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against the Illyrians, 359 B.C., and was succeeded by bis a family of Champagne, became chamberlain to Philip younger brother, the celebrated Philip. Philip was suc- the Fair (Philip IV.) and afterwards to John, king of ceeded by ALEXANDER THE GREAT. In the disturbances Bohemia, he who died at Crécy and gave our princes of which followed the death of Alexander the royal family Wales their three feathers and their motto Ich Dien. De was destroyed, and Cassander obtained at first the power, Machault returned to French service after Crécy, and was and eventually the title, of king of Macedon. Cassander also conuected with Pierre de Lusignan, king of Cyprus was succeeded by his son Philip, 296 B.C., who reigned two His works were very numerous, amounting to over 80,000 years; and on his death, in 294 B.C., his two younger lines, but until lately not much has been printed. There brothers, Antipater and Alexander, having quarrelled re- is a rhymed chronicle of the deeds of Lusignan, a long lore specting the succession, the throne was seized by Deme- | poem (* Voir dit "), and countless ballades and balladtrios, the son of Antigonos, who reigned seven years. He poems in the curiously high-wrought and artificial versiwas driven from his kingdom 287 B.C., by Pyrrhus, king fication of the period. Probably De Machaalt may be of Epirus, who was deposed, after a reign of seven months, | taken as the chief of this school. by Lysimachus, king of Thrace.

MACHIAVEL'LI, NICCOLO DI BERNARDO On the death of Lysimachos, 281 B.C., the country re- | DEI, was born at Florence in 1469, of an old though mained in a state of anarchy for many years, during the not wealthy family of that republic. When twenty-nine invasion of the Gauls from 280 to 278 B.C., and the con- years of age he was made secretary of the “ Ten," : tests between the numerous pretenders to the throne. board which had the management of war and forviga Eventually Antigonos (surnamed Gonatas), the son of affairs. His abilities and penetration being soon perDemetrios, was proclaimed king, but was dethroned by ceived by his superiors, he was successively employed on Pyrrhus, who again obtained the kingdom on his return many and some very important missions. In the year from Italy. After the death of Pyrrhus, Antigonos re- 1500 he was sent as a commissioner to the Florentide gained possession of the throne, which he retained till his camp before Pisa, and subsequently to Paris to condeath 239 B.C. The two following kings, Demetrios II. ciliate the king towards the Florentines. On both (239-229 B.C.) and Antigonos II. (229--220 B,C.), were occasions his labours were crowned with success. principally occupied in the Grecian wars which followed In 1502 he married; and in this same year Piers the formation of the Achæan League.

Soderini was elected gonfalonier for life, on the model of Philip V., who succeeded Amyntas, alarmed at the in- the Doge of Venice. Machiavelli was despatched as amcreasing power of the Romans, entered into an alliance bassador to the Duke of Valentinois, the formidable Cesare with Hannibal. On the conclusion of the war with Car- | Borgia (son of Pope Alexander VI.), who was then at thage he was unable to cope with the Roman power, and Imola in Romagna, to make professions of friendship an after continuing the contest for a few years, was obliged to the part of the Florentines. His account of this mismo sue for peace. Philip was succeeded by Perseus, 178 B.C., is extremely curious. Borgia's object was to obtain the who carried on war against the Romans, and was finally command of the Florentine forces; that of Machiavels conquered, 168 B.C. Macedonia was divided into four to refuse it without offending the tyrant. In 1303 the districts, which were considered independent, and governed Florentines sent Machiavelli to Rome, where he was pre by their own laws, and of which the capitals were respec- sent at the election of Julius II., and soon after witnessed tively-Amphipolis, Thessalonica, Pella, and Pelagonia. the fall of Cesare Borgia. In 1506 he carried through Macedonia was reduced to the form of a Roman province, a scheme for a kind of conscription over the whole of 142 B.C.

