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with the lighter coloured tribes, while the darker ones have,' splendid foliage of the ravenala, which sometimes grows to as a rule, shorter and more frizzly hair, “ although it is a height of 30 feet, while at the top of the strong stem a sorry, if ever, of the true negro woolly or tufted kind of gigantic fan spreads out of from fifteen to twenty-five best cover." In the contours of the face and head there enormous bright leaves. In the larger forests the superb is the same variety, for we meet European types side by trees, unknown out of Madagascar, towering above all the

de with the high cheek-bones of the Malays, and occa- | vegetation around, are the chrysopias. The top is spread Boruly even true negro features. The curious tribe of out like a parasol, and the branches terminate in bunches the Kajo or Behosy, who live in the woods of the Bémar- of fowers, formed of five petals of dazzling purple, conaba, a week's journey to the west of the capital, are said to trasting strikingly with the foliage. Many parts of the Teamble the Sakalara, jump from tree to tree like monkeys island are admirably adapted for the cultivation of sugar and *** pursued, are exceedingly timid, and even to have all kinds of tropical fruits, but rice and coffee are the only ded of inght when captured.

two articles yet grown to any extent. Among the minerals Tbe principal physical feature of Madagascar is the great | are iron, tin, silver, copper, plumbago, and potter's clay. ekrated plateau, which arerages between 4000 and 5000 The only indigenous animals of Madagascar are various ve: above the sea-level. It commences in the northern species of the lemur tribe; the aye-aye, which lives on the prt of the island, and extends throughout nearly the whole larvæ hidden in the trunks of trees, and which is supposed

th, but sinks into extensive plains on the south and to be a link between the squirrel and the monkey; a species vel. Along the east coast a long chain of lagoons stretches of hedgehog, the wild cat, and ichneumon. Cattle and for sereral hundred miles. They are formed by the sand- sheep have been introduced with great success, and goats bars thrown up by the turf driven by the trade winds, and wild pigs are also common. The birds of the island 11- block the outlets of the rivers. They might easily are numerous, and of brilliant and varied plumage. Lizbe made available for transit in that region. The waters, ards and crocodiles are the chief reptiles. All the serpents bar, abound in crocodiles, and from the ground around are inoffensive. The Æpyornis maximus must have existed

lates the deadly miasmata which give rise to the in the island at a comparatively recent date, as many of its Wiigsyferer. From the undulating tract inside the eggs—which are six times larger than those of the ostrich Sentimu border, the country ascends by successive terraces, - have been discovered. Wir triats of which form three mountain walls, each sup | The climate of Madagascar is unfavourable to Europeans, prag a terrace behind it. These are more continuous, but is not so hot as might be expected from its geographical better marked throughout, and more difficult of ascent on position. The elevated range in the interior, and the wind the east than on the west side. On surmounting the third constantly blowing from the sea, render the heat support

tree on the east side, the central plateau is reached at | able. Missionary enterprise was formerly often checked by u atitude of 4500 feet. This is named Iinerina; it is violent means, but Christianity has now almost entirely I hij miles long and 90 broad, and has a central tract of displaced idolatry, and Christian churches abound. 1:50 spare miles, richly cultivated, where is the seat of Madagascar was formerly divided into twenty-eight to capital. On the north the plain is bounded by moun states, governed by chiefs ; but in the present century tan, on the south it opens out into the plain of Betsileo most of them were subjected to the sway of the Hovas by *** , where it is 35 to 40 miles wide between the King Radáma, who died in 1828. This extraordinary man, betering ranges of hills. Here, in 22° S. lat., a lofty who in energy of character resembled Peter the Great, The crusses from east to west, connecting the two bound introduced into his country the arts and civilization of Pres. Beyond this is another plain, with fine border Europe. He received and protected the missionaries, and

s nires east and west, and south of this, as also north promoted the establishment of schools, the number of which unts of the central plain, the country falls away south at the time of his death had increased to more than 100, bi with in successive terraces, the lowest being about in which nearly 5000 children were instructed. Several

fut in elevation and 48 miles wide. From the central | young people were sent to the Mauritius, and even to Eng* pater is a rise of 1500 feet to the base of the mountains, land, to receive instruction. European mechanics were

ne greatest altitude is from 8000 to 8950 feet. The also well received and employed by Radáma. He was * rt group is that of Ankarat, about 20 iniles south-west succeeded by his queen, who governed on entirely opposite

be capital, Antanarivo; and these are all volcanic, principles-interdicting all trade with foreigners, and per*** over an area of 600 square miles. Another volcanic secuting her Christian subjects in a most fearful manner.

