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The causes of lambago are the same as those of sub- | between 4 and 5 inches long. Another species, Liparis Bote reumatism generally, and they are chiefly two: first, montagui, is also found on our coasts. Eight species in all espore to cold, especially the exposure of the muscles to of the genus Liparis are known from the northern seas. and droght of air when heated by exertion; and secondly, The Cornish SUCKER (Lepadogaster gouanii) belongs to grain or strain, such as that caused by violent exertion, a distinct family, Gobiesocidæ. biting beavy loads, &e. Where there is a constitutional LUNACY. The subject of lunacy, treated from a meditendency to rheumatisin a very slight exciting cause will cal point of view, will be found in the article INSANITY. besticient to bring on an attack of lumbago. The treat Unsoundness of mind is perhaps the most accurate definiment must rary with the intensity of the affection, and it tion of the present legal meaning of lunacy. Formerly a emists in remedying the constitutional condition and re | legal distinction was made between lunatics and idiots: a Sering the local pain. The Turkish bath, which is a valu lunatic was one who has had understanding, but has lost

remedy for nearly all complaints of a rheumatic nature, the use of his reason; and an idiot, one who has had no may be used with advantage in lumbago, and if taken at the understanding from his nativity. The distinction between PET a minencernent of the illness it may be sufficient of these two classes of persons of unsound mind also produced tsil to ford relief. Where this cannot be obtained a warm some important differences in the management of their probata at bedtime, followed by a dose of Dover's powder, will perty, which have now fallen into disuse. Strictly speaking,

ramore a slight attack. Local treatment consists in perhaps, a lunatic is one who has lucid intervals; but this the application of counter-irritants, such as hot linseed or distinction may also at the present day be disregarded. Bastard poultices, hot fomentations, with turpentine or Persons of unsound mind may inherit or succeed to land mtanum, applied by means of flannel or spongiopiline, to or personal property either by representation, devise, or bede part, the ase of stimulating liniments, the interrupted quest, but they cannot be executors or administrators, or Duvanic current, and the application of a heated iron, with | inake a will, or bind themselves by contract. A person of I set of brown paper interposed, the iron being moved unsound mind, though he afterwards be restored to reason,

ud fro under as firm a pressure as the patient can is not permitted to allege his own insanity in order to make Sear, as if ironing linen. Acupuncture, or the pricking of his own act void; for no man is allowed to plead his own beterscles with a strong sharp needle, is said also to be a disability (13 Vesey, 590), unless he has been imposed upon mapy successful method of removing the pains of lumbago. in consequence of his mental incapacity (2 Carr. & P., 178; Asustes, applied locally or taken by means of hypodermic 3 Carr. & P., 1, 30); and an action will lie against a lunaExaction, are sometimes called for, and the application of a tic for the supply of necessaries suitable to his station. Acts they plaster over the part affected is often of great advan- | done during a lucid interval are valid; but the burden of . A belladonna plaster used in this way serves at once proving that at the time when the act was done the party tre coupport and to afford relief. Absolute rest, where it was sane and conscious of his proceedings lies upon the

bus obtained, is always a valuable adjunct to treatment. 1 person asserting this fact. The marriage of a person of Potres liable to attacks of lumbago should avoid exposure | unsound mind, except it be solemnized during a lucid in*** , wear warm woollen clothing, pay attention to terval, is void; but if husband or wife become insane *** and the state of the bowels, and avoid sudden time after marriage that is no ground for instituting proriscular efforts.

ceedings for divorce. LUM BRICUS. See EarthWORM.

