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Europe lit the first flame of hostility on the Coromandel / Madras City, the capital of the above Presidenes, with coast. In 1746 the weak garrison of Madras was forced its suburbs, extends 8 miles along the coast, and runs to surrender to Labourdonnais, and Fort St. David re- 3 miles inland, and covers an area of about 27 square mained the only British possession in Southern India. By miles. In 1881 it bad a population of 405,848. the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, Madras was restored to Eng. Although at first sight the city presents a disappointing land; but henceforth the national antipathies were destined appearance, and possesses not a single handsome streetit to run their course. An excuse was found in the disputed has several edifices of architectural pretensions and cany successions which always fill a large place in Oriental poli- spots of historical interest. Seen from the roadstead, the ties, English intluence was generally able to secure the fort, a row of merchants' offices, a few spires and pcbue faronr of the rulers of the Karnatic and Tanjore, while the buildings, are all that strike the eve. The site is so lo French succeeded in placing their own nominee on the that it is difficult to realize that bebind the first line of throne at Hyderabad. At last, after many vicissitudes buildings lies one of the largest cities in Asia Roostur and countless intrigues, the great Frenchman, Dupleix, / speaking, it consists of (1) Black Town, an ill-built, dels rose to be the temporary arbiter of the fate of Southern populated block, about a mile square, within the old city India. His strength lay in his profound insight into the wall, with more or less crowded suburbs stretching 3 DUES native temperament and the semi-Oriental magnificence of porth of the Cooum River. This is the business part of his ambition. But when his ascendency was at its height the town, and contains the banks, custom-house, Hindi it was suddenly overthrown by the straightforward valour Court, and all the mercantile offices. The latter, for the of the yet greater Englishman, Clive, whose defence of most part handsome structures, lie along the beach. On Arcot in 1751 forms the turning-point in Indian history, the sea face of Black Town are the pier and the new har. Dupleix was shortly afterwards recalled, to be succeeded bour. Immediately south of Black Town there is (?) an by Bussy and Lally, who possessed higher military skill, open space with a sea frontage of about 2 miles and a but less political genius, than their predecessor. In 1760 depth of three-quarters of a mile, which contains the fort, the crowning victory of Wandewash, won by Colonel (after- esplanade, brigade parade ground (" the Island), Gorenwants Sir Eyre) Coote over Lally, established for ever the ment House, and several handsome public buildings on the doctrine that one European nation, and that the English, sea face. (3) West and south of this lung of the city comes must be supreme in India. In the following year, despite ! a series of crowded quarters. (4) To the west of Black help from Vysore, Pondicherri was captured; and the | Town are the quarters chiefly inhabited by Eurasians, and name of France ceased to awaken disturbing associations the suburbs, adorned with handsome European mansi as. in the minds of the natives.

and their spacious “compounds" or parks. (5) SoutbBut though the English had no longer any European west and south lie the European quarters of Tanımpet and rival, they had yet to deal with Mohammedan fanaticism aristocratic Adyar. The city is thus spread over a large and the warlike population of the highlands of Prsore. area ; and it is only after some residence that one maliza The dynasty founded by Hrder Ali and terminating in the stately semi-suburban life which distinguishes it froc his min Tippee Sultan, proved itself in four several wars the l the more concentrated social activity of Calcutta. Ic short, mot formiiable antagonist which the English had ever a very large proportion of the tract of country comprised enerunterni l'he Madras gerernment, then at a low ebb within the municipal limits of the city of Madras-coverof the scher, was incapable of offering a worthy opposition. I ing as it does an area of 27 square miles, with twentyC H P than one occasion the borx men of Mrsere swept three rilla ges—consists of the poor rural district, more or ammelsfred through the lowlands of the Karratie, plander- less under cultiration, which surrounds the fort, and the ing up to the very gutes of the English forts. The first | native town and suburban villages now incorporated within

