly. Should the Board grant him a Certificate, he must immediately forward it to his Commanding Officer, or to the Adjutant-General, if he has not previously joined his corps. Officers residing in the country, should apply at once to the nearest Military Medical Officer; but if there are none in the neighbourhood, then to a private practitioner. In both cases, the Medical Certificate must be made out in the form prescribed in the General Regulations, page 77, and forwarded as in the preceding instance.

Officers obtaining permission to return home from Foreign Stations on account of Ill Health, on medical certificates, are to report themselves, immediately on their arrival, to the Adjutant-General, in order that the General Commanding in Chief may, upon a medical report on their respective cases, determine what extent of Leave of Absence shall be granted them, or require them to join the Reserve Companies, and that other Officers may be sent out, when proper opportunities offer, to replace them with the Service Companies, according to the exigencies of the Service.

Officers who are permitted to return home from the Service Companies on specific Leave of Absence on their private affairs, or at their own requests, are required to join the Service Companies, at their own expense, within the periods for which Leave of Absence may be granted to them.

Officers who are permitted to return home from the Service Companies for the purpose of retiring on half pay, or of quitting the service, are to report themselves, immediately on their arrival, to the Adjutant-General, and also to the Military Secretary, and to state the purpose for which they have returned;-but such permission is in no case to be granted to Officers who apply to receive the regulated difference on exchanging from Full to Half Pay. No specific leave of absence is to be granted to Officers who are permitted to return home for the purpose of exchanging from their Regiments, or of quitting the Service, as such result will be immediate, if a successor be forthcoming. If that should not be the case, the period of leave to be granted to such Officers will be decided by the General Commanding in Chief, according to the circumstances of the service, after their arrival, and the grounds on which they wish to exchange, or to retire, shall have been reported. Gen. Reg. dated Horse Guards, 8th December, 1828. The King's Regulations require, that all applications for extension of Leave of Absence be made in sufficient time to enable the applicant to join his Regiment at the expiration of his leave, in the event of the renewal not being granted. Neglect on this head, subjects the individual not only to the penalties attached to Absence without leave, but frequently to a refusal on account of that neglect.

pay

ABSENCE, WITHOUT LEAVE. A milder term often used for desertion. All officers who absent themselves without permission, or fail to join their Regiments or Depôts at the expiration of their leave, are directed by the Articles of War to be placed under arrest, and their suspended, until an explanation of the cause of their absence is made through the Commanding Officer to the Commander-in-Chief. Should the explanation be deemed satisfactory, his decision will be communicated by the Secretary at War, upon which they will be released, and the restriction upon their pay withdrawn: otherwise they will be superseded in one of the ensuing Gazettes.

ACCESSIBLE. A place is said to be accessible by land or sea, when it can be approached by a hostile force on either of those sides.

ACCOUTREMENTS. A term denoting the belts,

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