the territory subject to Florence; was appointed serreIt is very difficult to determine its boundaries at this tary of the commission, and spent about two years fortsdate. According to the “ Epitomizer” of Strabo (vii.), it ing this new militia. After visiting France, Rome, and was bounded by the Adriatic on the west; on the north by some other places, on various missions, Machiavelli wis the mountains of Scardus, Orbelus, Rhodope, and Hæmus; sent in 1507 to the Emperor Maximilian in Germany, on the south by the Via Egnatia; and on the east it es On his return he wrote several reports on the affairs of tended as far as Cypsela and the inouth of the Hebrus. Gerinany:--" Rapporto sulle Cose di Lainagna;" * DisThe term Macedonia is still applied to the southern por corso sopra le Cose dell' Alemagna ;" * Ritratti di tion of Rumelia and part of Selanik, or Saloniki.

Magna," &c. Machiavelli was sent to France, and returned MACERATA, a city of Italy and capital of a province to Florence in September, 1510, having consolidated the of the same name, stands on a hill in a fiue country watered alliance of Florence with France in one of the most imby the Chienti, and is a well-built town, inclosed by walls, portant of his twenty-two missions. with 20,000 inhabitants, several churches and convents When in 1512 the Medici possessed themselves of with good paintings, a cathedral, theatre, college, and a Florence, Machiavelli, with others of the popular governuniversity with a library containing 20,000 volumes, a ment, was banished, and subsequently imprisoned and handsome town-house, and several fine private palaces, | put to the torture on suspicion of being implicated in 1 among which the Palazzo Compagnoni is the most remark conspiracy against the Medici. He persisted in declarins able. Macerata is a bishop's see. It carries on a con himself innocent, and was released by the interventia siderable trade in corn, silk, and cattle.

of Leo X. He then withdrew from public life to a small MACERATION is the steeping of substances in cold | farm of his own near San Casciano, and wrote his discourses liquids, either merely to soften the parts of the substance upon Livy, his books on the art of war, and bis “Prince." operated on, or to dissolve the aromatic parts of a sub- | This is the world-famous book which has done more to stance when digestion would not merely dissolve but blacken the character of Machiavelli than all his arts dissipate them.

and other writings put together. He finished it and MAC-FLECK'NOE. See SHADWELL.

dedicated it to Lorenzo, duke of Urbino, as early 28 MACGIL'LYCUDDY REEKS, the highest moun- | 1513; it was not published, according to the best evitain ridge in Ireland, extending N.W. to S.E. for 10 miles dence, till 1532, after the author's death. Viewed disthrough the county of Kerry. Carran-Tual, or Gurrane- passionately and as what it professes itself to be, it is Tual, the highest peak, is 3414 feet above the sea-level. ' a manual of policy for the sorereign of a newly-acquired It is composed of Silurian slate with fossils.

territory desiroas of settling and extending his power. MACHAULT, GUILLAUME DE, one of the most It tells him, from the experience of past history, bow famous of the mediæval French poets, was born in 1284, this can be most surely done, and asserts, without and died soon after 1375. He was of noble birth, of subterfuge and without revulsion of feeling, that the sarest



w ebod is one which cannot fail of

inciple. It cites Cesare Borgia
rapeets, of successful

ods to identifying the interests
of the country. It is certai
is properly to be viewed rather

e upon other than moral da

incrality. By some his prin
2 tbe most pernicious maxim
The nest policy, and by others a
standing the prejudice er
Machiavelli himself said, 1
be also taught the people

L 1519 the Medici
Estarbed state of Floreng
as to what form of constit
Machiavelli was applied
reper the " Discorsa sopra
L 1520 he wrote a mi
commentary on the " Pri
st began, by command o
(siterwards Pope Clement
esked at this six years,
Eusbed to Pope Clemen
when he died in 1527. In
no dramatic work, and al
Latin, &c., be produced