e stiei in 1769 by a peace dictated or Hrder Ali : its limits. Among the buildings most deserving of potica beneath the walls of Madras. In the course of a second ! for their architectural features are the cathedral, Scotch war, a Butish force under Colonel Balle mis cut to pieces kirk. Gorernment House, Patcheappah's Hall, senate beast, hy Hider near Conlevaram ; and Tippan fairy drere the Cherak Palace (Rerenue Board), college, and Central Koglish ont of Malabar, taning serenal girisoas prisoner. | Railway Station. Rut the disaster near Cinjeranın was arrazed in the ! As the seat of the Madras gorernment, and the bealfollowing year by Sir Eyre Coote, who had been despusebedquarters of the Madras army, nearly all the most impartint by Warren Hastings from Benzal to take up the command ctices of the Presidency, and the headquarters of every The victory of Porto Sore, won after a severe struggle, derartment, are located in the city. proved that the English were still masters in the open Notwithstanding its exposed situation, Madras rarks tiekli theugh Hyuer's supererity in marching pawer 'thing among the ports in India, in respect of the gamber enabled hiun to pscape the most ansyynenes ci defeat. Iard torrage of ressels calling and the value of its impro Il vuer died in 178 Two years later, Tipo consented to and exports. The port trades with every part of the war sign a treaty which stipulated for the restent 'n of con- exDarting coffee, cotton, grain, hides, indigo, oil-secus, dhe quests on either side. This patched-ap peace, which left stufs, sugar, add boros; and importing piece-pods, irs Toppe in har sin of x!l the means of ace that he ha and other metals, and all kinds of European manufactares indret frin his father, certire ril 1790. Thera- The lardir, and skipping of goods is effected party by mille rakende for å renen al besta ties was Tip 's cruel rs to the pier-lead and partly he the old maon.

rustate of Travancore, but the real is to be beats The pipr, which is 1100 feetling by 40 feet wide, Ne bit in laor in fuate hatred of the Er ret Iuni wes ATX"Dord in 1859 and completed in 1802 a: art in alles, the more eueni, takde tien in peren of £110. ); and altbough but a poor substitute fru to loni the fire of an aire w* pard by I, barber it was found rery useful. An icclosed tarbur All the follow any par la prima Savni horren as mentir been onstructed, which consists of two prpartemente treat wine de lim of a bis in risroriens creed by similar piers para tu Remake, A arte an insipinity of than the shore. The price irelesed is ab at 200 acres, api HMMM alwahvata i les fueries of Tr wa the

dates from thirteen to forty ships of large dren in openslotte farth and last Mrrot War, besiens surull me is The Radstead of Maras, the ul with model ma vw ***es by the start with page line of the western coust, is liable to be swept by

in Max 9141408 m the death the suitas ra the barres of irresistine furt, which our at immer Hong trido par** the wall of the present center into ef redus, gerar at the desirains of the monMladh ****Mitular w4r

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The trade of the town does not depend on any special | distant, are not navigable. Numerous dungeon-like conkaal ranufactures or produce. Such industries as once vents have been cleared away, and there are wide and wellsaristed-wearing, for instance-have decayed, and no paved streets, well-planted promenades, fountains in many ethn bare grown up to replace them.

of the squares, gorgeous churches, and handsome public Madras is not ordinarily an unhealthy town, either for buildings. The houses are large and well constructed. 13* ses or Europeans. Its sea-breeze and dry soil appear There are over seventy-two squares and open spaces, of w me than compensate for the lowness of the site. The which the principal are—that of the Royal Palace; that tinrature is high all the year round, but there are fewer of Santa Catalina, where a beantiful bronze statue of CerGwen aterations of heat and cold than in most places in vantes bas been placed ; the Puerta del Sol, where the five lain. The mean temperature in the shade ranges between principal streets of Madrid meet; the Plaza de la Cevada, it and 7 Fabr., the extremes being 67° in January and | where criminals were formerly executed; and lastly, the $3 in June. The death-rate averages thirty-three per Plaza Mayor, which is the finest of all. tuid per annam. It usually increases during the cold The royal palace (Palacio Real), though unfinished, is 22rainy season, and is at its minimum during the dry one of the finest royal residences in Europe. The interior

muks of April, Jay, and June. The population is is decorated in a style of costly magnificence. It has four handle to periodical visitations of cholera and small-pox. fronts, 470 feet in length and 100 feet high. The custom Tb 1od rises slightly as the distance from the sea in-house; the Casa de Correos (post office), in the Puerta del G133, but in no part of the municipal limits is the eleva Sol; the palace called de Buena Vista, formerly belonging bore than 24 feet above the sea, while in many thickly to the dukes of Alba, now converted into an artillery

med neighbourhoods the levels are so low as to offer museuin; the royal printing office, in the street of Carretas; PT 38 obstacles to drainage. The average rainfall over and the palace of the Duke of Berwick-are among the wtwo area is nearly 48 inches in the year. The chief public and private buildings which adorn the capital.

