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MODENA.

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MODES sier essential part of modelling is preserving the 'the pianoforte. I these be groped into sues of echt D# the car, which should be always uniform, if notes each, it be a c250 2 ter test there are two * * it must never be allowed to dry, and it can be sentodes and Sre tibes is een bot Dot Tieden ibe KED with very little trouble. While the modeller sade position in 2 to scades Tagite west series,

mok and the figure is exposed, especially in warm from A to A, AB-CDE.IGA poster, le should repeatedly sprinkle it with water. A og ret's brish is the best instrument for this purpose. i we find the serritoses betreen 2-3 asd 5-6; but if weiste

model is complete the next process is to take the the best series. B-CD E FGA. *: * the marl le from or to make other casts from.

abiat set’ptors used to bake their models, but this we bare the ser tones between 1-2 ad 4-5. The fo:::$90 a panas making plaster casts from thein, lowing series, CDE-FGAB.C

s troublesome and much cheaper. Modelling is m ediend by medallists, who model a cameo of the figure gives us the serritoces between 3-4 and 7-8, and so tbe " to be cut in intaglio with wax on a piece of discrepancy costics Was is aic, einployed by goldsmiths and jewellers. The seten waren in A. ircan B. fry C, D, E. F.

intricate and fanciful decorations for pieces of and G al dser in this arrarent, ad CO2 octy *4*, Weriod modelled for Flaxman, the sculptor, in the mesdy they e as a s t, 1 is the Lar

jects in was. Flower-modelling in wax was, i ngny tbey wad pea ii LaT were med to *** generation, one of the "fashionable accomplish- 'their ezit Dotes. Of these seven poble varieties or " vf young ladies. It is even now not altogether | modes of octares St. Azbruse is bed to tare ad upied fcor

(those beooring on d, e, f, asd q. asi to tare brazit all YOD ENA, an important town of Italy, the capital of church chats isto the mass cinde (?<tber of ttese form pain and of the same name, and the Roman Jutina, is (about 3x41. St. Gregory:be Great, woberane pope in 590, ** mi 3 miles north by west from Florence, in the found that many chasis had sprung up size Armrose's time

a wide plain between the Panaro and the Secchia, which it was impossible to bros into the Antosian modes.

38.inhabitants in 1882. The town is well Therefore, calog tdese latter authentic, and rewarding mind bas several handsome churches and palaces them as running iron the kepote to its octave, be added Hours of the striets bare arcades on each side. The to each one its placal (Gr. planine, athwart), which was

en c the former grand-dukes is a magnificent edifice; also of cne cctare in length, bat ran TOSS Or att wart the * 9.1 3 fiae gallery of paintings by the great masters, keynote, from dominant to dominant. The paral of the 3. Yusuale library of 100,000 printed volumes and d mode ran from A to g, and that of the e mode B, VS. Tie cathedral, a Gothic building of the from A to b, &c. Gremory's four placals ran from A, B, gorta centary, is remarkable chiefly for its lofty square c, d, tbe * final" or kevnote of each beide the forth pote ***.tuwer, one of the loftiest in Italy, in which is kept from the base. Later writers added authentic scales

1. bocket, once the cause of a serious feud be- from a and from c'; but that from b was always rejected, * V *.3 ard Bologna, and which has been immor- because the Fifth was a dircinished Fifth, and the dominant n's Taswini in the " Secchia rapita." The other consequently “inpure." TŁey also added plagal scales

e buildings are the theatre, the college, the | from e and g, with the finals or keynotes a and c', but L , tie bospital, and the old citadel, which is now omitted that from f, as the final b would have given an ** s pecitentiary. The University of Modena, sup- augmented Fourth from the bass bote, and was conse

1821, has been succeeded by a school of theology, quently impure. The modes were both numbered and Dinne, and mathematics. Manufactures of hempen Damned, the numbering taking odd numbers for authentic 2. a (oths, hats, glass, and leather, are carried on; and even numbers for plaval modes, and the naming being 2 anafacture, once important, has declined. A a mixing up of ancient Greek names of scales. The a Leing the Secchia with the Panaro affords a line real Greek names depended merely upon the pitch of the

Lasigation between Modena and the Po. Mutina keynote (mese), for all their scales were in construction e to have been founded by the Etruscans. It alike (see GREEK MUSICAL SYSTEM), and in one case, the