As a general rule it may be laid down that where unLUMP-SUCKER (Cyclopterus) is a genus of bony soundness of mind, of such a nature as to render the party 30% of the order ACANTHOPTERYGII, forming the type incompetent to exercise any self-control, is established, 4the family Discoboli. This family is distinguished by criminal punishment will not be inflicted, but he will

ile rentral fins united at the bases to form a round be kept in safe custody during the pleasure of the crown kredisc, which has a soft leathery margin. The Lump- (39 & 40 Geo. III. c. 94, and i & 2 Vict. c. 14). On the c.lez, Lump-fish, or Cock-paddle (Cyclopterus lumpus) subject of criminal responsibility, and what constitutes unHard on the northern coasts of Europe and America, soundness of mind in a legal point of view, the reader is VIP t ably plentiful on the more northerly parts of referred to the various treatises on medical jurisprudence.

British coast. It has a thick short heavy body | The legal doctrine on the subject, as laid down very clearly * with tabercles, four rows of which are large and and strongly in the case of Reg. v. Blampied, in 1875, is

ed along each side of the body. The head is large, that, in order to exonerate a criminal from legal responsidan elevated ridge runs along the back. The jaws carry bility, it is necessary to show that he was suffering under ieeth. The lump-sucker lives on the sea bottom in a mental derangement which misled him, either as to the

water, attaching itself by its disc to rocks, and specific nature of the act he was doing, or as to its being a *** ¢o crustaceans and small fish. It is preyed on wrong action. A lunatic is responsible for acts committed ally be seals and sharks. The female deposits her eggs during *lucid intervals," a term by which is understood,

, where the male keeps vigilant guard till they | however, not mere remissions of the violence of the disease, atched; then the young fish attach themselves by their but periods during which the mind resumes its perfectly en to his sides and back, and are carried away into sane condition. In forming an opinion concerning such * Eater. At the breeding season this fish is adorned lucid intervals, the absence of the signs of insanity must a 3.3 most brilliant colours, combining various shades have considerable duration before it can be concluded that

piirple, and orange. The average length is about the mind is perfectly sane; for lunatics, when apparently **3*3*, bet specimens are sometimes as much as 24 inches convalescent, are subject to sudden and violent paroxysms. ** blant male is much smaller than the female. The Extensive alterations were introduced into the law and

inch esteemed for food, especially in Scotland. | practice in lunacy by an Act passed in 1855, and the orders and species (Cyclopterus spinosus) is Arctic; it thereunder. Of these we name the principal:-A general : wdy covered with large conical plates, each with a commission was issued to the Masters in Lunacy in lieu of

te centre. The young of both species have naked the special commission formerly issued in each case. Juries 2 tbe tnbercles only appearing gradually.

were dispensed with, unless in particular cases it be found pd genus of the Discoboli contains the Unctuous important to call them. The inquiry as to the state of **? Or Sea-snail (Liparis vulgaris), found on mind is, except under special circumstances, not carried its The skin is loose and naked, and pale back, but limited to the present time. All matters affectwar, with irregular streaks of a darker tint. ing the person and property of the lunatic may, after the

und ander stones at low-water mark. It is l inquisition, be proceeded on before the masters without any

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valy found under stones at



special order of the lord chancellor for the purpose ; and these shall be connected with any asylum was continued. the provisions for insuring through the visitors and masters | Licenses to receive lunatic patients are granted by these the proper care and treatment of the lunatic are made more commissioners at each of their quarterly meetings. No comprehensive.

license is to remain in force more than thirteen inonths, The following Acts contain amendments :-25 & 26 and the notice of a wish to renew must give the number Vict. c. 86 (which provides that every lunatic shall be of patients then confined. The jurisdiction of the comvisited by the proper officers at least four times a year), missioners extends to the whole of London and Middieses and the 26 & 27 Vict. c. 110. The chief amendments and Southwark, and to all places within 7 miles of London, comprised in the last Act are—That the inquiry as to the Westminster, and Southwark. In the country the liones state of mind shall be condved to the question whether are granted by the justices of the peace in quarter session, the person is at the time of inquiry of sound mind, and who are bound to appoint three of their number, togetber no evidence as to anything done or said by such person, or with one physician, surgeon, or apothecary, as visitors of as to his demeanour more than two years before the time the asylum licensed by them. Strict regulations are enof inquiry, shall be received as evidence of insanity. The forced for the reception of patients; it is required that lord chancellor is given power to apply in certain cases the every person, not being a pauper, received as inzane, sluil property of a lunatic for such lunatic's benefit