insen at their east base, but no craters. The coast-At the coronation of Rànavatona II., however, in 1868, all o the cast is comparatively smooth, baving only one the symbols of idolatry were excluded and the Bible was e seable bay, Antongill, towards the north. The west placed conspicuously at her right hand. In the following * * is moch more irregular and broken, and has many year she was baptized, and all the idols of the nation were the birta Larteurs, and islands. Owing to the nature of the by her command committed to the flames. This was fol

Berry the rivers have very rapid courses, broken by falls; lowed by the destruction of nearly all the village and private 3 mont of them enter the sea directly without the idols. 1637 erition of bavs or gulfs, there are generally bars at The capital of the island, Antanarivo, is situated nearly baths, and hence they are of little use for naviga- in the centre. The chief port is Tamatave, on the east

coast, and much of the trade is carried on through Mauritius. ; 7:. of Madagascar is distinguished by the beauty! The government is an absolute monarchy, moditied and

the trees and the strangeness of the plants. Except in tempered by customs and usages having the force of law; at a une desolate volcanic region the ground is one mass and during the last quarter of a century the power of the Ny t tuore; bushes and reeds spring out of the tufts of sovereign has been gradually limited and controlled. The

Ros, Coca-nut palms rise to a great height, and the sovereign is advised by the prime minister, who is the real - tains, bathed in blue vapour, combine to make a beau- source of all political power; he is assisted by a number of * Vfécture. Lemon trees, peculiar to the island, offer a ministers, who act as heads of departments-education,

* De skadow froin the heat ; the Indian acacia showers justice, the interior, foreign affairs, &c. These swear ES: Flussa of its yellow blossoms; the beautiful lochnera, fidelity to the prime minister as well as to the sovereign.

bi to the periwinkle, throws out its long stems, termi- | The succession to the crown is hereditary in the royal house,

tsin a mass of rose-coloured flowers; and the Palma but not necessarily in direct succession; the reigning 25. . d. pays its large leaves-sometimes green and some- ! sovereign may designate bis successor. At various periods,

te tes purple Sear the rivers the eye is enchanted by the 1820, 1861, 1865, and 1868, treaties were concluded with

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Great Britain, the United States, and France. Under one Friends' Foreign Missionary Association, the Norwegian of these, said to have been made in 1841 with a Sakalava | Missionary Society, and the French Jesuit Mission. chief, France claims a protective right over the north of (** The Great African Island: Chapters on Madagascar," the island froin 16° S. lat., which she endeavoured to by the Rev. James Sibree, jun., F.R.G.S., London, 1880; assert by force in 1883, until which time the French Madagascar: Its History and People," by the Rev. Henry practically acknowledged the Hovas as dominant over the W. Little, London, 1885; “Madagascar and France, with whole island. The dispute still remains unsettled, and the some account of the Island, its People, its Resources, and story of the French interference, as calmly and impartially Development," by George A. Shaw, F.Z.S., London, 1885.) narrated in Mr. Shaw's interesting book, “Madagascar and MAD'DER is the name given to a red dye-stuff, as France” (London, 1885), is not a pleasant one. Aggres well as to the plant (Rubia tinctorum) which produces it. sion without colonization is a fair description of French There is an allied species, Rubia peregrina, which is native policy, while the dignity and forbearance of the Malagasy in England and Ireland, and there are several native species in time of exasperation and peril are such as to command of the allied genus Galium, popularly known as “ clearers," warmest admiration, and might well be emulated by some “lady's bed-straw," &c. All these plants belong to that western nations further advanced in the path of civilization. section of the order RUBIACEÆ the species of which have The reign of the present queen has altogether been one to the leaves in whorls. The colouring matter is contained reflect credit upon any sovereign, while in private life she in the root, which is perennial, and composed of many long has shown herself to be generous, humane, sympathetic, succulent fibres, about a quarter of an inch in thickness. and religious without cant. Ever since the accession of The plants are propagated by the numerous shoots. her predecessor, great strides have been made in social, Madder is indigenous in the south-east of Europe and political, and religious progress, in the arts of civilization, temperate Western Asia. Pliny mentions that it was culand in education ; and among the most powerful agents tivated in his time in Italy. It was grown for the sake for good have been the London Missionary Society, the of the dye in France in the middle ages, according to