Livy to have been colonized by the Romans, | Dorian, the two nomenclatures agree, but in that one case 111, , and it is styled by Cicero “firmissimam et only. This confusion is most lamentable, and not until **** um populi Romani coloniam" ("* Phil." 5. 9. our own day has it been cleared up. Greek Dorian and

Luan antiquities, mostly tornbe, still exist, and ecclesiastical Dorian is the scale * Wav lies through the midst of the town. It

D E F GAB:CA (Dorian with final d), ".. may disasters in the times of Attila, Odoacer, i Lariard kings; and was afterwards governed

G) and the Hypodorian, which is its dominant in our modern **rt by its bishop and magistrates, and belonged

inusical parlance, is, of course, also the same in both ; p. Venetians, and the dukes of Milan, Mantua,

systemssitirir, before it became the property of the house of

A B C D E F G A (Hypodorian with final d). ** Tb last grand-duke fled from the duchy in 1859. But as to the rest, they differ both in name and in nature. 18. i antiquary Sigonius, the poets Molsa and Tas- The Greek scales were all built on the pattern of the Dorian *. * tis celebrated anatomist Fallopius, were natives given above, each having the semitones in those same places,

and each carrying its hypo- or dominant and its hyper- or MOD ERATOR. In the Universities of Oxford and subdominant, as in the following table. (Hyperdorian ran

tie moderators are certain public officers who | GAB:CDE:F G.) *** (r preside in the exercises publicly performed in

GREEK SCALES.
by candidates for the degree of bachelor of arts.
the term is synonymous with the English term

Dominant.

Subdominant. * or president--as, Moderator of the General Hypolydian. Lydian. 6 Hyperlydian. 1. Moderator of the Edinburgh Presbytery, &c. c Hypoeolian.

If Æolian. 0 Hyperæolien. HODES, ECCLESIASTICAL, the system underlying B Hypophrygian.e Phrygian. a Hyperphrygian. 3,"f the Buddle ages. This system is best exempli- | B) Hypoiastian.

B's Hi Dojastian. e' lastian or

ab Hyperiastian. by chidering the totality of musical tones in use

Ionian. tie iwale aces, as represented by the white keys of! A Hypodorian. Dorian. !, Hyperdorian.

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The list of the ecclesiastical modes, each of which differs ! Sixth minor (relative minor); (3) to the subdominart: in the arrangement of its tones and semitones, as has been (4) to the Second ininor (relatire minor of the subdenitaat: fully explained. is as follows:

(5) to the mediant minor (relative minor of doceant) ECCLESIASTICAL MODES.

(6) to the dominant, with “ pedal." &c.; i) to the

tonic again. If the piece starts from the topje in s thi Authentic.

order is mediant, dominant minor, Sixth, sbr.0 I. Final or keynote d, Dorian.

minor, Serenth, tonic minor or major. Chromatic mi da
III.
e, Phrygian.

is the change from a giren ker to some other Dot sur
f, Lrdian.

analogous to it; that is, to one differing much in se
VII.
9, Misolydian.

and consequently in signature. Enharmonic modulation
IX.
a, Æolian.

is the change from a given key to another quite unasaba
(XI.)
b. (Locrian.)

gous, by means of an enharmonie interval; 28 when
XIII.
c', Ionian.

modulate from C to D by using D2, a note of the key
Plagal (dominants).

C, for C, a note very nearly at the same pitch, bat is a

key of D. On the pianoforte and such instruments in II. Beginning on A, final d, Hypodorian. IV.

notes are expressed by the same sound; and then eie B, “ e, Hypophrygian.

monic modulation consists only in changing the Day ! VI.

C, " f, Hypolydian.

d, VIII.

the note and suitably harmonizing it for its new pusti 9, Hypomixolydian.

in the new scale. X.

e, " a, Hy poæolian.

f (XII.) "

MODUS, one of the time-divisions in medieralno

6, (Hypolocrian.) XIV.