be certified to be so by two physicians or surgeons, who The law of Scotland recognizes two distinct kinds of shall visit such patient separately, and shall have no mental incapacity-fatuity or idiocy, and furiosity or in- interest in the asylum in which such patient is to be sanity. Persons labouring under mental disease in either confined ; and certain entries of these particulars are to form are protected by law, both as regards their persons be kept at each asylum. For a pauper the certificate of and estates. But the amount and nature of the protection one medical man and the order of two justices are required. accorded to them varies, according as their incapacity is Penalties are fixed for neglecting these rules, or those total and permanent, or partial and intermittent.

which direct notice to be given of every admission, death, Plea of Insanity in Criminal Cases.-In criminal cases discharge, or escape. Houses having 100 or more patienis insanity may be pleaded either in bar of punishment or in must have a resident medical attendant, and those of smaller bar of trial. The old test of insanity--that the panel did size must be visited by a medical attendant at detined not know the distinction between right and wrong—is periods, according to their size. Every house within the now completely exploded. Wherever there is clear proof of immediate jurisdiction of the commissioners must be visited the existence of mental disease clouding and detbroning the by them at least four times a year, and every other house mind, the defence of insanity will be admitted.

at least twice in every year. Similar powers are given to By the Roman law persons of unsound mind might be the visitors in the country. The commissioners have to deprived of the management of their property and persons present an annual report to the lord chancellor of the state on application to the prætor by their next of kin. This of the different asylums visited by them, which report must regulation dates back to the time of the Twelve Tables. be laid before Parliament. An important alteration was The curatory was given to the nearest cognate of the made in the law concerning the care of single patients lunatic, and when there were none, the prætor or the Orders and medical certificates must now be procured for præses in the provinces named one. (Dig. 27, 10, 1.) An the care of one patient similar to those used for the admisinsane person could not make a will or exercise any other sion of patients into licensed houses; and copies of these civil right so long as his malady lasted. When it ceased documents must be privately sent to and registered by the the curatory fell at once. By the code of the Twelve secretary to the commissioners. This Act only extends to Tables prodigals were placed under the same restraints as England and Wales, and it does not affect Bethlehem Hoslunatics with regard to the management of their affairs. pital, London. The persons appointed to hold commissione See also LUNATIC ASYLUMS.

“De Lunatico Inquirendo," previously styled Coinmissioners, LUNAR CAUSTIC, a term applied to the fused were in future to be termed "Masters in Lunacy." nitrate of silver, when produced in small cylindrical cakes. The second Act, which repealed 9 Geo. IV. c. 40, and It bears a whitish-striated appearance, decomposing and is now itself repealed by 16 & 17 Vict. c. 97, related to turning black when exposed to the air. In surgery it is the regulation of lunatic asylums for counties and borou is. frequently employed, sometimes to cauterize warts, ulcera- and the maintenance and care of pauper lunatics, and tion of the mucous membrane of the throat, and the proud gave to the commissioners a greater power over these flesh which grows up about wounds and ulcers. It is also institutions. The justices of every county and burvu li sometimes used to stimulate the action of lethargic ulcers were compelled to erect or join in the erection of an asyium as well as in ophthalmic affections and many varieties of when none such already existed ; and all proposals, agree skin disease.

ments, and plans, and the rules and regulations of each LUNAR MONTH, the time which the moon takes to asylum, were to be submitted to the commissioners, and complete a revolution round the earth, or about twenty they and all contracts and estimates approred by th. nine and a half days. A lunar year consists of twelve secretary of state. Contracts for the care of inside lunar months. See CALENDAR.