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De Candolle, but the culture fell into disuse, until its revival | with stiff hairs, which render them serviceable in polishing in the eighteenth century. It is again decreasing, on metal work. account of the discovery of a mode of artificially preparing i MADEIR'A, an island situated in the Atlantic Ocean, the colouring matter, which is called alizarin. Gerard in between 32° 30' and 32° 53' N. lat., and 16° 40' and 179 his “ Herball," in 1597, mentions the medicinal virtues | 20' W.lon., and nearly 400 miles from the north-western coast which madder was supposed to possess, though at the of Africa. It is 31 miles long and 12 broad. The area is present day it is no longer considered effective. Physio- 370 square miles, and the population 125,000. The logists make use of the fact that the bones of young ani- island may be almost said to be one vast mass of basaltic mals fed on madder become tinted with a red colour, in lava, trachyte, ashes, tufa, scoriæ, and pumice, with bombs order to investigate the growth of bone. This property is and lapilli. It rises with a rather steep ascent from the probably due to the chemical affinity of phosphate of lime south and from the north towards the interior, where Pico for the colouring matter. The stem and leaves are clothed | Ruivo, the highest summit, attains to 6100 feet above the

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43-level. Both declivities of the mountain pass are fur- island of Porto Santo. It is a basalt rock, which does not pwed by deep and generally narrow valleys and depres- exceed 500 feet in height. To the south-east are three bes, traversed by streams of clear water. The mildness small basalt rocks lying in a row from north to south. of the climate of Jadeira has for many years past caused | They are called Ilhas Desertas, and are only inhabited by the island to be very popular as a health resort for invalids. sea-fowl, but they are visited from Madeira for the purpose The rainfall is about the same as in the driest counties of of collecting the archil with which the greatest part of Lund, being no more than 21 inches in the year, a their surface is covered. cu amount for so low a latitude; the wet days are MADELSTAD, the name in Picardy, Artois, &c., of the miesty-three; mean temperature 65° Fahr.; lowest, 53o custom known in England as Junior Right, or BOROUGIIFalt.; but under the influence of an east wind called | ENGLISHI. bexde, the thermometer in the shade sometimes rises to MADER'NO, CARLO, the architect of the huge and 9 Fahr. This wind is really an African sirocco; but ill-planned facade of St. Peter's at Rome, which so lamentbere tempered by the moisture it has absorbed in passing ably interferes with the harmony of that superb church, per 100 miles of sea, it is not found injurious to invalids. was born near Como in 1556, was appointed architect of

Frutn the lowest region of the island to about 750 feet the half-finished St. Peter's by Paul V. in 1605, and died ahom the sea-level many tropical plants are cultivated. at Rome in 1609. Besides perpetrating his façade, Maderno Abne this region, to a height of from 750 to 2500 or had the audacity to alter the plans of Bramante, Raffaelle, Nu fet, the fruits and grain of Europe, especially wheat and Michelangelo, and extend the west arm of the church,

maize, are raised; and here are also extensive vine- turning it from a Greek (equal-armed) cross into a Latin Faris, which farnish one of the inost important articles one, and thus materially injuring the effect of the springing

Dortation. Then follows a tract covered with high I of the grand dome. It is only from a distance, therefore, Thes, which rises to 3200 feet and higher, where many that the true beauty of St. Peter's becomes manifest. piasts and trees are found which do not occur in Europe ; MA'DIA, the name of a genus of plants belonging to od above this level is a region of grass, fern, and heath. the order COMPOSITE. One species, Madia satira, is ter bases are kept, and most of them are imported. much prized. It is a native of Chili, where it is cultivated Cartie are more numerous, and of a large size. Asses are for the sake of the oil which it yields. It is either put te Iust cominon domestic animals, and best adapted to under a press, or boiled under a gentle heat, when the oil 5 rads of the country as beasts of burden. Hogs are is to be taken from it. The oil is used for lubricating fine aber numerous, as well as fowls. In the interior there machinery. There is a single series of involucral bracts, 2 Day wild swine and rabbits. There are nearly 700 each of which incloses a ray floret; between these and the Facts of coleoptera in all the islands together, and of disk florets there is a row of scales, wlich do not extend *310 are peculiar to the group. Of the 700 there further.