Vaadragola" (1524), sa par in the whole lang Das

revolting, in plot. In fact os wilfully or naturally

bis writings, though I 1m of decent life and tas say, with his defende entially pagan times o

hich cannot fail oftentimes to violate moral | (in his Livy and elsewhere) to teach at least some of les Cesare Borgia as an example, in some the virtues of paganism, and correct the mere imitation accessful policy. On the whole the book of its vices which prevailed, and left aside the teaching sing the interests of the prince with those of the higher morality which his life and sacrifices show

It is certainly not a moral book; but him to have been conscious of, as being incompatible e viewed rather as a disquisition proceed with the ordinary manners of the period. Yet the

than moral data, than as a preaching of principle underlying his whole works, that the end justifies of some his principles have been stigmatized the means, is, and in its nature must be, deeply immoral. pernicious maxims of government, founded on Machiavelli never says that it is or is not so, he only

and by others as sound doctrines, notwith asserts that such and such conduct will lead to power, e prejudice erroneously raised against him. and that a strong central power will liberate the faction

unself said, if he taught princes to be tyrants torn Italy. In this respect be is one of the most fascinatIt the people to destroy tyrants.

ing studies history has ever presented to the psychologist. e Medici Pope (Leo X.) was uneasy at the His novel "Belfagor” (printed with the “Prince" in a of Florence, and consulted the leading men translation, is one of the volumes of Morley's Shilling of constitution would best settle the state. Library, 1884) is more pleasing than his play in plot,

applied to with the rest, and wrote in and equally fine in its writing. In 1526 Machiavelli orsa sopra il Riformar lo Stato di Firenze." had to report to Pope Clement on the fortifications of

e a military treatise and a sort of by- Florence, and with this view he visited Guicciardini, the the “ Prince," the “Life of Castruccio;" | Pope's commissary of war, a visit renewed in 1527. Thus

mand of the Cardinal Giulio de' Medici the two greatest historians of Italy passed some time Clement VII.), a history of Florence. He together. Unhappily no record of their conversations 1 years, and dedicated the portion then was kept by either. After his return to Florence in 1527 Sement. He was still at work on it Machiavelli fell suddenly ill, and in two days died. He 27; In these last years he also turned is buried in the Westminster Abbey of Italy, the church nd after a few translations from the of the Santa Croce at Florence, and the proud inscrip

ced his remarkable original drama, tion has been accorded him by an admiring posterity, !), surely the finest and most powerful | Tanto nomini nullum par elogium (No praise is worthy anguage, though most unpleasing, if | enough for so great a name).

In fact Machiavelli seems to have the best translation of Machiavelli's works, four rally blind to the moral side of life volumes, is by Detmold (Boston and London, 1882). The gh himself an ardent patriot and a authoritative book on Machiavelli himself is “Niccolò

d of generous impulses. Or we Machiavelli and his Times," four volumes, by Professor enders, that finding himself in the Villari (translated, London, 1884).

of the Repaissance, he set to work MACHICOLA'TION, a term applied to those open

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mediately observed in those simple machines called the MAC'KEREL (Scomber) is a genus of fishes belonging MECHANICAL POWERS.

to the order Acanthopterygii, and forming the type of the The whole work done by a machine is distinguished family Scombridæ. In the genus Soomber the body is into useful work and wasteful work, according as it is covered with small smooth scales; the dorsal fins are done in overcoming useful and wasteful resistance. For widely separated ; the hinder part of the second dorsal, as example, in a pumping engine, the work done in raising well as of the anal fin, is divided into numerous small the water is useful, and that done in overcoming friction spurious fins or finlets, which extend along the birdet wasteful. The ratio of the useful work to the whole work part of the body, above and beneath, almost to the tail; is called the efficiency of the machine, and is always a the sides of the tail are keeled, and the body is elongated fraction less than unity.

and tapering at both extremities. There are a row of MACHINE, ELECTRICAL. See ELECTRICITY. small conical teeth in each jaw.