persons in licensed houses do not exempt any county or LUNATIC ASYLUMS. The subject of insanity and borough from the obligation of providing an asylum. Ties asylums for the insane has of late years occupied a very Act extends only to England and Wales, and does not large share of public attention, particularly as an opinion apply to Bethlehem Hospital Medical men sizning fa.* has prevailed that insanity is on the increase in this king- certificates are inade guilty of a misdemeanour; and certain dom bevond the ratio of population. It is, however, believed penalties are intiicted on officers and servants ill-treatin that this alleged increase bas not much real foundation, lunatics. The justices of the peace have to appoint a vis.tii but is chiefly owing to the fact that many cases not for- , committee, to whom everything has to be subroitted. Ime merly so dealt with are now taken to asylums.

visitors may grant retiring allowances to the officers not Two Acts passed in 1845 (8 & 9 Vict. caps. 100 and exceeding two-thirds of their salaries; have to draw up rules 126) placed the powers vested in the Commissioners in for the regulation of the asylum, the same to be sutinitis Lunacy on an entirely new footing, and in many respects to the secretary of state; to fix weekly rates for the r un modified the constitution of asylums. The first Act ap- tenance of each pauper lunatic; to appoint a chaplar pointed six commissioners, three of whom were physicians medical officer, clerk, and treasurer; and to audit the acand three barristers, with salaries ; and five other com- | counts. Every pauper lunatic not in an asylumn or lineal el missioners, who act gratuitously. The rule that none of house must be visited by the medical officer of the unica




once a quarter. The Act contained provision as to the construction of " The Friends' Retreat” for the insane, care of lunaties wandering at large, and also the certificate at York, which was opened in 1796. under which an insane person is to be received into an | But it was not till the year 1813 that the English diplom. It provided for raising the funds for the main government took up the matter. In that year a committee tematice of the asylum; enacted the penalties for breaches of inquiry was appointed to investigate the state of the of the Act; and contained ample directions as to the dis- | York Asylum-special attention having been directed to posal of the lunatic's property.

this particular institution in consequence of the success of There can be no question that on the whole these laws the Friends' establishment in that city-and the horrors bare been carried out in a satisfactory manner, but the which were then divulged could scarcely be credited if they experience gained since they were passed has revealed were not well attested by facts. The state of the patients certain defects which urgently call for removal. On the at Bethlehem was next inquired into, and they were found one hand, it has been shown that the law in its present to be even worse treated than those at York. From this condition affords hardly sufficient protection against the time a gradual, but very slow, improvement in the conincarceration of persons not really insane; and on the dition of the insane may be noticed. Chains were removed ether hand, the heavy responsibility incurred by medical and leather restraints of much milder kinds substituted, practitioners in certifying cases of insanity has rendered and more care was given to the warming and clothing them in many instances unwilling to do so except in the of the patients. Between 1815 and 1830 many large nust obvious and extreme cases. That the first of these asylums were opened in England. They were built on the dargers is not illusory was conclusively shown by certain then most approved principles, and in all of them the faccredings, which attracted much attention, instituted milder methods of treatment were adopted. Things conar ng 1881-85 against several persons by an intended tinued to gradually improve, and in 1839 Mr. Hill, the retin who had happily escaped them; but it must also be surgeon of the Lincoln Asylum, published a work in which retembered that when in 1877, in consequence of a cause he advanced the following proposition as a principle:

Plebre, a parliamentary committee sat during the whole of "In a properly constructed building, with a sufficient a sumber session hearing and examining medical experts, number of suitable attendants, restraint is nerer necessary, duba sed lunatics, government officials, and all those will- never justifiable, and always injurious, in all cases of az and able to furnish any information of interest, the lunacy whatever." The doctrine was at first declared, teselt of tbe investigation was to show that no mala fides even by those in favour of the milder treatment. to be too * prored in instance. The committ

decided, and likely to produce a bad effect; but fortuamended certain alterations in the existing laws, and nately the lapse of forty years has proved its perfect truth, a praise was made on the part of the government that by its adoption in all the most important asylums in the tome stould be embodied in a new Act dealing with the kingdom.

