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MOHAMMED.

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and to pay the alms tax to his appointed officers. In / religion. In more recent years the life of Mohammed a return the new members became united to a strong and the work he accoinplished have been made the subti? growing confederation, they saved themselves from con- | careful investigations by modern scholars, who have to version at the point of the sword, and they became par- gone direct to the original sources of information, and I ticipants in the booty gained in the wars against un- their labours we are now enabled to form a clearer pättre believers. In the ninth year A.H., having heard that the of the man, of his environment, and methods of working Emperor Heraklios was preparing a vast force to attack than was possible before. It is now universally admin the Moslems, he set out to meet him at the head of that when he commenced his career he was a sincere lien 30,000 men; but there was no truth in the report, and liever in his own call and inission, and the first-writter the expedition got no further than Tabuk, on the borders suras of the Koran are just such servid rhetorical man of the ancient Edom. In the year A.H. 10 he perforined as we should expect under the circumstances in w a grand triumphal pilgrimage to Mecca, where he solemnly they were conceived. That to the end he remained i went through the prescribed ceremonies, and frequently vinced of the grandeur and necessity of the sound preached to the people, urging them to be faithful to points of his teaching is also certain, but many schen what he had taught them. On his return to Medina he still refuse to believe that he was consciously seer busied himself with the preparation of an expedition throughout his career. The results of his own deb against Syria, but in the midst of these labours he found ations, the counsels of his advisers, all sorts of remai death was at band. As long as his sickness permitted he tions, permanent and temporary, inatters having In continued to take part in the public prayers in the mosque, local and personal reference, &c., are set down as and on one or two occasions fervently addressed the con revelation of God and portions of his prophetic mesa gregation assembled. Towards the end bis mind wandered At the outset of his career he was content to preart.. a little. He died about noon on the 12th of the third month, to endeavour to persuade, but when his messas 85 in the year 11 of the Hegira, or on 8th June, 632 A.D. spised he vehemently cursed and threatened. In the 111

With regard to his personal appearance he is described sura of the Koran one of his curses, directed acuest ka by his contemporaries as being of middle height, rather uncle, Abu Lahab, who was one of his earliest opports lean, but broad-shouldered and physically strong; he had is preserved, and in several of the earlier suras he timate: for an Arab a fair skin, but his bushy hair, long beard, those who disbelieve with the terrible pains of bell it. and eyebrows were coal black in colour; his nose was large | The same spirit, under other circumstances, led him to 1 and slightly bent; his eyes bright and piercing, and his the sword as the most ready means of electing convenie countenance pleasant and prepossessing. He was a man and that he could be cruel and revengeful the executive of an extremely nervous temperament, always walked "as the 600 Jews at Medina is sufficient evidence. At the La if descending a mountain," was liable to sudden blazes of time he could pardon freely and generously. Maar er.tes anger, during which a vein on his temple would swell up have compared him with some of the fiery heroes of tb and look black, and though courageous in the face of op- | Old Testament. In him men of unbiassed minds are CDposition and danger, he had a great dread of physical pain. pelled to recognize a truly great man, and a religious Like most of his countrymen he was passionately fond of political reformer of vast aims and lofts aspirations de perfumes. In his habits he was abstemious and frugal, to a large and possibly increasing number be is mucb and to the end of his life he maintained the original sim- than this, and ranks among the seers whose divine mai. plicity and poverty of his establishment. Although during have blessed mankind. The fanatical can only see i the closing years of his life he had abundant wealth at his either the chosen prophet of God, or the chief of irc posit command, he was content to use it for national and chari- according to the bent of their fanaticism. table purposes, and continued to mend his shoes and patch For an account of the Korax see under that headi: his clothes as he had done in the days of his youth. To a consideration of the Mohammedan system will be feci the last also he maintained the habits of fasting and under MouAMMEDANISM. See also Sir W. Muir's - Mrprayer with which he had commenced his prophetic career. | bomet” (London, second edition, 1877); Springer's“)! ** In one respect, however, he certainly used his position as hainmed" (Berlin, 1861-65); Ameer Ali's * M.LAI! a prophet to ininister to his sensuality, and though he (London, 1873); the lectures at the Royal Institution limited his followers to four wives, he claimed and prac- | 1874 by R. B. Smith on “ Mohammed and H D tised unrestricted license for himself. During the life of medanism" (new edition, 1877); and - Matromet 13. Khadijah he remained content with one wife; but two Islam," by Sir W. Muir, published in 1884. months after her death he married Sanda, a widow; soon MOHAM'MEDAN ARCHITECTURE. THE after his arrival at Medina he married also Ayesha, the development of this style is in the beautiful *18198 daughter of his friend Abu Bekr, and he added from time ARCHITECTURE; but in general the necessities of to time to their number, so that at his death he left nine service of the mosque, calling for a large cotrai in wives and a concubine named Mary who had borne him suggest a domed and pillared structure. In balia lu' a son.