MACHINE-HEAD, a contrivance for assisting the The Common Mackerel (Scomber scomler) is one of the tuning of the contrabasso (double bass), guitar, &c. The best known and most useful of the fishes caught off Engordinary violin-pegs are discarded in favour of a metal lish coasts. The mackerel is found on all the European frame containing as many rack-and-pinion arrangements coasts, and is probably identical with the common North as there are strings to be tuned. The greater leverage and American species. It swims through the ocean in rast security give the requisite ease and stability to the tuning. shoals, coming into shallow water to spawn. The spawn

MACHINES, CALCULATING. See CALCULATING ing time in the South of England is about June. The MACHINES.

mackerel is usually about 14 or 15 inches in length and MACHINES, SIMPLE, another name for MECHANI- | 2 lbs. in weight, but a length of 20 inches is sometimes CAL POWERS.

attained. The mackerel, as is well known, is beautifully MACINTOSH CLOTH (so called from the inventor) marked; the back is fine green varied with blue, and is a singular but very useful manufacture, consisting of marked with about thirty broad, undulating, descending two layers of fine cotton, cemented with a solution of bands of a blackish colour; the sides and belly are silvery, caoutchouc in coal naphtha, or liquid india-rubber, and varied with golden tints. The mackerel is extremely so completely conjoined as to appear one material. The voracious and feeds on the fry of other fishes. As an cotton pieces, thus coated with the liquid, are passed article of food it is much esteemed. The flesh, bowever, between two smooth wooden rollers, and so thoroughly soon becomes unfit for food, if not eaten quite fresh; and pressed as to be made to unite permanently and durably. accordingly we find that mackerel were first allowed to be Cloth thus prepared, when perfectly dried, may be cut and cried through the streets of London on Sundays in 169X. made into garments which will bear the roughest wear, Mackerel are caught in various ways, either by the driftand be impervious to the most soaking rains. For travelling net or by the seine. [See FISHERIES.] They may also overcoats they are of great service.

be taken with the hook. MACKINTOSH, SIR JAMES, historian, statesman, The Spanish Mackerel (Scomber colias) occurs in the critic, and philosophier, was born at Aldourie, on the banks Mediterranean and occasionally on the Cornish cast. It of Loch Ness, 24th October, 1765. He received his educa- | is about the same size as the common species, but differs tion at the universities of Aberdeen and Edinburgh, came in the longer snout, larger eye and gape, and longer bend. to London, and was called to the bar in 1795. In 1804 The back is marked more obscurely and with fewer stripes he went to India as recorder of Bombay. He returned to and the sides and belly are thickly covered with small England in 1812; in 1818 he was appointed to the pro- dusky spots. This species also differs from the commun fessorship of law and general politics in the college instituted mackerel in the possession of an air-bladder. It is inscrire for the education of the civil servants of the East India for the table. Several other species of mackerel are found Company at Haileybury. In 1830, when the Whigs came in temperate and tropical seas. into office, Sir James was appointed a commissioner for the In the Plate prefixed to this volume the Conmia affairs of India. He died 30th May, 1832.

Mackerel (Scomber scomber, fig. 1) is figured together Sir James' principal works are his “Vindiciæ Gallica;" | with some nearly allied fishes. The Sucking-fish or Rehis “ History of England" (which he left unfinished at mora (Echeneis remora, fig. 2) is a remarkable form his death); his “Dissertation on the Progress of Ethical belonging to the Scombridx, which also contains the tonny, Philosophy," prefixed to the Encyclopadia Britannica in bonito, and pilot-fish. The John Dory (Zeus faber, t3.3) 1830 and in subsequent editions; and his “Life of Sir belongs to the family Cyttidæ, which for some forms & Thomas More.” As a philosopher Mackintosh does not subfamily of Scoinbridæ. The fish figured in fig. 4 beshow much originality. He adopts the doctrines of the longs to the genus Brama, one of the Coryphænidre, which Scottish school, with certain additions as to ethical theory is also sometimes ranked as a subfamily of Scombride. from Hartley. His chief difference from the latter is his MACLEOD, NORMAN, D.D., one of the chiriecclesiclaim of the will as a necessary condition preceding moralastics of the Church of Scotland in modern times. 24 sentiments, so that the conscience of each man results from born at Campbeltown, 3rd June, 1812. His early youth his individual training in society. He admits that the was passed partly in that Highland parish which be after. tendency to happiness is the mainspring of the excellence wards made famous by his lively sketches of his grandisther's of virtue; but he declines to take resultant happiness as a manse, partly at the universities of Glasgow and Edinburg criterion of virtue, as do the utilitarians.