jat. A bill was brought in by Lord-chancellor Sel The views of Dr. Hill as to a system of non-restraint uose in 1885, but failed to become law.

are not only now fully adopted, but the best authorities on Management of Lunatic Asylums.-For a very long the subject at the present day question even the propriety perind it was unfortunately taken for granted, both in of erecting large asylums at all, arguing that such a system Larald and in other countries, that insanity was in- only condenses and aggravates the malady. At Gheel, in carave, and coercion and confinement were the chief Belgium, there is a kind of lunatic colony, where the 9;12903 used in all cases where any restraint appeared patients are dispersed among 600 different dwellings, under tetry. When they were supposed to be harmless, the care of nourriciers, or attendants, in whose occupations rates and idiots were suffered to wander about the they share, and with whom they live as belonging to the ultry, trusting to precarious charity, and subjected to family. It is here held that the true principle of cure for x 25.-nal whippings. The worst cases only were admitted the unsound is the association with healthy minds. The to the astinms which were so sparingly provided, and the entire colony is of course under proper government and testtent of the inmates in these institutions was often medical supervision. The nearest resemblance we have, trata in the extreme. In the old Bethlehem Hospital on any large scale, to the Belgian colony is the Scotch plan The ün), for instance, the patients, chained to the wall of boarding out patients, who are distributed among their I beasts, were shown to the public on certain days friends and in licensed houses. A good example of the

the week at the charge of 2d. a visitor, being often beneficial results of this system is to be found at North and to rage to make the exhibition more stimulating. | Berwick, & salubrious watering-place near Edinburgh,

scenes were not peculiar to England, but could be where numerous patients are regularly taken in groups of Bured in almost every country in Europe. At length half a dozen or so at a time, returning, after a week or . 1192 a benevolent Frenchman, named l'inel, made the two's sojourn, invigorated and refreshed.

sut ystematic atteinpt to restore the insane to a position The treatment of insanity, as usually pursued at the Pas laman beings. His plan, which was designated present day, is divided into two parts. One of these might

crestraint system, was at first ridiculed and scoffed be termed the direct, the other the indirect, but they are *; at by dint of great perseverance and continuous generally called the medical and the moral treatment. par exertions be at length induced the governors of the medical treatment consists in the use of such medi* Bitre, an hospital near Paris, to permit him to un- cines as, in each particular case, will be likely to restore 19 Buse of the inmates, and so salutary were the effects the body to a healthy condition. This treatment, as a

* experiment, even on the first day, that the old plan / method, has undergone a radical change within the last Wan entirely abolished and a course of inilder treat- fifty-mostly within the last thirty-years. Formerly. - sted. England is proverbially slow in adopting based upon the hypothesis that insanity was a disease of

plvutk, and for twenty-three years after the chains strength, or of active inflammation, it chiefly consisted in *** rezoved from the inmates of the Bicêtre, the old the liberal employment of blisters, purgatives, cupping, and

treatment continued in full force in this country. blood-letting. Now, founded upon the well-supported Lebat Dearly simultaneously with the early measures theory that the disorder originates in debility, its principal

4, and, as is believed, without any knowledge of remedies are stimulants and tonics. The success of the Men, Mr. Walan

Wabun Tuke, a Quaker, conceived the plan present method demonstrates not only the excellence of the "? an bospital for the treatinent of the insane practice, but the truth of the theory. :pes more enlightened and humane than those The moral treatment includes the exercise of a mild but "prevailed; and his idea was carried out by the firm directive and disciplinary power over the actions of tl.com

