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LIST OF PLATES.

VOL. IX.

To be Bound at Commencement of Volume in Following Oroler.

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MAJOLICA, . . . . . . .
LUNG, . . . . . . . .
MACKEREL, . . . .
MAMMALIA, . . . . . .
MARANTA AND MANIHOT, . . .
MARS, . . . . . . . .
MARSUPIALIA AND MONOTREMATA,
MATE, . . . . . . .
MERIDIAN CIRCLE, . .
MESOZOIC FOSSILS, .
METEOROLOGY,. .

. .
MINING, . .
MIRAGE, . . . . ..
MOLLUSCA, . . .

. . MOON, . . . .

. . MOORISH ARCHITECTURE,

IE, · · · MOSAIC, . . . . . ... MOSSES, . . . . . . MOTHS, . . MUSCLES, . . MUSTELIDÆ, . . MYRIAPODA, .. MYRTACEÆ, XEBULÆ . . NEOZOIC FOSSILS, NERVOUS SYSTEM, NEUROPTERA, . . NEW ZEALAND, . . . . .

. . , I.-IV. COLOURED MAPS I.-IV. . . Plate I. . . „ I.-III. . . , I. · · · I.

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LUCIFER (Luci-fer, the light-bringer, in Latin, and, as long as the animal, is cylindrical, pointed, and slightly sphopae, its exact equivalent in Greek), the name among heeled at the base. There are about seventy species. the ancients of Venus as a morning star; Noctifer, Hes- | Their geographical range is wide ; they are found on the m . Vesper, &c., were her names as an evening star. coasts of Norway and of the West Indies and New Zealand. Lacier is also used as an epithet of several goddesses | Two hundred and fifty species have been found fossil, comAzra, Diana, &c. In the classical mythology Lucifer or mencing in the Upper Silurian. The species of the family Perber was a son of the star-god Astræus and the dawn- Lucinidæ are numerous; they are chiefly natives of tem* ** Aurora (Eos), or, as some poets have it, of Kephalos perate and tropical seas, living upon sandy and muddy

15. He was beld to be the father of the Hesperides. bottoms, and ranging from the sea-shore to great depths. 1: Ta dixral times Lucifer came to be the original name of The genera Corbis, Kellia, Diplodonta, and Ungulina are Ne, the embodiment of pride, the archangel who fell included in this family. razta annbition.

LU'CIUS was the name borne by three popes.

Lucil's I., Bishop of Rome, succeeded Cornelius, 25th "I saw that one who was created noble Mre than all other creatures, down from heaven,

September, 252, and was martyred at the hands of the Flaming with lightnings, fall upon one side."

pagans in March, 253. -Dante, Purg." xii.

Lucius II. (Gerard succeeded Celestine II. 12th March, Te's fribably arises from the passage in Isaiah (xiv. 12) 1144. Iminediately on his accession the people met on the Tere the prophet inveighs in a parable against Nebuchad

capitol and declared the Roman republic re-established, and 21. the earthly embodiment of pride in his day: "How

| while professing obedience to the Pope in spiritual matters at ica fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morn

threw off their temporal allegiance, and elected a patrician ica! Milton uses Lucifer as the special pride-giving 01

e for the neigl pride.riving or temporal governor. Resistance was overborne on every Det of Satan, and in one fine passage couples the epithet

side, and the distressed Pope appealed for aid to the Emthe star also

peror Conrad. As the emperor did not respond Lucius him

self led the party of reaction, and was slain by a slinger's stone Know then, that after Lucifer from heaven,

in attempting to storm the capitol, 25th February, 1145. So call him, brighter once amidst the host Ofangels than that star the stars among,

Lucius III. (Ubaldo) succeeded Alexander III., 1st Feil with bis flatning legions through the deep

September, 1181. Stormy Rome rose and drove him out Itto bis place . . . ." &c.

in 1182, and again in 1183, with varied forms of insult. -- Paradise Lost," vii. 131.

He held a council at Verona with the Emperor Barbarossa la spedser's “ Faerie Queene" Lucifera is the goddess of (Frederick I.), 1184, and died at Verona soon after its Int. **sze splendid house is built on sand.

close, 25th November, 1185. LUCIFER MATCHES. See MATCHES.