mosques have rarely hemispherical domes, as in Luna With respect to the character of Mohammed many Turkey, but bulbous structures, some larger than the different estimates have been formed by European his- of St. Paul's, overswell their bases, which are ut? **** torians. The earlier writers, starting from the assumption by battleinents on a circular or on a square gruutu-pl* that he was a conscious impostor, and possibly the anti- | The great gate is usually flanked by walls pierced wit" christ of the New Testament, seek to blacken his character arches, and is itself contained by a considerable projet in every way, and refer to him as a "wicked impostor," | tower-like structure. The gateway rises within this fariki * dastardly liar," " devil incarnate," &c. Sale, in his in- | to a great height, and terminates in a Mourish anh.." troduction to the Koran, departed from the custom of his keel arch. This gate gives access to an arcant couri, predecessors and ventured to describe Mohammed as being, reminding one of monkish cloisters, but with a rast doftconsidering his training and surroundings, “a man of at ence at the same time, and on the further side of the cars least tolerable morals, and not such a monster of wicked- the sanctuary is situated. ness as he is usually represented." Voltaire and Gibbon, In Europe the Ottoman Turks found the alreads (1998while they had no belief in his sincerity, did justice to his ing Byzantine architecture so much to their taste ! *** great powers as a leader and founder of a religion; but it suited to their needs, as well as proriding tben 103 was left for Carlyle to represent him as essentially great materials in plenty whenever they chose to mula *** and heroic, a man of loîty aims, and a great teacher of pleasure of demolition, that the bemispherical dotne, la

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fe later walls with small windows, the bald and plain themselves to their new conditions. Idolatry only was enterir, the richly-pillared and large open spaces of the marked out for destruction by the Arabs, and Christians werir, in the mosques of Constantinople, would irresistibly and Jews were allowed to retain their respective religions, rauall the basilican type were it not for the gay colouring upon the payment of a poll tax graduated according to

i te decorative use of Arabic inscriptions, and for the their means, and were confirmed in the possession of their Dolce of sculpture and, indeed, of all imitative natural lands, though they had to pay a rent to the state varving

mrs. The slender minarets are, of course, indispensable in its extent according to the character and fertility of the ali Lilly characteristic features of the Mohainmedan soil. In addition it must be remembered that the Arabs

Yk. The ornamentation is based principally on the had for many generations been a warlike people, skilled in normatijn of Hat surfaces, and though straight lines are the use of weapons, and eager for renown as warriors. At 1 used in the arabesque designs for tiling or paint- the time of Mohammed they had learned to fight as infantry, have they are never employed at right angles, while the as cavalry, and mounted on camels. For defensive arms they as as used are in like manner never allowed to form wore the helmet and coat of mail with a cuirass of leather *** spaces nor to sugvest the circle or any other definite covered with plates of metal, and all ranks were skilled in

red figure. The whole feeling of Mohammedan archi- the use of the shield. The infantry were armed with * Butt and decoration tends, in fact, to the avoidance of spears and swords, and many of them were also expert sarsuste and rigid designs; flowing constructions, capri bowmen; the cavalry fought chiefly with the lance. So

and ingenious inventions, and brilliant contrasts long as they had remained the prey of internecine warfare Win and colour (as in the stalactite vaulting of the among themselves, they had been no menace to their neighAs nora, &c.) are its ideals. While versatility is thus bours, but now, united in a common faith and common

Lord, solidity and unity of design are too often sacrificed. brotherhood, they proved most formidable adversaries.