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patient, by which he is gradually restored to healthful / none which is a prophylactic or preventive of the disease. habits and wholesome self-restraint, and the attempt to The chief power of prevention in the case of cach person win him from the vagaries of his delusions to those mental lies with that person himself. The man of sound judgment and manual pursuits which give solidity, strength, and and prudent self-control will be “ moderate in all things," activity to the normal mind. The means adopted for the avoiding those habits, practices, or excesses which exlianst attainment of these ends are, the regular hours of hospital or depress the vital force, allowing himself sufficient sleep life, appropriate manual labour, walking, athletic and other to enable the brain and body fully to re-invigorate themgaines, attendance upon religious services, reading and selves from the fatigue of ordinary and wholesome labour, other literary pursuits, lectures upon scientific and miscel- and living as near to nature as our multifold artificialities laneous subjects, dramas, concerts, balls, and other recrea- will permit. tions, entertainments, and amusements. In the method of In his work on “ Responsibility in Mental Disease" moral treatment the change has been no less thorough than (London, 1874) Dr. Maudsley maintained that insanity is in that of the medical treatment.

as much within our power as the cause or preventa on of Statistics of Lunacy. - At the census of 1881 the physical ailments. There are many persons who, especially number of persons returned as suffering from soine form after periods of intense thought, have had the feeling that of insanity in England and Wales was 81,503—being in it would not be a hard matter to become insane-in fact, the proportion of 3253 per million of the whole population, something of an effort was required to preserve their sanity. or one person of unsound mind in every 307. In 1871 | Hence the important question, How may a man prevent the proportion was 3034 per million, or one in every 329. / himself from going mad? The answer to this is, first, te Of the 84,503 insane persons in 1881 the number of males must devote his mind to one great purpose, eren though was 39,789, and of females 44,714, and the proportion was this verge into eccentricity, for eccentricity may be a one in every 318 males and one in every 298 females. vicarious relief, a sort of masked madness. Secondly, In a certain sense, therefore, it is indisputably true that there must be strengthening of the will by constant exercise. there is more insanity among females than among males, Thirdly, he must act consistently with his belief. Religion namely, in the sense that out of equal numbers living of must be as real as it is reputed to be. The slovenly habits each sex and at all ages there are more insane females of thonght engendered by some modes of worship, and the living than insane males. But it must be clearly under- unhealthy excitement and morbid egoism that are somestood that this statement is by no means identical with times the result of mistaken religion, are each conducire to another that is sometimes confounded with it, namely, that insanity. Alcoholic liquors should be avoided, not only as the proportion of females who are attacked by insanity is unnecessary, but as absolutely harmful. The mind should higher than the proportion of males similarly attacked not gain, by the fictitious aid of a stimulant, the energy Not impossibly, nor improbably, the contrary is the case. which should come from the calm resolution of a developed It may very possibly be that mental disease attacks a larger will. "Were men with one consent to give up alcohol and proportion of males than of females, but that, owing to the other excesses; were they to live temperately, soberly, and enorinously high death-rate of the male insane as compared chastely, or, what is fundamentally the same thing, holilywith the female insane, the number of the latter living at that is, healthily—there can be no doubt that there would any given moment comes to be greater than the number of soon be a vast diminution in the amount of insanity in the the former. The male cases that occur are on this hypo- | world." Lastly, the reasoning powers must be most carethesis more numerous, but are rapidly swept away by fully exercised on the matter of marriage. Misplaced death, while the female cases, though fewer in number, live affection, disappointment in love, an unhappy union, are on and accumulate.

all more or less potent factors in the cause of insanity. The number of lunatics in Scotland in 1881 was 8406 Falling in love should not be allowed to be a mere matur - the males being 3939, and the females 4467. The pro- of propinquity. In the breeding of farm stock or stud we portion was 2250 per million, or one in every 444 of the know that good or bad qualities will be produced in the population. At the previous census the proportion was animals according to the selection of the pairs; but mca one in every 494 of the population. In Ireland the num- act habitually as if the same laws were not applicable to ber was 9774 (4857 males and 4917 females), being in the themselves. The consequence is that those who hare 3 proportion of one in every 529 of the population.