für the discharge of excessive rainfall are the Cooum Among the numerous churches and convents which fill the 19,he main drain of Black Town, and two minor chan- streets of Madrid very few can be mentioned as a specimen e tween the Cooum and Saint Thomé. The heaviest of a pure style of architecture. The public promenades ne asually occurs during the north-east monsoon, as are many; the chief are the Prado, the Retiro, and the

2x 18 inches having been known to fall within twenty Delicias, bestuurs. The locality of the town is liable to prolonged Madrid is the see of a bishop, and has as its cathedral ds of drought, as well as to heavy floods.

the church of Santa Maria de la Almudena, erected before Tlr derivation of the name of Madras is doubtful. the institution of the see. There is a university, and schools Vrtaru, or Mandala Ráj, both words implying govern- of medicine and veterinary surgery, military and engineerDrs. ad Yadrissa, a Mohammedan school, have been ing schools, a normal school, schools of trade, arts, and Kosted as the etymology ; Dr. Burnell favours the latter. music, a national library of above 200,000 volumes and The native name is Chennapatnam, or the city of Chen- | valuable MSS., museum, observatory, and botanic garden, tera, the brother of the local chief or naik at the time of and a magnificent collection of armour of all ages near the or adation. The name Madraspatnam seems to have western palace, the finest of the kind in Europe. There bersa ese almost from the same date.

are many large convents, hospitals, a workhouse, educaMAD REPORE. See CORAL.

tional hospitals for soldiers' children, and other benevolent MADRID', the capital of New Castile and of Spain, institutions; a mint, palaces of the Cortes or Houses of Di also of the province of Madrid, is situated on a Parliament, many private palaces of the Spanish magnates, bure nd exposed platean, 2060 feet above the sea-level, some with fine picture galleries and armouries, botanic In the middle of the extensive plain of New Castile, which gardens, and numerous theatres and opera houses. b und on the north by the mountains of Guadarrama, The museo or picture gallery, one of the finest in the En co the south by those of Toledo. Madrid is supposed world, is open to the public on Sundays and Mondays, and $ recupy the site of the Jantua Carpetanorum of the to foreigners on other days on producing their passports. Luns. It was a frontier town in the time of the Moors, It contains upwards of 2000 pictures, among which are 2Tas constituted the capital of Spain by Philip II. The sixty-two by Velasquez, forty-six by Murillo, ten by Raphael, at s of a quadrangular form, nearly 2 miles long from and a proportionate number by other great masters. Loto south, and nearly a mile and a quarter in breadth, Madrid has little manufacturing industry. A manufacD: '3 surrounded by a wall 20 feet high, entered by six- | tory of porcelain and another of tapestry are both the pro

m. es. One of these, the Alcala Gate, near the middle perty of the government. There is also a government **** east wall, is very fine; it is a triumphal arch, 72 feet tobacco manufactory, at which serious riots took place in 2.it, and has five arched roadways; the Toledo Gate 1885 in consequence of the introduction of machinery.

the south, and the Vicento Gate on the north-west, have | The climate is of the excessive type, the cold of winter and

brt Occupying an area about 5 miles in circum- spring being very intense, and the summer heat very great. frer, and with a population at the last census of 397,816, This is owing to the elevation, the usheltered situation,

toisen the left or eastera bank of the Manzanares, a and the proximity of the lofty snow-clad sierras. Even in urser, which is crossed by two majestic bridges, called summer the changes of temperature are very sudden and Tort de Toledo and Puente de Segoria.

dangerous, especially with a north-east wind. The temThe fteral aspect of Madrid from all the approaches is perature often falls below zero. Mean of January, 487° Lars but inviting. The sterility of the neighbourhood | Fabr. ; of July, 87.51° Fabr. The village of the Escurial, S erig in its glaring nakedness. Throughout the with its celebrated palace, is 26 miles distant north-west. * : ; ut of the year the city is insufferably hot and The city is well supplied with good water from two sources,