and afterwards of Germany. In 1838 he was onland MACKENZIE, the name of a large river in British minister of Loudon, in Ayrshire, whence he was transand North America, rising in the Great Slave Lake, and running to Dalkeith. There he resided till 1851, when he was prein a north-westerly direction, enters the Atlantic by several sented to the Barony parisli in Glasgow, of which the (08mouths, about 68° 50 N. lat. Forts Simpson, Norman, gregation originally worshipped in the crypt of the citie and Good Hope are on its banks. The Mackenzie is esti- dral, as described in “ Rob Roy," and in later times in the mated to be 870 miles long, though from the source large but ungainly church in its neighbourhool. Here the of the Slave River, the principal feeder of the Slave Lake, remainder of his life was passed, engaged in the latrias to the ocean is over 1770 iniles. An extensive deposit of duties of pastoral ministrations and literary work la lignite accompanies its course and its estuary westward. 1860 he became editor of Good I'ords, which under his It takes its name from its discoverer, Alexander Mackenzie, / management obtained an unprecedentedly large circulation. by whom it was first navigated in 1789. Its navigation He also edited · The Home Preacher, or Church in the is closed by ice from October to June.

House," a collection of religious services for family use,

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wtich has also had a very wide circulation. In 1858 he | £10,000. Subsequently M'Clure served in the East Indies

3s appointed one of her Majesty's chaplains, and was and China, and died at Portsmonth, 18th October, 1873. kid in the highest personal esteem both by the queen and MACON (the Matisco of Julius Cæsar), the capital tee other members of the royal family. In 1867 he of the French department of Saône-et-Loire, is situated on tedertook an arduous journey to India to examine into the right bank of the Saône, 40 miles north from Lyons, the state of the Scottish missions in that country. It on the Paris-Lyons Railway, and had 17,444 inhabitants in was this journey which gave the first shock to his great | 1881. The town stands on the slope and at the foot of a Lateral strength, but he still maintained with undaunted hill above the Saône, along the bank of which is a noble ciri: bis incessant labours. In the General Assembly, in quay, from which the distant Alps may be seen. The chief IN?, held only a very short time before his death, he public buildings are—the cathedral, old episcopal palace, deyered what seemed to those who heard it the finest of hôtel de ville; national college, and normal school; the

bis speeches. It was on the occasion-forced upon town-hall, which contains a theatre and public library ; him by his failing health-of giving up the charge of the general hospital, on the parade; the Church of St. the lodiin missions in which he had taken so deep an Vincent; and the prison. Among the Roman antiquities trist. The effort was too much for him, and he died are a triumphal arch and the ruins of a temple of Janus. luth June, 1872.