LUCKNOW' (Lakhnav), the capital of the province of LUCIF UGA is a genus of remarkable fishes inhabit-Oudh, British India, is situated on both banks of the in the subterranean waters of caves in Cuba. As these river Gumti, and is distant from Cawnpore 42 miles, from Esin berer see the light, eyes are useless, and are therefore Benares 199 miles, from Calcutta 610 miles. The poputrabent altogether, or corered by the skin and quite lation is 261,303. Though quite a modern town, Lucknow nesentary. The body is elongated and covered with at present ranks fourth in size among Indian cities, being Laste sales. The median fin is continuous, running only surpassed by the three presidency capitals of Calcutta,

the prater part of the back round to the vent. The | Madras, and Bombay. It stands on an elevated plain, 403 Ipir fins are mere filaments attached to the shoulder feet above sea-level; and although destitute of any con

e The barbels on the snout of its allies are replaced siderable trade or manufacture, still possesses very great «Le faga by numerous minute cilia or tubercles. Luci wealth. Till recent years it formed the metropolis of a In beings to the family Ophidiidæ, of the order Ana great Mohammedan kingdom, and afterwards contained ASTUIXL

the administrative headquarters of a considerable British LUCI NA is a genus of LAMELLIBRAXCHIATA, a type province; while even at the present day it retains its

any Lacinidæ. The shell is orbicular in shape, | position as a centre of modern Indian life, being the lead*** 21 clued, and of a white colour. The umbones are ing city of native fashion, and the chief school of Indian Sel; the lanule distinct; the margins small or music, grammar, and Mussulman theology. tiary crenuated. The animal has the mantle freely Lucknow stands on both banks of the Gumti, but the

po bw; the siphonal orifice simple; the mouth minute ; greater portion of the city stretches along its western side, *for sia zle on each side; and the foot, which is twice a few suburbs only covering the further shore. Four bridges

VOL. IX.

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span the river, two of them built by native rulers, and two gether with one regiment of military police, one of Oodh since the British annexation in 1856. Viewed from a dis- irregular cavalry, and two batteries of native artillery. tance, Lucknow presents a picture of unusual magnificence / The town thus contained nearly ten Indian soldiers to and architectural splendour, which fades on nearer view every European, or 7000 to 750. Symptoms of disa fecinto something more like the ordinary aspect of a crowded tion occurred as early as the month of April, when the Oriental town. Nevertheless, many of its streets are broader House of the surgeon to the 48th was burned down in and finer than those of most Indian towns; and the clear- revenge for a supposed insult to caste. Sir Henry Lawance effected for military purposes after the mutiny was | rence immediately took steps to meet the danger bv instrumental in greatly improving both the aspect and the fortifying the Residency and accumulating stores. On the sanitary condition of the city. A glacis half a mile broad 30th of April the men of the 7th Oudh Irregulars refused surrounds the fort; and three military roads, radiating to bite their cartridges, on the ground that they had from this point as a centre, cut right through the heart of been greased with cow's fat. They were induced, with the native quarter, often at an elevation of some 30 feet some difficulty, to return to their lines. On 3rd May Sir above the neighbouring streets. The Residency crowns a Henry Lawrence resolved to deprive the mutinous regiment picturesque eminence, the chief ornament of the city. of its arms, a step which was not effected without serious

Lucknow contains two noble mosques, one Imambara of delay. On 12th May Sir Henry held a darbar, and made imperial dimensions, four tombs of regal splendour (those an impressive speech in Hindustani, in which he called of Saadat Ali Khan, of Mushid Zadi, of Mohammed Ali upon the people to uphold the British government as m* Shah, and of Ghazi-ud-din Haidar), together with two tolerant to Hindus and Mohammedans alike. Two days great palaces, or rather collections of palaces (the Chattar earlier the massacre at Meerut had taken place, and a Manzil and the Kaisar Bagh). Besides these larger works, telegram brought word of the event on the morning after it also comprises a large number of royal garden houses, the darbar. On the 19th Sir Henry Lawrence recrived pavilions, town mansions, temples, and mosques. Since the supreme military command in Oudh. He immediately the annexation the nobility of Oudh have built a large fortified the Residency and the Machi Bhawan, bringing number of town houses. They generally possess an im- | the ladies and children into the former building. On the posing gateway as one main feature of the façade, consist- | night of the 30th May the expected insurrection broke ing of arch within arch, rising from the same base, and out at Lucknow. The men of the 71st, with a few from covered with a modern Oriental profusion of gaudy colour- the other regiments, began to burn the bungalows of their ing. Various charitable dispensaries, schools, and other officers, and to murder the inmates. Prompt action was works of public utility bave also been built since the taken, and early next morning the European force attacked, occupation of the city by the British.