7, even in the height of summer it is subject to one 32 miles distant, in the Sierra Guadarrama, to the north, town of bitter winds from the Guadarrama. Since and another from a spring to the north-west, whence it is

9.ation of 1868 many works have been carried out raised by machinery into reservoirs.

is the capital more convenient and healthy, and MAD'RIGAL, a certain fanciful style of poetry, such as S to rai war and tramway connection in all direc- the Elizabethans would call a “conceit," built up on some tas: tae lice from Santander enters on the north-west word play or motto, somewhat as the ballades of old bof the city. under the low hill called Montana del France. The word has given rise to many conjectures as

Pas; tat there is rery little trade, except of a to its meaning; some saying it is Madre gala, honour to SR: 2LIt, and the rivers, including the Tagus, 26 miles | the (Virgin) Jother, though most madrigals are amatory or

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witty poems; others saying it is mandra gale (Lat. gale=1 MÆCE'NAS, CAIUS CIL'NIUS, belonged to tbe calis, a mere suffix), mandra meaning a herd, so that a equestrian order, and was descended from an ancient madrigal or mandrigal is a herdsman's ditty-but unfortu- | Etruscan family at Arretium. He early became se nately no pastoral madrigals exist! The fact is that the quainted with Octavianus (Augustus Cæsar), and continued inadrigal is the Spanish version of the old Oriental pro- through his life an intimate friend and chief adriser of that verbial songs, the madre gaña, mother-wit, being the emperor. While Augustus was engaged in opposing Situs very appropriate Spanish name. One of the great writers Pompeius, and also during many of his other wars, Marcenas of madregañas was a certain Don Jorge de Madrigal, Mad- | was intrusted with the charge of the city. Mæcenas is rigal being a village in Spain, and the madregaña was said to have dissuaded Augustus from his purpose of gestor. called madrigal by the Northerners (Flemings and English) ing the ancient Roman constitution, which Augustas, bor. in a certain confusion between poet and poetry, and hence ever, probably never seriously intended. He was bem also madrigale by the Italians.

about B.C. 70, and died B.C. 8. There were very usually three stanzas to a madrigal, Mæcenas was a great patron of literature; and it was and each one wove in the motto or proverb, the whole principally owing to his assistance and support that Virgil (like the sonnet) inclosing one simple master-idea. When and Horace were raised from indigence, and enabled to the Netherlanders began to write madrigals and set them devote themselves to poetry. They were both admitted to to music, it was but natural that the short lines of the his friendsbip, and Horace in particular lived in terms of poems, the repetition of the motto, and the answering of one intimacy with him. He was a man of luxurious habite stanza by another should fall in most admirably with the and lived in a magnificent house on the Esquiline H.L imitative and contrapuntal style of the early mediæval | He amassed a very large fortune, which he used liberalls, music. It is evident that each recurring enunciation of the and which he bequeathed to the emperor at his death. It “ motto " should bear the same melody, and further that was from the tower of the house that Mæcenas built that, the whole poem being based upon the expression of one later on, Nero beheld the burning of Rome. Me 02 thought, or of few thoughts, the music ought to be con- wrote several works, such as poems, tragedies, and a * Histury structed upon one melody or upon a few associated mel- of the Wars of Augustus." odies. Hence arises the well-known conversational arrange- MAEL'AR, an extensire lake of Sweden, running inland ment in short phrases so typical of madrigalian music, | for about 80 miles from the Baltic, with a breadth varying one phrase being " answered " in technical musical manner | from 2 to 23 miles. It contains no less than 1300 islands, by its counterpart. Petrarca and Tasso have left the finest and its total area is 520 square miles. It has deep and Italian madrigals, apart from musical treatment, and there clear water, and is connected with the Baltic by a strait, are many very fine ones among early Spanish poetry. on both sides of which Stockholm is built. The river