As for any secular style (except in some of the ancient Previous to the time of Omar the tribes had devoted a plers of India, which copy the mosque-style), Moham portion of their time to the care of their cattle and the pass Lave none. Their palaces and buildings of the cultivation of the soil, and had inade war in their intervals prest day are hideous copies of the worst Western styles. of leisure, a state of things resembling that which existed in A . Yet there were finely characteristic old Memluk houses Syria at the period referred to in 2 Sam. xi. 1, where we read, a: Cairo, with wooden lattices, which offered the first “And it came to pass at the return of the year, at the time ustrial for a native architecture. As a part of the general when hings go out to battle," but by Omar arrangements

10 slagnation these models have been allowed to pass were made for the maintenance of standing armies. This ated, and they are now being plundered for the benefit step he was enabled to take by the vast revenues which Este appreciative Western purchasers, who carry them were poured into the coffers of the Moslem exchequer from & pereal.

the poll and land taxes paid by the Christians and Jews, the MOHAM MEDANISM. In the article MOHAMMED alms tax, paid by Moslems, and the fifth share of all the F bxve described the union which was effected among plunder taken in war, which was set apart as the portion ** Arab tribes by the Prophet, and the impulse which of the calipb. During the early years of the caliphate, te arw fa.th, aided by fanaticism and the love of plun the proceeds of the plunder taken were so immense that the Cer, gave to the spirit of conquest among them. The whole Arab nation was subsidized, and as the warriors reeatif the Prophet seemed for a short time to threaten turned laden with spoil and attended by captured slaves, their : break up of Islam, and the first work that Abu Bekr, comrades who had remained at home were fired with amIndiate successor, had to undertake was the bringing bition to gain similar prizes, and eagerly took up arms to to their allegiance a number of the tribes who had join in the wars. In spite of their habits of irreligion also,

d. In this he was soon successful, his armies every- the vast success of the new faith must have made an immense *Te grercame the resistance offered, and those who | impression upon them, and as the delights of Paradise were Cred to subunit and return to Islam were put to death assured to every true believer who died in battle against Vienot mercy. The conquerors were thus enabled to turn the infidel, they fought with a reckless courage that spread **ws against the surrounding countries, their expedi- terror in the hearts of their opponents. The old histories

* being attended with the most wonderful success. are filled with stories of the fierce death-defying valour of les caplate of Abu Bekr lasted only two years and one the Arabs in their onslaughts, and some striking illustrations

in, and on his death the warrior Omar was elected his of the survival of the old spirit were afforded by the SoudanBut sur. Omar was a man of immense courage, strong ese in the war of 1883-85. Arab writers claim that at Swisko ad clear insight, and his influence over the Moslem the death of Omar the armies of the faithful had reduced se was very great. Remaining at Medina as an organ- | to his obedience 36,000 cities and fortified places, had

vietory his generals rapidly completed the conquest destroyed 4000 places of worship used by unbelievers, and

als, overran and occupied Syria, Mesopotamia, had built 1400 mosques for the service of the Mohammedan Amne, and Babylonia. Egypt was subjugated in 641, religion. Sir W. Muir estimates that before the death of

La the same year the Persian power was broken in a Omar, about 500,000 Arabs had moved out of Arabia and este battle, the Sassanid Empire falling soon afterwards I had become settlers in the conquered territory. Omar I.