(Modus major), signified the division of the Marin 9, “ c', Hypoionian.

two longs (imperfect) or into three longs (priecti. ll Of these, as aforesaid, Modes xi. and xii., Locrian and dus minor was the term used for the divisiva of a wide Hypolocrian, were rejected. The dominant was, as with into two breres (imperfect) or three (perfect). Tessu ourselves, the Fifth of the scale, in the authentic modes, divided breves into semibreres; Prolatio divided salexcept in the Phrygian (iii.), when c, not b, was the breves into the least notes of all, the minims. Mi dominant, to avoid the chance of the interval b-f, a tritone. also, of course, the Latin for mode, and the contest 1.1 But in the plagal modes the dominant was the Sixth show whether an ecclesiastical mode or a time-uiris of the scale, except in the Hypomixolydian (ii.), which meant. took c', and not b, for the saine reason as that just given ME'SIA, the name of a province of the Roman Emr. in the case of the authentic Phrygian. The mediant (Third extending north of the range of Mount Hemus, the next of the scale in authentic modes, variable in plagals) and Balkan, as far as the Danube, and eastward to the Ean. the participant are other notes of importance in each mode, corresponding to the present kingdoms of Servia and Buchiefly serving as the points to which modulation is to be garia. directed. To ascertain in what mode a piece of mediæral MESO-GOTHIC LANGUAGE, the most castityd music is written take the last bass note as the final; then ancient of the Teutonic dialects, now extinct, but posted examine the tenor (always the part carrying the plain- in the commentaries and translation of the Gospels by tbt song melody), and if it lie between final and final, Arian bishop ClGlas, in the fourth century, for the exa then the piece is in an authentic mode; but if it lie the Goths whom the Emperor Valens had permitted t between dominant and dominant, then the piece is in a settle in Mæsia (376). It is a point of dispote bow ca plagal mode. If there is a signature of an accidental (60), German, &c., owe to Jaso-Gothic; but clearly it is c'! the piece bas been transposed, and a correction must be allied to them, and very possibly is the parent of the ri. made for this, the true final lying a Fourth below the In variety of inflexion, power of derivation and cump ? apparent one.

presence of a dual, of certain passive forms, and aber MODIL'LION, in architecture, an ornamental member of radical words it resembles the Greek stroodly; in the Corinthian cornice, reseinbling a small bracket the form of the radicals is essentially Tentonic, and th. placed horizontally; that is, with its back against the soffit almost all still exist in German; and, also, other I **** of the part it supports, in which respect it differs from the features are strongly marked, such as the want of all ta consol. Modillions are placed beneath the corona of the of the verb beyond present and past, the co-existe o cornice, and although sometimes omitted out of parsimony, complete systein of 'strong" vowel changes with ** are indispensable to the character of the order. In the marked - weak" order of inflexions, &c. The f* Ionic order the modillion is less richly carved than in specimens of Meso-Gothic may serve to illustrate ! the Corinthian, and in the Doric its place is occupied by article:-“* Blindain managaim fragaf siun" (lot: the mutule. See article GREEK ARCHITECTURE and the many he forth-cave seeing), Luke vii. 21; * Rais ti Plates illustrating it.

vinda wagid ” (A rush from, or by, the wind was MODULATION (Lat. modulatio, a measuring), a term | Luke vii. 24; “Yah so baurgo alla garunn.ina s used in musical composition for a change of key during the daura " (And the borough, all gathered, was at the dum

a movement. The word arises from the modu- | Mark i. 33. lation being by change of mode, not by change of key, in | MOFFAT, a watering-place of Scotland, in the ey the mediæval system, as the conception of keys had not yet l of Dumfries, situated near the east bank of the to been developed. See MODES. ECCLESIASTICAL] In | Annan. 20 miles north by east from Dumfries, and modern music modulation may be divided into Simple. I from the Beattock station of the Caledonian Railway Chromatic, and Enbarmonic. Simple modulation is a which it was connected by a railway in 183. It is pe change from a given key to another nearly related to it, / tected on the north-east by a screen of lofty TXIK4:7 namely, to its dominant or Fifth, its subdominant or Fourth, and is a clean, pleasant, and well-built town. Det its tonic or dominant, relative minor, &c., and this modula- | too, is unusually pure and salubrious. There are 1 tion, not to be abrupt, is effected by at least one inter assembly-rooms, a parish, Free, United Presbyteris, mediate chord, which must belong to the harmony of the Episcopal churches, a subscription library, tydrukutla key into which it is intended to pass. Cherubini gives as establishment, an academy, and an erdened si a complete course of modulation for an important fugue the recreation grounds, mechanics and Oddielka* Lails.. following beautifully arranged scheme of keys:-Starting and a fine fountain was erected in 1875. Te supru from the Tonic major, (1) to the dominant ; (2) to the water of Moffat contains 4 cubic inches of nitrogen gas 3