dispersed, and followed up for 10 miles the retreating Since the introduction of British rule, the new authorities mutineers, who were joined during the action by the ith have laid out well-kept roads, widened the tortuous native Cavalry. The rebels fed towards Sitapur. Though the streets, and founded commodious bazaars, in which due city thus remained in the hands of the British, by the 12th attention has been paid to the comfort and convenience of June every other post in Oudh had fallen into the power both of the commercial classes and their customers. The of the mutineers. The chief-commissioner still held the sanitary officers enforce stringent rules of cleanliness; and cantonments and the two fortified posts at the beginning a municipality, containing many elective members, provides of June, but the symptoms of disaffection in the city and for the welfare of the city with a just regard to native among the remaining native troops were unmistakable. feeling and wishes.

In the midst of such a crisis Sir Henry Lawrence's healta The traffic of Oudh flows southward froin Bahramghat unhappily gave way. He delegated his authority to a and Faizabad through Lucknow to Cawnpore. Large council of five, presided over by Mr. Gubbins, the financial quantities of grain and timber come in from the trans- commissioner, but shortly after recovered sufficiently to Gogra districts, while raw cotton, iron, and imported resume the command. On the 11th June, however, the goods go northward in exchange. The Oudh and Rohil-military police and native cavalry broke into open revolta kland Railway, with its branches, has a station in the town, followed on the succeeding morning by the native infactry. and gives direct communication with Benares, Bareilly, and On the 20th of June news of the fall of Cawnpore arrid; Cawnpore, besides connecting with the great trunk lines and on the 29th the enemy, 7000 strong, advanced upon to Calcutta, Bornbay, and the Punjab. Manufactures are Chinhat, a village on the Faizabad road, 8 miles from the carried on to a considerable extent, the chief products Residency. Sir Henry Lawrence marched out and gave being those which call for the usual Oriental combination battle at that spot. The result prored disastrous to the of patience, industry, minute manual skill, and delicate British arms, throagh the treachery of the Oudh artiler, taste in the management of colour. Cotton muslins and and a retreat became necessary. The troops fell back to other textile fabrics have a high reputation. Gold and Lucknow, abandoned the Machi Bhawan, and concentrated silver brocade, however, made of small wires, forms the all their strength upon the Residency. The siege of tbe leading manufacture. It is used for the numerous pur- inclosure began upon 1st July. On the 2nd, as Sir Henry poses of Indian pomp, and has a considerable market even Lawrence lay on his bed, a shell entered the room, bund, in Europe. The gorgeous needlework embroidery upon and wounded him severely. He lingered till the mornia: velvet and cotton, with gold thread and coloured silks, of the 4th, and then died in great agony. Major Ruris also employs many hands. Glass-work and moulding in succecded to the civil command, while the inilitary authority clay still maintain their original excellence. The railway | devolved upon Brigadier Inglis. On 20th July the ecenz.Y workshops employ several hundred workmen.

made an unsuccessful assault. Next day Major Banks B3 The chief interest of Lucknow to British readers is its shot, and the sole command was undertaken by Inglis. Un connection with the Sepoy Mutiny in 1857. Two months the 10th of August the mutineers attempted a sensu before the outbreak at Meerut, Sir Henry Lawrence (20th assault, wliich was again unsuccessful. The third asso March, 1857) had assumed the chief-commissionership of took place on the 18th; but the enemy were losing heart the newly annexed province of Oudh. The garrison at as they found the small garrison so able to withstand the ..., Lucknow then consisted of the 32nd (British) Regiment, and the repulse proved comparatively easy. Meanwt.se a weak company of European artillery, the 7th Regiment the British within were dwindling away and eagerly as Native Light Cavalry, and the 13th, 48th, and 71st Regi- pecting reinforcements from Cawnpore. On 5th September Inents of native infantry. In or near the city were also news of the relieving force under Outram and Havelock quartered two regiments of irregular local infantry, to- | reached the garrison by a faithful native messenger. On

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