The inhabitants carry on a considerable trade in the wines For thirty years prior to his death no other man in of the district, corn, cattle, &c. There are manufactures Sertid had, in all spiritual ministrations, so nearly filled of blankets, leather, earthenware, watches, and jewelry. t's place of Chalmers; no other man occupied so high and It was the birthplace of Lamartine. Ertant a position in guiding the ecclesiastical movements MACPHER'SON, JAMES, celebrated for having As cuntry since the death of Robertson-it might given to the world the “Ossianic" poems, was born at Ruth

bbst be said since the death of Carstairs. Everywhere, ven, Inverness, in 1738. He studied at King's College, as ther in private or public life, he produced the same Aberdeen, and afterwards became parish schoolmaster at rad, raat, heart-stirring impression, as of one who not Ruthven. In 1758 he published an indifferent poem,

y bad within him an inexhaustible fond of pathos, of entitled the “ Highlanders," followed by two others, vit, of tears, and of langhter, but who feared not, nay, “Death” and the ** Hunter," neither of which possessed

red to poor it forth for the enjoyment and instruc- | any real poetic merit. In 1759 he became tutor to Mr. ced his fellow-men. But with his effusive tenderness Graham, the younger, of Balgowan, afterwards Lord Lynewere combined a force and a shrewdness characteristic of doch, and in the summer of that year, while visiting u kot and nation. (" Memoir of Norman Macleod, D.D., Moffat with his pupil, he met John Home, the author menter of Baronv Church, Glasgow;" by his brother, the of “ Douglas,” to whom he exhibited some "translations” La Dould Macleod, B.A.: London, 1876.)

from ancient poems in the Gaelic language. These made MA CLES (Gr. machē, a contest), in mineralogy, are a great impression upon Home, who submitted them to the

crystals which have undergone hemitropism, the two judgment of the literary circles of Edinburgh, and in 1760 2.1.14 bearing a reversed position to each other. Interest-| they were published under the title of "Fragments of

Lauples of this combination are found in the arrow Ancient Poetry collected in the Highlands of Scotland, uns of gypsum, and in the Carlsbad type of twin translated into English," an anonymous preface being

of orthoclase. Macle is also an alternative name for contributed by Dr. Blair. These were so much relished in I'MIASTOLITE; in this case the name is derived from Lat. | Edinburgh that the Faculty of Advocates raised a subscrip

tion to enable Macpherson to make a tour in the Highlands MACLISE, DANIEL (1811-70), an artist of great for the purpose of collecting some more of these Celtic re

ca in his own time, was of Irish birth. His strong mains. During this tour he fonnd, according to his own it was design, especially of decorative historical subjects; account, an abundance of Ossianic poetry, not only on the E r feeling and in colour, and in poetical insight, he lips and in the memories of the people, but also preserved 13:2*wiy strugely imperfect. Yet his “Hamlet” | in ancient MSS.; and in 1762 he published “ Fingal," an Nyrt.al Gallery), his "Meeting of Wellington and epic poem in six books, and in 1763 “Temora,” an epic

?and " Death of Nelson" (frescos of the Houses | poem in eight books, professing to be translations from Pirot) are noble works. As might be expected, the Gaelic of Ossian-a Celtic Homer of the fourth century. Lise's works are eminently suitable as subjects for A storin of controversy soon arose concerning the genuine*

The three named are among the most popular ness of these poems, Dr. Johnson being one of the foremost C m sfal of the better engravings of our time.

of those who declared the poems to be forgeries and the comX CLURE, SIR ROBERT JOHN LE ME position of Macpherson himself. It is probable that he STRIER, the discoverer of the North-west Passage, was found in oral tradition the basis of the poems he produced, * Herford, Ireland, 28th January, 1807. He served | but in the form in which he presented them they were - de Arctic expedition of 1836, on the Canadian lakes, unquestionably spurious, since the interpolated matter

2. tbe American and West Indian coasts till 1846, manifestly outweighed and falsified the genuine fragments. T y ree to the rank of first-lieutenant (1838), joined These publications, however, served greatly to advanco

r. Biss in the search for Sir John Franklin (1848), his own fortune, for in 1764 he was appointed surveyorcalls return was made commander. In 1850 he was general of the Floridas with a salary for life, and in 1779

ual to the Inrestigator, and again despatched in he became agent to the Nabob of Arcot. He represented - Franklin. The expedition, entering Behring Camelford in the House of Commons from 1780 to 1790.