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og hie inches. 5 cubic inches of carbonic acid gas, 10 to the delta of the Ganges, with the capital at Delhi. His Cabe inches of sulphuretted hydrogen gas, and 36 grainsson, Humayun (1530-40 and 1555-56), could with se sintate of sodi. The chals beate water of Hartfell, difficulty govern what his father had won, and was deposed

miles north by east from Jloffat, contains cubic for the greater part of his nominal reign. But AKBAR valine of azotic gas in 231 cubic inches, 84 grains of (or Akber), son of Humayun, was a prince of remarkable m ate of suda. 12 grains of sulphate of alumina, and sagacity and power of administration. During all his long 1 pine of oxide of iron. The sulphurous water is reign (1556-1605) he was occupied in incessant small un of creat service in scrofula, cutaneous eruptions, wars-resulting, however, in the consolidation of a really ni bilions complaints: the chalybeate water in disorders important power, which lasted, though of course not in

the stomach and bowels. The population of the parish the full splendour of Akbar's rule. for two centuries. 1841 was 1930. of the town 2161. During the season Akbar was a devout Mohammedan, but wonderfully

pulation is increased by a large number of visitors, | tolerant. His memory is revered almost as much bg

is accommodation there are numerous fine villas. Hindus as by Mohammedans in India : and it was this Mat, meaning the foot of the moss," was created a magnanimity which enabled him to establish on secure barob in 1635. It is mentioned as early as the eleventh | bases the great Mogul Empire. Akbar was s

attry. The wells are said to have been discovered in 1605 by his son Jehangir, and the latter, in 1627. by his 1659, and they began to attract numerous visitors towards son Shah JEHAN. This prince was a magnificent builder. the end of the echtenth century. In Moffat House, in The most glorious meinentoes of his reign are the splendid 1759, Macpherson began the Ossian deception. See great mosque of Delhi and the unrivalled TAJ MAHAL MACPIERSOS.

mausoleum near Agra, which cost not less than the value of MOF FAT, ROBERT, D.D., an illustrious African £5,000,000 sterling of our money. His son AURUNGn gary, was born of humble parentage at Ormiston, ZEBE (or Aurangzib), as great a warrior as his father was Maidotonshire, Scotland, 21st December, 1795. He a builder, took advantage of a civil war which broke out 13 at first a gardener, but in 1814 he offered himself to during an illness of the emperor to advance from his pro* Lundon Missionary Society, which in 1816 sent him to vince of the Deccan, defeat his brothers, and depose Shah Vinland on the Orange River. In 1819 he married Jeban (1658). He treated him with great kindness, howy Ve Smith a reinarkable woman, who proved a most ever. Aurungzebe was far from possessing the toleration of

sin martner in his labours. In 1820 Mottat and his his great-grandfather Akbar, and as a result the native Vi sette at Karaman among the Bechuanas, and in Brahman princes massed together under the title of Macite of immense difficulty and danger they succeeded in rhattas, with their capital at Poonah, and kept eren the

: the confidence of the natives and introducing mighty Aurungzebe in continual alarm. The successors largonie to them. By his teaching and example the of Aurangzebe were inferior in military prowess, while the ;-;' were induced to resign their savagery, and to adopt | Marhattas, on the other hand, increased yearly in effective

imetise the arts of civilized life, and when after fifty force. The contest for supremacy between the Hindu and Tois sur is a missionary he addressed the General Mohaminedan powers was already inclining to the former 1- bis of the Free Church of Scotland, he was able to when in 1738 the Persian Shah NADIR burst like a

of chaches and missions scattered over the whole of thunderbolt upon India, then ruled by Mohammed Shah 2. Behaana country, from the Zulus on the east to the as Great Mogul (1719-1748), sacked Delhi, ruined the

rares on the west. having 40.000 communicants and einpire, and carried off all available booty. After this 4ire pupils. His daughter married Dr. Livingstone, crushing blow no less than six Afghan invasions poured

mis larmes due to him that the work of that great over the wretched land. Cabul was lost in 1738, the Punturk the direction which it did. On his return to jab in 1752. The Marhatta princes profited by the

gas in 1873. Dr. Moffat was presented with a testi- misery of India, and when Alamgir, the last of the Great o f £3800, and be ended his days in England, dying | Moguls, was murdered by his vizir in 1769, they seized #kesh near Tonbridge Wells, 9th August, 1883. See upon the empire; but in 1761 the Afghan leader. Ahmed

sera ng Water in a Dry Place" (1863, new edition, Shah, routed the Marhatta forces in the battle of Panipat. *76;. Heroes of the Desert" (1875); and “Scenes and As mere puppets of the English the Mogul emperors of is in Soth Africa " (London, 1876).