MADRIGAL, in music, is an unaccompanied vocal com- Arboga and a canal connect it with Lake Hjælmar. When position for a choir, sometimes in three parts, but commonly the Baltic rises much above its ordinary level the sea-water

e. The Flemings invented the madrigal about the flows in, and the lake becomes brackish. It graduails bemiddle of the sixteenth century, and the Italians took it up comes fresh again; and in this way its bottom may preemt shortly after. Palestrina, Marenzio, Mazocchi, Festa, Gas alternating marine and fresh-water deposits, with fosis toldi, and Scarla, in Italy, and Morley, Weelkes, Wilbye, after the manner of the tertiary basin of Paris. Bennet, John Ward, Orlando Gibbons, Dowland, and Ford, MAEL'STROM or MALSTROM (Danish, molen The in England, were the chief madrigal writers of that and the a whirlpool), a celebrated whirlpool off the north-west next century. It is not too much to say that the English coast of Norway, and immediately to the south-west of madrigalists have no superiors. The art was long indebted Moskenesoe, the most southern of the Loffoden Isles. It to the Madrigal Society, a club which consisted chiefly of is in reality a violent current, which runs in opposite dire amateurs, founded in London in 1741, and which, by zeal tions alternately for six hours at a time, and with a per aliar and perseverance, succeeded in diffusing throughout the rotatory motion. Notwithstanding the fables told of its British Isles a taste for a species of music as delightful as dangerous character, it may be traversed with safety by it is scientific. The contrapuntal nature of the madrigal, ordinary sailing boats, except when a north-west wind bests the coinplete equality of interest in the parts, and the un up against the reflux of the waves. Its depth does not limited number of performers who may take part in it, are exceed 20 fathoms. the chief points of difference from the later form of the MAEL'ZEL, JOHANN NEPOMUK, inventore ** glee." The severe simplicity of the madrigal, its purity the well-known and highly valuable musical appiano of effect, as it is always unaccompanied, and may be sung called the METRONOME, was the son of an organ-builder therefore in just (untempered) intonation, place it at the of Ratisbon. He was born in 1772, visited many counHead of concerted vocal music.

tries, but not England, and died on shipboard in the AmeMADU'RA, an island in the Eastern seas, separated rican seas, 1838. He was a most ingenious man, but orer. by a narrow strait from the north-east coast of Java, with shrewd. His relations with Beethoven are not to his bonous, which it is connected under the Netherlands government. Beethoven wrote for him the fine piece Battle of Vittoria," Lat. 70° S., lon. 113° E. Its extreme length from east for a large automatic musical machine to represent an or. to west is 90 miles, and its mean breadth 17 miles. The chestra, in gratitude at a slight relief he had experienced inhabitants, who reside chiefly in villages, amount to about

from an ear-trumpet invented by Maelzel; but Marizel bene 670,000. The religion of the Madurese is Mohammedan. haved so badly with regard to claiming the copyright, and although the remains of Hindu temples attest the pre even (as he asserted) the musical design of this valuable valence of that faith in former times. The natives are piece, which he bad induced Beethoren to score for 1 07 active, honest, brave, and skilful.

chestra, that the composer even had to take le mal proceedThe island is inferior in fertility to Jara, and barely sup- ings against him. Beethoven's authoritative commeridation ports its population ; but in parts the soil is rich, and rice of the metronome in 1817 at once brought it into aniversal grows abundantly. Buffaloes and sheep are reared in great favour, and it is a proof of the excellent nature of that T * numbers. The chief export is salt.

man that he not only stated this in the fullest manner, bat MÆAN'DER, the modern Buyak Meinder, a river withdrew his lawsuit in order not to prejudice Marlsel. of Asia Minor, which flows for 250 miles through wild | (The costs were equally divided.) At one time Marlzel mountain gorges and rich alluvial plains to the Egean near possessed the famous automaton chess player; he sold it to Miletus, and whose remarkable windings have given rise to Eugène Beauharnais, stepson of Napoleon I. He invented the English word " meander."

many ingenious musical and other appliances. The main

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sis of the metronome-the use of a variable pendulum to Southland, the largest of the islands composing Tierra del mane musical time-was not due to Maelzel, but was Fuego. At its western entrance are Cape Pillar to the

and br him, in the course of his many travels with his south, on the island of South Desolation, and Cape Victory 10-al satenata, from a Dutch artisan named Winckel. to the north, on a small island belonging to Queen Adelaide's Mx'zel, in fact, was exceedingly acute and inventive, but Archipelago. The most northern bend of the strait aptruir original.

proaches 53° 10' S. lat., and the most southern inlet, called YANADS, another name for the ball-maddened female Admiralty Sound, 55° S. lat. The eastern extremity of corsuitsers of Dionysos (Bacchus), better known to us as the strait is situated in about 68° 20' W. lon., and the BBA HOSTES. The name comes from Gr. mainomai, to be western in about 74° 40'.