- mc 117° 10' W. lon., and 73° 10' N. lat., 30 and then retired to an estate which he had purchased in - frien Melville Strait (16th September, 1851), but his native country. He died on his estate 17th February, T* Xe tired in the ice. A sledge party sighted the 1796, and his body was, in accordance with his own direc1. Persage on the 22nd October. After a vain tions, and at the expense of his estate, interred in West* to press forward, the Investigator sailed round minster Abbey. *** -d of Banks' Land for 30 miles, and was again MACQUARIE, a river of New South Wales, called by

by se In an inlet which they called Mercy Bay, the natives Wambool, is formed by the junction of the

were imprisoned till April, 1834, when they were Fish and Campbell rivers, in the counties of Bathurst and * * Captain Kellett, who convered them to England. Westmoreland, and flows X.W. to 30° 45' S. lat., 145° 20'

>tde post-captain, and received a knighthood, E. lon., where it loses itself in the Macquarie marshes, from 2 the oti.cers and crew were rewarded by a grant of whence issue tributaries of the river Darling. In some MACRAUCHENIA.



places it is deep, broad, and navigable, in others rapid and article Latin LITERATURE. The best editions are those obstructed by falls ; its total course is about 230 miles. of Gronovius (Louvain, 1670) and Zeunius (Leipzig, 1774.

MACRAUCHE'NIA is a genus of fossil ungulate MACROU'RA or MACRU'RA, the scientific nate animals referable to the order Perissodactyla, and nearly for that section of decapod crustaceans which bare the allied to the existing horse and rhinoceros. This genus abdomen, usually called the tail, long, in contradistinctica is founded on remains discovered in Pliocene or Pleistocene to that section (Brachyura) which have the tail sbort. deposits in South America. Macrauchenia was probably Lobsters, crayfishes, shrimps, and prawns belong to this as large as a rhinoceros. The feet have three toes. The section. general form of the skull resembles that of the horse. MAC'TRA is a genus of inolluscs belonging to the The dentition is expressed by the formula :

siphoniate division of the class LAMELLIBRANCHLATA, , 3-3 1-1 5-5 3-3

forming the type of the family Mactridæ, or kneading1. 3-3; c. mi pm. ; " 4-4' "" 3-3

trough shells. The Mactridæ are found in all seas, thoazh

they occur in greatest abundance in those of the tropics, The incisors, as in the Equidæ, have a deep pit in the to a depth of above 30 fathoms. The species of the crown, and the molars resemble in character partly those genus Mactra inhabit sandy coasts, burrowing just bepeath of the rhinoceros, and partly those of the horse. The the surface, and even leaping like the cockles. They form vertebræ of the long neck are very similar to those of the the food of starfishes and whelks, and in the Isle of Arras Camelidæ, and especially of the llamas; as in these, they are collected to feed pigs. The animal has its mantie have no canal for the vertebral artery in their transverse partially open, the siphons united and their orifices fringed, processes.