tendency to insanity are not unfrequently prone to seek The French statistics of lunacy are very full and very | others having the same mental qualities. After marriage instructive. The number of lunatic asylums in France external circumstances are allowed to foster their special amounts to 103, of which sixty-one are public and forty- | tendencies, and the children who are born are doubly cursed two private. Of those pine are exclusively for men and with the inheritance of a bad descent, and in the training fourteen for women; the rest are for both sexes. A con- which they get, or rather do not get. Here, then, are causes siderable increase of lunacy has been noticed in France for of insanity which it is within man's power to remorethe last fifteen years. In 1868 the number of lunatics was hereditary predisposition, by abstention from marriage et 34,000; in 1885 it was nearly 60,000, of whom 28,000 by prudent marriage; intemperance, by temperance in were men and 32,000 women.

living; mental anxieties, by the wise cultivation of the The total annual cost of the maintenance of pauper luna mind, and by the formation of self-government. Similar tics in the United Kingdom amounts to over £1,000,000. views are enumerated in another valuable and useful work, It was formerly defrayed entirely by the local authorities, entitled “Insanity in Ancient and Modern Life, with Chapbut in 1874 Parliament agreed, in relief of local taxation, ters on its Prevention," published in 1878, by Dr. D. H. to give a subvention of 18. a week for every pauper main Tuke, in which the author points out how those who know tained in a lunatic asylum. The effect has been to reduce that the seeds of insanity lie dormant in their constitutiou the charge upon local taxes by a sum of from £380,000 by hereditary descent may, for the sake of their descendants to £100,000, which is now annually voted from the imperial as well as themselves, check their growth and, if possible, exchequer.

stamp them out. Prerention.-A very interesting and instructive little | LUNDY ISLE, a rocky island in the Bristol Channel, volume by Dr. Andrew Wynter, entitled “The Borderlands England, 11 miles N.N.W. of Hartland Point. It is 3 of Insanity" (London, 1875), threw great light upon the miles long, north to south, by 1 mile broad, and rises in preventibility of a large percentage of the insanity which the north to the height of 800 feet, in a hill called the prevails. Science, however, has hitherto discovered no Constable, and is accessible only by one bay on the east medicine which acts as a specific cure for insanity, and side. It is composed of granite and coarse sandstone, with

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shells and plants. There is an old castle and lighthouse which is called inspiration. When again the chest falls, in the south end, and on the east side, at the south end, a the air-cells are partially emptied, but never completely, m2) island called Slat Island. Lundy Island was the and the air which was in them is blown out by the windscene of a treacherous and cruel attack upon the islanders pipe: this is called expiration. by a French war ship towards the end of the seventeenth The larynx or windpipe is a tube (6 in fig. 1 of Plate), century. A party was landed, as from a Dutch ship, under consisting of eighteen or twenty cartilaginous rings, united the pretence of burying one of the crew, and the un- by an elastic membrane; it is connected to the back of the gospecting inhabitants were suddenly attacked and the mouth, where the air enters it; it passes down the front of island rraged.

the neck, enters the upper orifice of the chest behind the LU'NEBURG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian top of the breastbone, and divides into two branches (cc province of Hanover, and the chief town of a province of in Plate), one for the right lung and one for the left. In the same name, is situated 30 miles south-east of Ham- | the lung the windpipe subdivides into a great multitude of barg, on the Ilmenau, which is here navigable about 15 branches, as shown in fig. 1, d. These tubes and airniks above its junction with the Elbe, and on the Hanover cells are lined with a delicate mucous membrane, and their and Hamburg Railway. The population in 1880 was coats become exceedingly thin, so that the air within them, 19.034. The town was formerly surrounded with walls, and the blood without, can exercise a chemical influence on but the fortifications are now dismantled. The principal | one another through them. The pulmonary artery, which Inildings and public institutions in the town are the palace, brings the dark blood from the right side of the heart, the gymnasium, St. Michael's Church, in the vaults of divides into two branches, one for each lung, and each which are the monuments of the ancient princes, the con- / branch subdivides into minute ramifications, which spread rat of St. Michael, the town-hall, the arsenal, military themselves over and between the air-cells. The pulmonary cademy for nobles, cavalry barracks, hospital. &c. The veins take their commencement from the arterial capillaries inhabitants carry on a considerable trade in the products on the surface of the cells, and unite with one another till of the country, such as linen, salt, wax, honey, woollens, 1 two large ones are formed from each lung, which convey in thread, flax, horses, of which 70,000 are annually | the red purified blood into the left auricle. bracht hither to market, &c. There are very productive The vesicles have been described as being fixed to the at works in a part of the city which is separated from air-tubes, in the same manner as a bunch of grapes is the rest by a wall, and is called the Sülze. Great quan fised to the footstalk; but here the similarity ends, for tities of lime are burned in the Kalkberg, a hill near the the cells are so small and so close together that no intertonn. and sent to Hamburg and Holland. There are stices between them can be perceived. Indeed, on looking manfactories of soap, breweries, distilleries, a paper mill, at the surface of a long it seems to consist of an infinity of th, and a very active transit trade is carried on with shining points, which, on being examined more closely, are Herberg and the interior of Germany.