20 sitboat wings, though such of them as exist else- / MAD'ISON, a city of the United States, the chief bere are found with wings. It has been suggested that town of Wisconsin State, is distant 132 miles north-west

specaliarity may have been produced by those that had of Chicago. It was founded in 1837, and is charmingly To bring blown into the sea during the violent gales situated near the middle of a wide valley, on a high penin

(ftra occur and drowned; while those fittest to resist sula overlooking the lakes Mendota and Menona; the *3 istigence survived. Each island of the whole group | former of these, on the north of the city, is 6 miles by 4; kas spects of spider and a species of helix peculiar to the latter 5 miles by 2}; the isthmus between them is Die Suited cod constitutes one of the principal articles three-fourths of a mile wide. Both have gravelly shores.

The state-house or capital stands in the centre of a square, The most important article of export is wine. Though on ground 20 feet above the lake; from this square the

quintity fell off very much after the disease attacked streets part at right angles, descending towards the lake; ories in 1852, the vineyards have been renewed, and one only runs obliquely westwards up College Hill, on Bept trade is again steadily increasing. The Madeira, which stands the university. Rich meadows and fine

i ncial, and Malmsey are favourite and well-known woods are seen around, and the heights on the sides of the e Other articles of export are fruits, honey, wax, | valleys afford beautiful views. The other most important 47. Bar, spirits, and tobacco, besides provisions for buildings and institutions are the university, post office,

2.18 Vessels. The imports consist of manufactured lunatic asylum, churches, and a library containing 60,000 Se crn. fish (herrings and cod), oil, salt beef, salt, and volumes. The city is abundantly supplied with railway Mornical productions. In 1874 a fine lazaretto was | accoinmodation, and has manufactures of agricultural im*pi sed. and supplied a want much felt for many years. plements and woollens, and flour mills. The population in 11 Stja L, the capital, bas telegraphic communication with 1880 was 10,324. Atacul, Brazil, and the Cape Verd Isles.

MAD'ISON, JAMES, fourth President of the United & surding to a romantic tale, the leading features of States, was born 16th March, 1751, at King George, near in ise histerically true, in the reign of Edward III, a Port Roval, Virginia. He was appointed a member rit: Eaglit man in the service of the Black Prince, of Congress in March, 1780. He was one of the three und Makhan, fled the country with the fair Anne of commissioners from Virginia who assembled at Annapolis, fi . ia under to avoid the anger of her relations. They where he met Alexander Hamilton, with whom he was

to make their way from the Bristol Channel to afterwards so closely united in forming the new constiz (124tf France. But contrary winds drove the vessel tution, and from whom he was so widely separated in

** of its course, and after a long series of tossings to carrying it into execution. His services to the United etto it was cast upon the Madeira sbores. Here the States cannot be too highly estimated. After the Ameri

ar said to have both died, while their companions can constitution was formed he was its zealous expounder 8. in ia reubin, Morocco, and proceeded from thence to the people. He carried it triumphantly through the

a Madeira was rediscovered in 1419 or 1420 by legislature of Virginia in spite of a strenuous opposition. "?ates 2ue. It derived its name from the timber | He was chosen a member of the first Congress in 1789, to mith which it was covered. Soon afterwards it and continued a member until 1797. In the struggle

48 stá muzed by the Portuguese, and the culture of sugar which succeeded the retirement of General Washington, be I was introduced. Sugar was largely grown before Madison took an honourable and influential part, and when the lodian Islands were colonized.

Mr. Jefferson was elected president he was appointed his A : 10 miles north-east of Madeira lies the small ! secretary of state. Ho succeeded Mr. Jefferson as presi

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dent in 1809. Under his administration war was declared Veilgherries. Xorth of the Godavari River the Eastera against Great Britain in 1812 and continued for two years, Ghats rise to an eleration of opwards of 5000 feet, the highest at a cost to the States of 30.000 lives and 100.000.000 points being Gailikonda, 5346 feet, and Galli Parvata:a. dollars. After serving two terms. Mr. Jadison retired to 1988 feet. The Western Ghats, on the other hand, rise to private life in March, 1817. He lived to the age of eighty- over 6000 feet, and at the Neilgberries culminate to 8760 one, although he had never enjoyed good bealth. He died feet. Owing to the superior height of the western range. 2 th January, 1836.