and the foot large, tongue-shaped, and heeled. The shkent MACREADY, WILLIAM CHARLES, actor and is somewhat triangular and the valves are equal. Ofte manager, was born in London on 3rd March, 1793. He genus Mactra 125 species have been described, world-ri was intended by his father, a provincial manager, for one in their distribution. The fossil species are few, dalias of the learned professions, and was educated at Rugby. from the Lias. As in the case of Fanny Kemble, filial duty led Mac M'CUL'LOCH, JOHN RAMSAY, an eminent puitready to go upon the stage in the hope of diminishing a cal economist and statistician, was born 1st March, 1779.4 fat pecuniary embarrassments. His first appearance Whithorn, in Wigtownshire. In 1817 be became a cuatro was as Romeo at the Birmingham theatre in the June of butor to the Scotsman, and during 1818 and 1819 anird es 1810. Successful at the outset, after a provincial career | editor. From the knowledge of political economy displayed of six years, he appeared for the first time before a metro in his writings in this newspaper, and his contribu: 2005 politan audience at Covent Garden, on the 16th of Sep- the Edinburgh Review, he was twice selected to deliver tember, 1816, as Orestes in the “ Distressed Mother." | the Ricardo lectures in London, and in 1828 he was so After eleven more years of labour he had come to be con | pointed professor of political economy in the University sidered the first English tragedian of his age, uniting the London. In 1838 he received the appointment of 16fire of the elder Kean to the dignity and good taste of troller of the stationery office, a position which he retao John Kemble, with a refined scholarship especially his until his death, 11th November, 1864. Although beru own. In October, 1837, he became lessee of Covent not an original thinker on political economy, he reoke Garden, and added to his own noble personations a splen good service in the work of diffusing just ideas concer dour and accuracy in the mise-en-scène till then unknown many of the questions which agitated the public wind on the British stage. It was to aid Macready's efforts He was a voluminous writer, his most important for the elevation of theatrical entertainments that his being the “Dictionary of Commerce" (1834); the "Stati friend, Lord Lytton, wrote for him at this period “ Riche tical Account of the British Empire" (1837); and lieu" and the " Lady of Lyons ;” and as the great French "Literature of Political Economy" (1845), a very ez cardinal of the former drama, he achieved one of his most contribution to the bibliography and biography o * striking histrionic triumphs. His enterprise was not finan favourite science. His editions of Smith and Ricard, cially successful. At the close of the second season he also of high value. retired from it, and a testimonial was presented to him in MAD PARLIAMENT, THE, a nickname giren recognition of his efforts. In a similar spirit, and with a the king's party to the Parliament which met at vi er similar result, he undertook in 1812 the management of under Henry III., in 1258, and passed the antiDrury Lane for two seasons. On 26th February, 1851, he “Provisions of Oxford," inaugurating a coinmitte : took leave of the stage; and the farewell banquet after forin, and insisting upon a return to the strict ober wards given to him exhibited the high regard felt for the of MAGNA CARTA. On appeal of both parties to Sul actor, the manager, and the man. In 1849 he published of France (Louis IX.) this committee was, however, an edition of the poetical works of Pope, originally pre banded. pared and privately printed for the use of his own children, MADAGASCAR (called by the natives Madrid to whom it is inscribed. After his retirement from public | a large island in the Indian Sea, about 240 miles in life Macready took up his residence first at Sherborne, coast of Mozambique, on the eastern shores of Art in Dorsetshire, and subsequently at Cheltenham, where he tends from 12° to 25° 36' S. lat., and between 44 died, 27th April, 1873. (Macready's Reminiscences, and 51' E. lon. Its length is 1030 miles; its greatest Selections from his Diaries and Letters," London, 1875.) | 350 miles. The area is estimated at about a

MACRI'NUS (M. Opilius Severus Macrinus), Roman square miles, and the population at 2,500,000 Emperor from 217 to 218, succeeded Caracalla, whom be Malagasy are unquestionably a Malay people, un murdered. He was in his turn murdered by the rebel Malay customs, some of them possessing Malarer Elagabalus, after a reign of but fourteen months.

hair and features, and all of them speaking a Malar! MACROBIO'TUS. See WATER-BEAR,

They are divided into numerous tribes, the chief of MACROB'IUS (Ambrosius Aurelius Theodosius Mac- are the Horas, the ruling class; the Betsimisarakar, ki robius), author of critical and literary works in Latin, under Sakalavas. It is generally believed that there has been Honorius and Theodosius, was probably by origin a Greek, infusion of African blood, more especially among the as his name (doubtless Makrobios) would imply. His best alara on the north-west coast. Among the inhabitantes work is a series of dialogties on the Platonic model, called is almost every shade of colour, from a very light* Saturnalia." It is in this work that the touching episode darker than may be seen in Southern Europe, die of Laberius and Cæsar is recounted, referred to in the very dark tint. Long, black, and straight hair is on

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