al into the hands of the Moslems. These conquests was succeeded by Othman, whose caliphate was signalized Camillated by the fact that both the Byzantine and by the breaking out of internal dissension and dynastic

eanpires were at this period in a very distracted quarrels which were never afterwards wholly healed, and on The Persian power had been greatly reduced by which led to his being murdered by his subjects in the year nes of Herakleios, and though the resistance of the 656. By these dissensions and the wars to which they was intensified by their pride of race and religion, led, the action of the armies of Islam was to some extent ter proved quite unequal to stem the tide of Arab impeded, but the tide of conquest never turned until the whole

and valour. The provinces of the Byzantine of Asia from the Indus to the Mediterranean, Egypt,

o outside of Asia Minor, with Egypt, were in a Northern Africa, and Spain, recognized the authority of chronic discontent, and though nominally Christian, the Moslems. At the close of the first century after the

enerce sectaries disunited among themselves, death of Mohammed, the Arabian Empire extended 200 one in their dislike of the domination of the days' journey, from the confines of India and Tartary to

and emperor. Hence there was little the western coasts of Africa, and the language and laws tance to the Arabs, and when the regular of the Koran were studied with equal devotion at Samareen defeated, the population readily adapted | kand and Seville, the Moor and the Indian embraced as

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VOL IX.

MOHAMMEDANISM.

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countrymen and brothers in the pilgrimage of Mecca, and , universally admitted by Mohammedans, but like Christians the Arabian language was adopted as the popular idiom they have split into an immense number of sects. Of these in all the provinces to the westward of the Tigris."

four are admitted by each other to be orthodox, but the The seat of the caliph was first at Mecca, then as the orthodox regard all the rest as heretical. The differenys old home of Arabia became a subsidiary district to the between the four orthodox sects relate chiefly to matters newly acquired territory, it was mored to Damascus, to of jurisprudence, but these are important inasmuch a ti Kufa, and finally a new city was built for it, and in 762 law in question is accepted as sacred and divine. In the Almansur the Abbaside (see ABBASIDES] established it early days of Mohammedanism many questions came up at Bagdad. It was here that the Mohammedan Empire for decision before the caliphs for which no directorreached its apogee during the reign of HarOUN AL mand could be found in the Koran, and the decisions ini RASCHID, which began in 786. Early in the next century to be given either in accordance with some traditiona. Tethe establishment of separate kingdoms nominally acknow- membrance of the Prophet, or were based upon analmal ledging the Caliph of Bagdad began, the history of which reasoning. These traditions were for a long time preserved becomes merged in that of the countries they incorporated only in the memories of the Arabs who had been an As we have already mentioned under MoHAMMED, the panions of the Prophet and those to whom they had be Arabs previous to the rise of the Prophet were an illiterate orally communicated; but by the beginning of the seria and uncultivated people, but with the progress of their century of the Hegira the necessity for tising the tradit :3 empire fresh needs became manifest, and they were com- in writing had become apparent, and the Imam Malik ita pelled to turn their attention to learning. As the Koran Anas (713-795), a native of Medina, undertook the task formed the foundation of their religion a knowledge of He collected with much industry an immense number of writing became necessary, and grammar and lexicography these floating traditions, and rejecting all be regarded as had to be studied. Soon their national poems were com- doubtful, he selected about 1700, which he arranged is the mitted to writing, compared with each other, amended and order of their subjects, and entitled the whole coketa criticised. Their laws also were based upon the same Mowatta or the “ Beaten Path." This treatise soon on sacred book, and schools of jurisprudence arose by which to be regarded as second in value only to the Koran itset codes were drawn up and explained. Soon too they felt and it is upon this treatise that the great orthodor sart of the necessity for a written record of the acts and words of the Jalekites take their stand. At Irak another ser the Prophet, his first followers and contemporaries, the of law was founded, the leaders of which, proceedias bra conquests inade by him and by his successors, &c., and different method, endeavoured to establish a complete st* biography and history came into favour. Theology from of moral and civil law by a process of reasoning ati the outset was a necessary study, and as the Koran from to the Koran. The most distinguished member of this the very first contained within itself abundant germs of school was the Imam Abu Hanifa (699-767), the fcant? discord, those who endeavoured to expound it were soon of the sect of the Hani fites. This is the most we. engaged in fierce polemnic with each other. Then as the spread of the orthodox sects, and it is to this that my of conqucrors extended the circle of their influence they came the Ottomans belong. The Hanifites are termed by the into contact with the learning of the Western nations, and Mohammedans the “ followers of reason," on account of the they quickly displayed wonderful powers of assimilation. slight value they place upon the reputed tradit:cas y The Abbasides are justly celebrated for the encouragement Mohammed. The third great orthodox sect of the Shat' they gave to learning, and it was during their dominion that owes its origin to the Imam As-Shafi of Banlad (7;the works of Aristotle, Ptolemy, Euclid, Plato, Hippocrates, | 820), who took up an intermediate position between the &c., were translated into Arabic, and the way prepared for schools of the Malekites and Hanifites, and endean or dt) those illustrious Mohammedan scholars whose works served | liold an equal balance between the methods the end . to enlighten Europe after the darkness of the middle ages. The last of the four orthodox Imams was Alimad iba HiBy degrees an elaborate system of administration was bal, a pupil of As-Shafi, a man of puritanical tedeler formed, and proper officials were appointed for the man who compiled a legal system chiefly froin the tradities agement of the affairs of state, the regulation of the differ- in which he attempted to lead men back to the prin t:T" ent provinces, the adıninistration of justice, and the main- | simplicity of the faith. The sect he founded was de tenance of the observances of religion. During the greater | numerous, and his system is now almost entirely ebony part of the first century of Mobammedan history the Arabs of the heretical sects of Mohainmedanism it is impo were obliged to intrust all their book-keeping to Christians to give any notice within the limits of this article. T* and Persians, and their accounts were kept in the Greek are extremely numerous, and Mohammedan writers or Persian languages, but the Caliph Abd-al-Jelik (685 up seventy-three, in order to agree with the number **.. 705) substituted Josleins for all the Christian and Persian Mohammed is said to have foretold. Nearly every pak clerks in the government offices, and ordered that in future religious thought and feeling has found a place with ti" all accounts should be kept in Arabic. It was during the Mohammedan system, and has been tauglt either in the reign of this caliph also that the Arabs instituted a special or secretly by its adherents. A word, boweret, me** coinage of their own.