| found to be the cells filled with air. After air has once LUNETTE. See FORTIFICATION.

got into the lungs it can never be completely expelled : LUNEVILLE, a town in the French department of hence the lungs of a person who has breathed always float Meuribe. 180 miles east from Paris, is situated at the in water; and on this fact is founded the test used in coatoence of the Vezouse and Meurthe. It has a tribunal criminal examinations, to distinguish a stillborn child from of Ent instance, a college, and 14,955 inhabitants. Léo- one that has breathed, where there is a suspicion of childprid, duke of Lorraine, resided here, and built a palace, murder. Thich was subsequently much improved by Stanislaus, ex- In the accompanying figure the front of the chest is lag of Poland. Both these princes made great improve represented as cut off, so as to show the lungs without it. Beats in the town, which presents wide, straight, and well- The windpipe is seen descending and dividing into its two Izi streets, and some handsome squares. Behind the branches, which are entering into the lungs; but the branches pence is the parade ground or Champ de Mars, which of the arteries and reins are omitted, because they would

Es a space of 500 acres. The other remarkable objects n Lunéville are the parish church, the immense cavalry Gertaeks, with stabling for 6000 horses, the riding school, thxb is considered the finest in France, being large enough fler 200 borse soldiers to exercise in, the hospitals, Jews'

Tragogue, a theatre, and the Place Neuve, which is ornaDet loi with handsome buildings. Great bodies of cavalry are frequently collected at Lunéville in the autumn for the perpose of manoeuvring on a large scale. The town has metofactures of woollen cloth, yarn, hoisery, lace, gloves, eartbeatare, sheet iron, and beer; it has also a good trade

the corn, brandy, hemp, flax, wood, &c. The origin

the town is uncertain, but its name seems to indicate That Diana was anciently worshipped here, and several

medals, with the impress of that divinity, have been have made it too complicated. Each lung is of a conical form ed Dear a fountain in the neighbourhood. By the treaty -its base below and its apex above; its base rests on the

ce signed at Lunéville, 9th February, 1801, the Rhine upper surface of the diaphragm, its apex reaches up into tas made the limit between France and Germany.

the root of the neck, its back touches the spine, and its GS. The lungs are the organs of respiration. It front and outer parts are covered by the ribs (as seen in ser means that the dark venous blood is brought into fig. 2). Towards the middle the lungs are not in contact, the air, so as to permit its reoxygenation. being there separated by the space in which the heart lics.

Each lung is divided by fissures into lobes, of which the lang may be compared to a bunch of grapes. It right lung has three, and the left only two; the place of of an infinite number of little cells, each not larger the middle lobe being occupied by the heart, which, it has Het seed, fixed upon footstalks, each footstalk already been stated, though in the middle, encroaches upon abe, a branch of the windpipe. When the air the left side. The whole lung, except the part where the vogh the windpipe, then all these air-cells be- windpipe and blood vessels enter it, is covered by a thin

this is done by the heaving of the chest, smooth membrane called the pleura, which is represented


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