and its vicinity to the coast, all the head waters of the great MADNESS. See INSANITY; LISACY.

rivers of the Presidency originate there, and traverse the MADO'QUA (Veotragas saltiana) is a remarkably Eastern Ghats on their way to the sea. small and slim-built antelope inhabiting the mountainous The principal rivers are the Godavari, the Krishna or districts of Abyssinia. The summit of the shoalder is only Kistna, in their lower courses, the Penner, Paler, and the 14 inches above the level of the ground; bat it stands Caurery. Numerous feeders, the chief of which is the rather bigber on the bind quarters. The horns are corre- Tungabadhra, from the Western Ghats and the plateau of spondingly thin, and about 3 inches in length, nearls straight the Deccan, discharge themselves into the histna and and curved a little forward. The tail is only rudimentary, Penner. The rivers of the western and southern coasts measuring scarcely more than 11 inch from root to tip are numerous, but necessarily short in their courses and The females are hornless. The back is reddish-brown, the unimportant, as are also those in the extreme north-eastern sides gray, and the under surface white; the face and legs districts of the Presidency. are red.

The coast on the west, called Malabar, from the northMADRAS', PRESIDENCY OF, occupies the south-western extremity to Mangalore, is in general bold and

ula of India.

1, with a considerable : rocky; from Mangalore to Cape Comorin, it is considerabis extension north-eastward along the coast of the Bay of lower and either muddy or sandv, having several shall Bengal. It is bounded on the north and north-west by inlets termed "backwaters," extending in some cases & the districts of Kanara and Dharwar of the Bombay Presi- copsiderable distance (200 miles) inland, parallel with the dency, Hyderabad or the Nizam's Dominions, and the coast, more or less navigable, and receiving the drainage southern native states of Bastar and Kalahandi of the of the streams coming from the Western Ghats. Cochin Central Provinces; on the north-east by the province of is situated on the principal of these openings. Cape CumoOrissa under the Bengal jurisdiction ; on the east and rin itself is low and sandy, but a few miles inland, and to south-east by the Bay of Bengal; on the south by the the north of the extreme point, the southern summits of Indian Ocean, and on the west by the Arabian Sea. The the Ghats rise in lofty and majestic peaks known as the eastern portion of the Presidency extends from Cape Co Palni Hills. To the north-east of Cape Comorin, the morin, in lat. 8° 4', to the northern extremity of district coast, for 166 miles, is low, rocky, and much beset by Ganjam, touching Orissa in lat. 20° 18'; the western por reefs, and is little frequented, as navigation northwards tion extends to the coast at the eastern extremity of into the Bay of Bengal is obstructed and rendered imMysore native state, in lat. 13° 50'- the greatest length practicable for vessels by a sandbank extending from the from the extremity of Ganjam to Cape Comorin being mainland of India to Ceylon, called Adam's Bridge, which about 1000 miles, and the greatest width, measured from has only two navigable channels, not however deep enough the coast at the eastern extremity of Mysore to Madras, for the passage of large craft. The sea here, called the about 390 miles. The total extent of sea-coast is about Gulf of Manar, has on the coast to the north-west the lar1700 miles, without, however, any single really good har bour of Tuticorin. From Adam's Bridge to Point Calgıdere. bour. Exclusive of the native states, the area of the on the north of Palk's Strait, the shore has no bold Presidency is estimated at 138,318 square miles; including features. From Point Calymere the Coromandel entst these states it may be taken at 148,063 square miles. commences, and holds a direction due north across the