said concerning the great division by which the ILThis rapid development in territorial aggrandizement and medan world is separated into two hostile parties hi political organization was attended by an equally marvellous regard each other with more emnity and dislike thas it growth of theoretical and practical theology; Iman, faith, feel towards those regarded as unbelierers. Aint it and Din, practice. The primitive and universally accepted murder of the Caliph Othman, to which we have already re confession of faith, “There is no god but the true God, and ferred, two caliphs were elected, one MOAW , A . Mohammed is bis prophet," was by the Mohammedan of Othman, and the other Ali, the friend and companie", <! doctors at an early period subdivided into six branches the Prophet. There is some reason to believe that mit (1) belief in God; (2) in his angels ; (3) in his scriptures; med designed to nominate the latter as his socorr, :*: (4) in his prophets; (5) in the resurrection and day of it is said that steps were taken by Omar to prepros. judgment; and (0) in God's absolute decree and predeter- but the point is very uncertain, and as we bure sent)*** mination both of good and evil. Four chief points were spe- caliphs were elected in succession to the Propiti te cified in relation to practice: (1) prayer, with the necessary exclusion of Ali. In the war which raged betwes Mouwita washings and purifications: (2) alms; (3) fasting; and (4) and Ali the latter was not very successful, bot bi mu se the pilgrimage to Mecca. That these beliefs and practices are tained much of his authority and power up to his & s uo the essentials of the Mohammedan system of religion is still tion in A. ll. 40 (660-1 A.D.) He leit two sons, but the cutti MOHAMMEDANISM.

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Hassan, resigned the caliphate and was afterwards poisoned, I love among themselves; orphans are to be protected; the ad the younger son, Hussein, was killed by the orders of rights of widows are guarded; slaves are to be treated with

y Caliph Yazid (680 A.D.) The party of Ali, however, consideration; and intoxicating drinks, the indulgence in which had come to regard him as almost equal to Mo- / which is such a serious hindrance to Christian nations, are kammed himself, was not destroved by these murders, and prohibited. But, on the other hand, we see that politically