Ti terin is often used as an epithet for an amazonian The Strait of Magalhaens was discovered by Fernando Combo Todern writers: a splendid example is that in Car- Magalhaens in 1520. It was forinerly much navigated by waa" French Revolution," vol. i.," Insurrection of Women," vessels bound for the harbours on the western coast of MESA, JULIA, one of the cleverest of the Roman 'America ; but the navigation was always dangerous and trees, was the sister of the noble Julia Domna, wife of tedious, in consequence of the all but continuous western

Entor Severus, and mother of the tyrant Caracalla. gales, the great strength and irregularity of the currents, la Mr had two daughters, each of whom had a son; the numerous rocks and cliffs in the western part of the 26 men her nephew Caracalla had met the fatal reward strait, and the great humidity of the climate, which engeni in crines (A.D. 217) Julia Masa spent her vast for- ' ders scurvy and other diseases. At present a vessel rarely

or ia preparing the elevation of her grandsons to empire, i enters the strait unless despatched by some government for Lrtaalis ELAGABALES, the elder of them, was by her a special purpose.

tienes enabled to orerthrow the usurper Macrinus (218), MAGAZINE (Arabic makhzan), a strong building, 2Then she found that his dissolute character had dis- constructed generally of brick or stone within a fortified

the Roman people, Alexander Severus (see SEVERUS]. place, or in the neighbourhood of a military or naval *tager of them, was raised by her arts to the purple station, in order to contain in security the gunpowder or latilo Julia Masa shared largely in the public acts of other warlike stores which may be necessary for the de

* Tery unusual for a woman, and after her death fence of the place, or for the use of the troops who are to GL probibited. She died about 225.

perform military duty in the province or district. MAES TRICHT or MAASTRICHT, a town of the The buildings in which gunpowder is contained are conSeralds, the capital of the province of Limburg, structed with every precaution necessary to insure dryness.

t'i ansidered one of the strongest places in Europe, They are generally in places remote from other buildings;

nailid in 1878. It is situated on the left bank | they are furnished with metallic conductors, in order to ! Maas, 110 miles south-east of Amsterdam; oppo avert danger from lightning; and for security against the

i is its suburb of Wyck. The town is now a place attempts of ill-disposed persons they are surrounded by a

at commercial activity, and has famous earthenware wall and ditch. When in situations where they may beall das works, and manufactures of leather, paper, come the objects of hostile ineasures, they are made shell* cottons, arms, tobacco, and beer. Its chief proof. They should always he built to admit sufficient

*3 are its town-house, its churches, and it has daylight to render the use of lanterns unnecessary. is hospitals and charitable institutions. Popula The great magazines which have been constructed in

,000. Maestricht is the Trajectum Superius of this country consist of several parallel vaults, separated Liss. It was besieged by the Spaniards, under the from each other by brick partition walls, in which are D'er of Parna, during four months, in 1579, and its sur- doorways for affording lateral communication. Each vault * mas blowed by a terrible massacre of the citizens. is about 90 feet long, 19 feet wide internally, and from the od uttress kas sustained numerous other sieges, of which floor to the crown of the arch 19 feet high. The side walls

mest memorable terminated with its capitulation, are from 8 to 10 feet thick, and are strengthened by but***: of 1632 by Prince Frederick Henry of Orange, tresses built at intervals against them. The concave or

14:1573 by Louis XIV., and that of 1748 by the French interior surface of each vault, in a vertical and transverse **Marshal Saxe. Maestricht was almost the only town section, is nearly of a parabolical figure, above the spring

wutb part of the Netherlands which was successing courses; and the exterior surface has the form of two 2 mustained by the Dutch against the Belgian in- | inclined planes meeting in a longitudinal ridge-line above

*after the eventful month of September, 1830. A the middle of the vault. One of the vaults is usually kept

se astant, called Pietersberg, has most extensive empty, so that the gunpowder may be moved from one **1v, supposed to have been made by the Romans place to another, a process necessary to keep it in good con

i stipe In these there are 16,000 passages dition. The thickness of the brickwork forming the vaulted

ht, and 20 to 50 feet high, and covering a space roof is therefore various: at the crown it is 7 or 8 feet, and 1:21 by 6.