The principal features which give character to the por estuaries of the Cauvery, which inclose a delta having a tion of India embraced within the Presidency of Madras, base of 82 miles towards the sea, where are the ports of are the two mountain ranges which run through it on the Negapatam and Tranquebar; the Coromandel coast 600cast and on the west, viz. the Eastern and the Western tinues to hold a northerly direction for 297 miles further Ghats. The former rauge runs for some distance alınost to Gondegam, where the river Musi is considered to bound parallel with the eastern coast, the latter with the western. it to the northward, and retains the same character of Starting from the north, the Eastern Ghats, running with slight elevation and general sandy formation, with shalla the coast to about 50 miles north of Madras, sweep to the water along-shore. Blackwood Harbour is the only shelter south-west and eventually unite, in the vicinity of the throughout this distance for large ships; at all the other Neilgherries, with the Western Ghats, which extend to Cape ports along this coast ships must be anchored in the pa Comorin on the one side, and to the north-western ex-sea. From Gondegam the shore is termed the Golgon ia tremity of the Presidency on the other. These two great coast, holding a direction north-east for 270 miles to the ranges may be said to form-one on the south-west, the southern point of district Vizagapatam, and passing the other on the south-east-the buttresses or walls of the estuaries of the Kistna and Godavari. Here the coast is triangular table-land included between them, commonly so low that it is often inundated. Masalipatam, Cocanada called the Deccan. Though this table-land rises con- and Coringa are the most important maritime places op siderably towards the south, it has a general slope of sur- this coast, which terminates in lat. 17° 15'. The Ore face to the east and south-east, as indicated by the large coast commences at this point; bere the coast becomes banget streams flowing in that direction, and emptying themselves and rocky, and retains this character for about 230 miles into the Bay of Bengal. The low land lying between the to the north-eastern extremity of the Presidency. lte base of the Western Ghats and the sea is of less breadth eastern coast has a few extensive lakes. than that lying in the like situation with respect to the | The rivers of Southern India give but little assistance to Eastern Ghats, being in some places not more than 25, | inland communication, but by means of canals and excel and nowhere more than 50 miles in breadth. Compared | lent roads everywhere, this convenience is attained ; tbomen with the Western Ghats, the Eastern, south of the Goda- | are, besides, several lines of railway running through the vari River, are of tritling elevation, the mean height of the Presidency. The Madras Railway, 858 miles in length, an] chain being about 1500 feet, but attaining a higher elera- the Southern India Railway, 612 miles long, connect Hation as the range approaches southward, near Madras and dras with Bombay and the principal towns in the Derran. the junction with the other range in the vicinity of the , as well as with those in the west and south; Madras is

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s'te connected with Mysore and Pondicherry. Steamers | The mineral wealth of the Presidency is considerable. Radeo leave Madras regularly for almost every principal port | Gold is known to exist in the Wynad and Neilgherries, and the in India

attention of capitalists has been lately drawn to these anriFreon the physical features of the country the climate is | ferous tracts. Iron ore occurs in several parts in abundpensarils very varied. The arid plains of the east coast, ance, and extensive foundries have been established in rith the thermometer occasionally rising to 115° in the Beypur and South Arcot. Manganese exists in Mysore, sute, form, during a greater portion of the year, a striking the Neilgherries, and Bellary; antimony and silver, copper coatrast to the green valleys of Malabar and Kanara on the and lead ore in the districts of Madura, Cuddapah, Kurvest, where the maximum heat is below 90°. The moist- nool and Nellore, also in Mysore. Diamonds of moderate are brought up by the south-west monsoon being condensed value and garnets in abundance are met with in the Cuddaby the Western Ghats, the average rainfall between that pah, Kurnool, Godavari, and Vizagapatam districts, and me of hills and the western coast is over 120 inches, coal is found on the banks of the Godavari, near Chinnore. Da of which falls between the beginning of June and the The usual manufactures are sugar, indigo, pottery, carpets,

id August. A considerable portion of rain finds its hardware, cutlery, saddlery, cheroots, working in metals, way open the Gbats to the central districts, while even filigree, and basket work, and the weaving of silk and the districts on the eastern coast where river irrigation cotton cloths and coarse woollens. pressils, reap the benefit of this monsoon in the increased The administration of the Madras Presidency is vested plaze of water from the slopes of the Western Ghats. in a governor with a council of three members. For Twitb-east monsoon sets in about the end of September, administrative purposes the Presidency is divided into ud during its continuance the average rainfall does not twenty-one districts, each of which is placed under the end 30 incbes.Previous to the rains the country in charge of a collector and magistrate, all being subject the #3stern and central districts is everywhere parched, to the direct control of a board of revenue composed of

od te is endared with difficulty. Along the coasts the tbree members. In the district of the Neilgherries the m rezes, which set in shortly after noon almost through- principal administrative officer is termed the Commiseet tie pear, do much to moderate the temperature. The sioner of the Neilgherries. Each district is again subdivided