maintained its existence until the caliphate of Mothi Islam, from its very nature, is opposed to the growth and 12 the Abbaside, and then as the Shiah party it split off maintenance of free institutions. Its ruler combines in nad 'rcame an independent influence in the Mohammedan himself the chief headship of both church and state, and tid. Stuh is a nickname, meaning " sectaries," given by | his government must of necessity be a despotism. Then

thodox Sunites, the Shiites calling themselves by the in accordance with its teachings concerning the Koran, all autre of Al-Adeliat, or "sect of the just ones." They reject freedom of thought in religion inust be crushed, no further

anthority of the first three caliphs, whom they declare or higher development may be looked for, and the standards be usurpers, and they pay no respect to the Sunna or of a Bedouin chief of the seventh century are made the

tin of traditions which the orthodox Mohammedans limits for all ages and tiines. The evils of polygamy, unsocept as being of canonical authority. Like the Sunites restrained divorce, and slavery, are clearly perceived by 5 Shites are subdivided into an immense number of Christian nations, but inasmuch as they are permitted by s, some of which maintain opinions of the most extrava the Koran, it is impossible to persuade Mohammedans that cat character. Each party charges the other with cor- they are hurtful. Tyranny and oppression, a want of hits the Koran and neglecting its teaching, with having energy and enterprise, and the degradation of woman, are urparted from the true faith of Mohammed, and as being among the most prominent and striking of the character

quence worse than either the Jews or Christians. | istics of all Mohammedan countries, and they may all be The States are found chiefly in Persia and Central Asia, traced directly to the influence of the prevailing system a f not all the Persian Mohammedans belonging to this of religion. Further, it must never be forgotten that the for Beth parties are represented among the Mohamme consistent Mohammedan recognizes no country but Dar-ulus of British India, and it is believed that the Sunites, Islam," the home of Islain." Wherever Islarn reigus there ji moguize the anthority of the Sultan of Turkey, are the Moslem is at home and a citizen; wherever it is not Itse minority there--a circumstance of some importance supreme he is a foreigner--a sojourner in Dar-ul-Harb, the Bntish government,

* the home of the enemy." Theoretically the relation Mohammedanisin, as an aggressive power, remained a between Islam and the rest of the world should be one of

to Christian Europe as late as the sixteenth cen undying war, and though the Moslems, in contact with 27, lut since then it has been a waning power, and the European races, have learned to recognize that the power natres under its intluence have been left far behind in has passed from their hands to the other side, there is * Larch of progress by their Christian rivals. Still its always a latent fanaticism smouldering among them, which

122ce is at least as wonderful as its early success, and may at any time break out into a flame. The future of *Te te aptaries and a balí have proved its singular attrac Mohammedanism it is impossible to foresee. That it is se fut the sensual but imaginative character of the possible for it to be transformed and brought into harmony mata's, among whom the majority of its professors are with modern advanced thought and knowledge is denied

to be found. The faith of Islain vet prevails from by all who are capable of forining an opinion. For an 9. Le pire of Morocco to the foot of the Himalayas, and account of Mohammedan doctrines see under KORAX. See title sooth most point of the Arabian peninsula to the also *Mahomet and Islam," by Sir W. Muir (London, 1884); > limits of Turkey in Europe. It claims the exten- | Bosworth Smith's - Mohammed and Mohammedanism"

LTE thoah decaring empires of Turkev and Persia; and (London, 1874); and Vambéry's " Islam im neunzehnten C otiers, such as that of the Great Mogul, have Tahrhundert” (Leipzig, 1875). an, is is the political edifice only that has perished, MOHICANS, a tribe of North American Indians, now

the revious structure still remains entire. Politi- | nearly or quite extinct, which in the seventeenth century a n g, the power of Mohaminedanism has been for inhabited the territory at present included in the northern sterken. There is no longer any first-class Moham- states. They were dispossessed by the earliest British 1 state; and Turkev, Persia, and Egypt owe the settlers, and dispersed among the other tribes. The name

aco of their independent existence chiefly to the is well known in consequence of the popularity of Cooper's the behavies of the great Christian nations of Europe. | novel, “The Last of the Mohicans." The rrion of Mohammed is still vigorous, and the MOHILEV' or MOGILEV', a town of Russia, in a : es of Islain are distinguished among all other government of the same name, is situated in a pleasant,