I on the hances about 3 feet. this being considered sufficient XALS TRICHT CHALK is a calcareous formation to resist the shock of falling shells. Temporary magazines,

at Maestricht, on the Maas. It is about 100 such as are formed to supply the batteries in a siege, are sh, and rests unconformably on the chalk. It is generally made of wood covered with earth. P : 2containing an admixture of cretaceous and On board a man-of-war the magazine is of great strength.

w forms, which show it to be of intermediate It is situated in the hold, and is separated by a transparent le bains the aberrant cephalopods Baculites and screen from the light room, in which lanterns of a special 7*4 are peculiar to the cretaceous, but with these kind are kept to light the magazine-the introduction of

I es, typically representing tertiary gasteropod life. fire in any form into the magazine itself being absolutely MAGAL HAENS, STRAIT OF, commonly called forbidden. In case of a fire near it, it can be immediately

of dagellan, is the most extensive strait known | flooded. *** face of the globe. Its length in a straight line! MAGAZINE (in literature). See NEWSPAPER.

ese mies; but if the three great bends are taken MAG DALA, a town and hill fortress of Abyssinia, " scount, it is rather more than 300 miles. It situated on the Talanta platcan, an elevation about 9000 Sans the continent of South America from Tierra del feet above the sea, and considered by the Abyssinians to *** The eastern entrance is formed by Cape de las be impregnable. It is 120 miles south-east of Gondar, "2 in the antinent and by Cape del Espiritu Santo, and is worthy of notice as having been the chief strong** Caterine's Foreland, which is on King Charles' hold of the late Emperor Theodore, and the place in which 105. IX.



he kept the English prisoners confined for a long period. / first mentioned in Luke viii. 2, as being among the women It was stormed and taken by the British ariny on 14th who followed Jesus and ministered to him of their subApril, 1868.

stance, and we learn from the same passage that seven MAGDALEN COLLEGE, OXFORD (always pro- devils had been cast out of her. Her life of ministration nounced Maud'lin), was founded in 1458 by William of seems to have brought her into close companionship with Waynflete, bishop of Winchester and lord high chancellor Mary, the mother of Jesus, and Salome, the mother of of England, for a president, forty fellows, thirty scholars James and John, and at the time of the crucifixion ste callied demies, a schoolmaster, an usher, four chaplains, stood with the women "afar off, beholding these things an organist, eight clerks, and sixteen choristers. By an (Luke xxiii. 49). She was also the first at the sepulchre ordinance framed for the college under powers granted by on the morning of the resurrection, and the first to see the Act 17 & 18 Vict, c. 81, the statutable restriction of Jesus after that event (Mark xvi. 9-11). At an early fellowships to certain counties and dioceses was abolished, period, by an altogether unsupported assumption, Vary and ten fellowships were suspended, and ten demyships Magdalen was identified by Christian writers with the added to the statutable number. Demyships are now open, woman of unchaste life who anointed the feet of Jesus, as and without reference to place of birth, for five years. recorded in Luke vii. 37-50, and it is in this character she There are twenty exhibitions for deserving persons in need is always represented in art. It is in consequence of this of support at the university; and four professorships (called theory that the terin Magdalene or Magdalen has come to Wayotlete Professorships) were founded and maintained be applied to women who have fallen from chastity, as we within the college in lieu of the lectureships mentioned in see in the name Vagdalene Asylums given to the results the previous statutes. The visitor is the Bishop of Win- erected by Christian charity for such unfortunates. chester. The tyrannical conduct of James II. in forcing MAGDALENE COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE (proa Catholic president (a man of infamous life moreover), and nounced Maudlin), was built by Edward Starford, duke of twelve Catholic fellows on Magdalen in 1687, was one Buckingham, in the year 1519, under the name of Bockingof the most unpopular of the acts which led to his over- ham House, on the site of an ancient hostel belonging to throw and the fall of the Stuart dynasty. The whole of the abbeys of Ely, Ramsey, and Walden. The dake ont the university at once became rebels in their hearts. having completed the building at the time of his attainder,