ind or undulating surface on the summits of the into taluks, the general superintendence of which is disIsteries and Palnis, having an elevation of from 5000 to tributed among the assistants to the collector, a special

fet, enjoys the mild climate of the finest part of the local revenue and magisterial head, called a tahsildar,

rate zone. The temperature on the Neilgherries varies being in charge of each taluk, and in larger taluks the ab es from north to south than from east to west. tahsildar being aided by one or more deputy-tahsildars Vets and heavy fogs are not unfrequent in the rainy and sub-magistrates. The administration of civil and n s. and the eastern side is less moist than the western. criminal justice is under the superintendence of a high rrethe end of October to May a sky clear and nearly court, assisted by district judges and subordinate judges; e *** is the rule; September and October are pretty the latter are usually natives. The population of Madras mar in the quantity of rain they bring. The climate at the census of 1881 was 31,281,177.

atly intloenced by the monsoons-periodical winds History. The history of the Madras Presidency forms ered by the unequal heating of the continent during an integral part of the history of India, and occupies Tuis seasons of the year-the regular alternation of many hundred pages of Mill and Wilson, Elphinstone,

bi renarkable, the transition from one to the other Grant Duff, and other standard works. ber ly marked by great atmospheric disturbance. The Malabar coast, with its wealth of spices and timber,

The chief staples of the Presidency are rice, maize, was the cradle of commerce. The “ peacocks” of king TH-u, mill-t, ragi, and the pulses among food grains; Solomon have a Tamil name in the original Hebrew; and

nerds, indigo, tobacco, sugar-cane, chillies, pepper, yams, the word by wbich rice is known in all European languages

stains, and betel-leaf among garden crops, and as a has also a Tamil derivation. Syrian Christians and Mohamgraal cup cotton has a large cultivation. The trees medans from Arabia have been settled on the western coast fakt zewn for their fruits are cocoa-nut, areca-nut, jack, of Madras from the earliest times, and their proselytes form sound, and mango. Cocoa-nut palms flourish most a large section of the population of Malabar and Travanminuts on the banks of the estuaries and back waters core; a colony of Jews, too, have resided in Cochin for

the western districts of Malabar and Kanara. The many centuries; and the first Portuguese adventurers ti & rabzable product of the Presidency is ship timber, | found their richest cargoes. baliz in the forests of Malabar, Kanara, and Travan Vasco da Gama, the pioneer of maritime adventure, cast er as well as in the forests of the Eastern Ghats, princi- | anchor off Calicut on 20th May, 1498. For a century the

teak, Sandal-wood, supplied to the Chinese market. | Portuguese retained in their control the commerce of India, webtained from the forests of Malabar and Coorg. especially along the western coast. The Dutch began to (*. Las been very extensively cultivated, and is now an establish themselves on the ruins of the Portuguese at the

ant crop. The principal coffee tracts of Southern beginning of the seventeenth century, and were quickly

wong the western coast, and coffee estates extend followed by the English, who opened places of business at a rir an unbroken line along the summits and slopes Calicut and Cranganore as early as 1616. Telicherri, a

2. Western Ghats, from the northern limits of Mysore | branch factory from Surat, in 1683 became the principal

T to Cape Comorin, in the Neilgherries, the Shervaroy and British emporium on the western coast of Madras, and h i and in several districts of the Presidency. Tea was permanently obtained by a cession of territory in 1708.

hata has not the same interest in Southern India as The Portuguese eventually retired to Goa, and the Dutch a cultivation, and there are few plantations except on to the Spice Islands. The first English settlement on the E b erries Tobacco is grown more or less throughout eastern coast was founded in 1620 at Masulipatam, even

i froky, with the exception of Malabar and the hill then celebrated for its fabrics. To the south, a factory, ILFs, but the chief localities of production are the alluvial the nucleus of the present city of Madras, was erected in

ze of the Godavari district, where is grown the well- 1639, permission having been first obtained from the Hindu bu Lanka tobacco (so named from the Lunkas or Rajah of Chandragiri. The site of Pondicherri was pure l s on which it is cultivated), and the Coimbatore chased by the French in 1672. For many years the Eng! Maura districts. Cinchona (quinine) is also grown lish and French traders lived peacefully side by side, rivals

Stinterries, and there are now six plantations for only in commerce, and with no ambition for territorial there was y cí this febrifuge.

aggrandizement. The war of the Austrian Succession in

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