Oranuanities by the firmness and precision of well-cultivated country on the left bank of the Dnieper, 2h, so that among them religious scepticism is as and has 40,536 inhabitants, many of whom are Jews. It *** pruivund sincerity of belief, attested by devotion is the residence of the civil and military governors, of a 1933-tial is common. At the present day the Greek archbishop, and of the Roman Catholic primate of Ir l an cline as closely and proudly to their faith Russia and Poland. It is also a favourite residence of 25 in the first flush of its success, or as they did many of the Russian nobility. The city is surrounded by s t elth century, when the victorious hosts of Soly- | a decayed rampart, and is divided into four quarters. tied the capital of the German Empire and threat- Many of the streets are broad and pared, and in the centre Niety of Europe.

there is a large square. The public edifices are numerous, Latinception Mohammedanism was an elerating and and some of them rather splendid, as the Church of St. it into oce, and it banished for ever from Arabia Joseph. The town has a Greek cathedral, built in 1780, SAT the darker elements of superstition, beneath which and numerous other Greek and Roman Catholic chapels,

p sula had been shrouded. Idolatry and atheism several Jews' synagogues, and Greek and Roman Catholic Cuniore its lofty doctrines of the unity and intinite convents, one Lutheran church, a theological college, episraas vf God, of his all-pervading providence, and of copal seminaries, gymnasium, infirmary, and various other

fety of absolute submission to his will. It was, charitable institutions. All the productions of the district 6. stis, an vlerating influence, in that it makes every are extensively exported to Riga, Odess, Königsberg, We'11 a member of a vast theocratic, and at the same and Dantzic; and the import trade in thrown silk is con

Desprentic, brotherhood. All true believers are com- siderable. Several well-frequented fairs are held in this 21 byth is religion to cultivate the virtues of brotheriy | town.

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MO'HUR, the gold 15-rupee piece of India, weighs a mile distant is a noted spot called Maes-Garmin, the 11.664 grammes (180 grains troy), and its fineness is scene of a victory gained in the fifth century, by the Web 9.166; its value sterling is therefore £1 98. 2d. An over the Picts and Saxons: a pillar, with an inscriptior, attempt was made to fix silver at this standard, 15 | commemorates the event. About 15 miles also on the rupees to a mohur, but it failed; and the fall in silver Chester road, are some remains of Offa's Dyke, the ane! has caused the mohur to rise rariably to from 16 to 20 boundary between Wales and England. silver rupees in value. Gold pieces of 10 rupees and 5 MOLDA'VIA and WALLACHIA. See Rou MAXIL rupees (two-thirds and one-third mohur) are also in cir MOLE (Talpa) is a genus of mammals belongio: to the culation.

order INSECTIVORA and family Talpidæ, The (03246 MOI'DORE, an old Portuguese coin worth 4800 reis, Mole (Talpa europæa) is one of the most interesting lit. that is, about £1 1s. 3d.

mammals native to this country. Its general appearance MOIR'AI (Lat. Moire or Parcæ, from the Greek is so well known as scarcely to need description. The moira, a share), the goddesses who dealt out to each man body is almost cylindrical, covered with a velvety close fur his share or lot in the joy and sorrow of the world. Homer of a blackish-brown colour, and is 6 inches in length of speaks of the one Moira or Fate, but Hesiod and later which about an inch is occupied by the tail. The w e poets recognize three Fates. See Fates.