Magdalen College stands upon a plot of ground at the the college fell to the crown, and was granted to Thunis, entrance of Oxford from London, bounded on its east side Lord Audley, lord high chancellor of England. Forcerly by the Cherwell, beyond which extends a fine deer park. there were four fellowships on the foundation of the coline The buildings are extensive and finely designed. The and fourteen by-fellowships; but by the new statutes the cloisters are particularly fine. The entrance-court leads by-fellowships were abolished, and there are eight open into a larger quadrangle, which contains the chapel, hall, fellowships. It is also declared by the new statutes that and library. South of the chapel, and on the south side of (excepting those scholarships and exhibitions the right of what is called the chaplain's court, stands the tower of the preference to which is preserved to particular schools) the college, the beautiful proportions of which render it one of total amount of such scholarships and exhibitions forms the chief ornaments of Oxford. The great quadrangle was a general fund for open scholarships. At present the begun by the founder in 1473, though not finished till after alterations have permitted three open scholarships of 150, his death. The foundations of what are called the new three of £10, and sis of £20 a year each. buildings of this college, unfortunately in most unhappy! This college, which stands on the north side of the Cam, contrast with the exquisite architecture of the fifteenth consists of two small courts. On the north side of te and sixteenth centuries, on the north side of the great second is a stone building, the body of which is apps)quadrangle, were laid in 1833. The chapel, which had priated to the reception of the l'epysian Library. This been refitted and decorated in an incongruous manner in library was bequeathed to the college by the well-known the time of Charles I., was restored to its former magnifi- " diarist " Samuel Pepys, secretary of the admiralty in the cence in 1833. In 1872 various improvements were made / reigns of King Charles II. and King James II., the orignal in the college, and a fine class-room, &c., added, and in of whose famous and priceless diary is one of its chiel 1885 were finished a noble set of buildings extending treasures. See PEPYS. along the High Street of Oxford, in the original style of MAG'DEBURG, a town of Germany, and the capital the architecture of the college, and forming, therefore, a of the government of the same name and of the preside benutiful mass with the tower which rises at the end of of Prussian Saxony, and one of the strongest fortrenes la them. These buildings cost the college at the rate of Prussia, stands on the left bank of the Elbe and on 13 £1000 for each set of rooms, owing to the intricacy of the island formed by its arms, 80 miles south-west from Beris. carvings, &c., required.

The town consists of three parts, called Altstadt. Neumarkt MAGDALEN HALL, OXFORD. The school, and Friedrichs-stadt; and of two suburbs, Sudenburg ad with the refectory and chambers erected by Bishop Wayn Neustadt. It is ill built, with narrow, crooked strert flete for students previous to admission into his college, The most remarkable buildings are-the noble cathedral and adjoining its buildings, obtained the appellation of St. which was completed in 1363, the town-hall, the govertMary Magdalen Hall as early as 1448, and was governed ment house, the artillery barracks, and the theatre. Of by one of the fellows till 1602, when it became an inde- the squares the largest are the old market-place, in which pendent hall. The president and fellows of Magdalen is a statue of Otho the Great; and the cathedral squire, College, being desirous of recovering this site, obtained in which is surrounded by handsome buildings and arelinien 1816 an Act of Parliament which authorized them to pre- of trees. It has numerous charitable, literary, and scient.oc pare Hertford College, which bad lapsed to the crown, for institutions, schools, gymnasia, libraries, and picture wala the reception of this society, and the principal and other | leries; and manufactures of silk, broad cloth, leatber, members removed there on its completion in 1822. Angloves, lace, tobacco, jewelry, pottery, beer, spirits, &c. Act of Parliament was passed in 1875 making certain | There is also an active trade, facilitated by railways to changes in the constitution of the Hall, which is now known Berlin, Hainburg, and Dresden, and by steam on the Elbe. as Hertford College.

Magdeburg is very ancient, dating from the eighth century, MAG'DALEN, MARY, that is, Mary of Magdala and is rich in historical associations; it is the wee of (a village on the shores of Galilee). The name seems to bishop, was at one time a member of the Hanseatit bave been given by the evangelists to distinguish the bearer League, and long the capital of an archbishopric, which from the other Maries mentioned in the Gospels. She is ! was secularized at the peace of Westphalia. It sutered

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