structure of the head is admirably adapted to its buitorMOIRÉ (a French word meaning coloured or watered) ing habits, the snout being rery long and pointed and ti is applied to surface effects produced on metals and on external ears and eyes very small; the common mole is ! textile goods. The moiré metallique is a tin-plate upon however blind, as is commonly thought. The fore lines which a peculiar figuring, like that caused by frost upon are very short and seem to spring from the neck; they windows, is produced by dipping the plate in a heated state terminate in broad, shovel-shaped feet, each with five toes into nitro-muriatic acid, and afterwards washing with cold armed with strong claws. The hind limbs are longer anla water to remove the acid. The plate is then dried and less powerful. The structure of the fore limbs and steriz. varnished or lacquered. Moiré antique is the name given or breastbone deserves particular attention. The lansto silks figured by the process called in silk watering. brium or front part of the sternum is very long, and bear This is produced in the calendering. The silks in their on its upper surface a prominent keel, like that of beris, finished condition are wetted and folded, and then sub- for the attachment of the pectoral muscles; it articolares mitted to an enormous pressure, often hydraulic. By this with the clavicles, which are short, thick bones, condreis pressure the air is slowly expelled, and in escaping draws with the shoulder-blade (scapula) by ligaments. The the moisture into curious waved lines, which leave the humerus or shoulder-bone is unlike that of any other peculiar mark called watering. By using presses hot or mammal, being short, very stout, and irregular in vorage; cold, embossed or plain, by folding the layers of silk diagon- it has two separate articulations, being connected no: cay ally or rectangularly, various kinds of moiré are produced ; with the scapula, but also with the clavicles. In this way those threads which happen to be most pressed receive the fore limbs are moved forward to the narrowest part i most gloss; some of them become flattened, and the reflec | the body, so as to preserve the cylindrical form essenta tion from their surface is glossy or otherwise according to for burrowing, and are at the same time greatly strength the angle at which they are viewed. Thus a brilliant play ened; in addition, short as the limbs are, the feet can of light and shade is produced. Woollen fabrics called brought up to the tip of the snout. The bcres of te moreen undergo a similar process.

forearm are short and strong. The breadth and power MOLASSE, in geology, is a great series of clays, sands, of the hand is further increased by the development da and conglomerates, with some lignitic seams, that occurs in long sickle-shaped sesamoid bone attached to one of the Switzerland. This deposit is for the most part of lacus-bones of the wrist. The total number of teeth is fortytrine origin, but it contains intercalated marine beds. four, arranged in the typical mammalian formula :The fauna and flora have been exhaustively investigated by

, 3-3 1-1 Dr. Heer, who considers the lower beds to be of Oligocene

; c. 1-1 pm. 4–4. 3–3

"3–31 (1-11 pm. 4-4 h 3-3 age, while the upper portion of the deposit is Miocene. The climate during the deposition of these beds appears. The food of the mole is exclusively animal, and consists to bave been subtropical. The flora is allied to that of mainly of earth-worms, in pursuit of wbich it makes its America, Sequoia and other evergreens being abundant. more superficial galleries, often indeed in light soils traver

MOLAS'SES (Port. melasses), the uncrystallized syrup ling in a shallow trench. When burrowing the mole guts produced in the manufacture of sugar, which is suffered rid of the earth which it dislodges by throwing it cut to drain from the casks into a cistern, in what is called the curing-house, before the sugar is sent away from the plantation. (See Sugar.] Part of the molasses is fermented and distilled for rum in the West Indies, and part is made to yield a little sugar by crystallization; the residue constitutes treacle.

MOLD, the county and assize town of Flintshire, in Wales, is situated on the west bank of the river Alun, 6 miles south from Flint, and 1923 from London, by the North-western Railway. The town consists of one main

Fortress or Habitation of the Common Mole. street, with two or three smaller ones intersecting it at right angles. There are no public buildings except the the surface in the form of the well-known mole-lill. The court-house, church, a free church, several dissenting mole is solitary in its habits, forming a syinmetrical and chapels, and schools. The town has some small manufac- ingenious habitation or fortress, which affords rest and tures of cottons and woollens, and in the parish are some protection from its enemies. It communicates with the large collieries. The pleasing variety of the scenery of the animal's usual bunting grounds by one or two highroads neighbourhood renders it very attractive. The population The nest is lined with dried grass and leaves; it leads of the town in 1881 was 4320.

into a passage which first descends, and then ascending The town was anciently known as Monte Alto, and runs into the main run. From the nest also asked is called in Welsh Wyddgrug; there are numerous three passages to a circular gallery, wbich in ton cour Druidic, Roinan, and Saxon remains in the vicinity. About municates by five equidistant passages with a larger

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