Delhi were now set up and maintained. Bengal and other MOGADORE or SUI RAH, a seaport of Morocco, / provinces came to us by a Mogul grant in 1765, and the ' n on the Atlantic, 120 miles west of the town of emperors ruled under more and more restricted circun- sue. It occupies a sandy promontory, l'ising sea- stances, till in 1827 they were merely pensioners and

Do rocks, and at high water wholly inclosed. It their authority only reached to the great inclosure styled the h ot and tianked by batteries. The harbour, formed palace at Delhi. In the mutiny of 1857 the last of the m e small island of Moradore, is three quarters of a mile Moguls, Mohammed Babadûr, joined the rebels. After a

S. 4 czarter broad, and adınits small vessels. The short siege the palace fell, and the emperor was sent : ts are almends. gums, goatskins, ostrich feathers, quietly to end his days at Rangoon, where he died in bon

P-10870Tass. The climate is frequently recommended ourable captivity in 1862.
I s tering from lung diseases. The population is ! MOGULS. See Moxgola,

MOHAMMED or MAHOMET, the founder of Islam. MOGUL EMPIRE, THE, of Hindustan, more espe- was born about the year 070 at Mecca. He came of mar t ed with the Great Mogul, the Tartar emperor a side branch of the powerful tribes of the Koraish, but

i byn with Baber. the grandson of the famous his family, though old and honourable, were at the time of

Lunethanel The word Vogul is the Arabic and his birth in somewhat reduced circumstances. His fatbar Te

of the word MoxGOL, and the Moguls were | Abdallah, a poor merchant, did not live to see the birth of - Mopapuls. but as the Hindustan emperor's are his son, and was only able to leave him as a portion fiva 1 called by the Persian and not the Tartar name, it camels and a female slave.

camels and a female slave. During his infancy Mohammed

During his in to mention them in an article under the familiar was intrusted to a Bedouin foster-mother, who nortura by Timor had taken Delhi in 1398, but this was only him until he reached his third year with her tribe in the Oz the terrible raids with which he cursed man

oh he cursed man. I desert. When he was six years old he lost his mother &! It was his great-grandson BABER who in 1526, | Amina, and tell to the care of his paternal grandfather LT S Barn Sears' contest, succeeded in firmly establishing | Abd-al-Mottalib, who treated him with kindna the M

when or Tartar Empire of Hindustan from the Industwo years later the grandfather was dying he commended

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poot from their position as guardians of the Kaaba, they | Medina, he directed his followers to commence a holy war wated upon Abu Talib, Mohammed's guardian and the against idolaters, and in 623 he ordered them to attack bad of the farnily, and urged him either to impose silence and plunder a caravan of the Koraish on its way to Mecca Da bis nephew or to withdraw his protection. This Abu during the sacred month of truce. A similar attempt, Taub refused to do, but he sent for Mohammed privately, made later in the year, resulted in the battle of Bedr, in od Lin what had passed, and urged him for the sake of which Mohammed gained a great victory over the people of te amily to desist. This appeal, coming from one who Mecca. This enabled him to break up the power of the bado long befriended him, was harder to resist than the Jews at Medina, whom he had tried in vain to conciliate,

uy or scorn of strangers, but Mohammed replied, and who had manifested considerable hostility to his claims. “Tugh they gare ine the sun in my right hand and the Some of these were banished, with the confiscation of their I in in my left to bring me back from my undertaking, property, and others were assassinated, so that the re

wich I not pause," and then burst into tears and mainder were obliged to appeal to the clemency of the uned to leave. On this the good Abu Talib called him Prophet, and to desist from all open opposition. In the ikk, and assured him that he should not be abandoned by third year of the Hegira the Moslems were defeated by disinily. While, however, this protection saved him the Meccans at the battle of Ohod, in which Mobammed t: open violence, it could not avail to protect his fol- himself was wounded. In the fifth year he was unsuc

ps, some of whom were so hardly treated that they cessfully besieged in Medina by an army made up of the er advised by the Prophet to emigrate to Abyssinia, and united tribes of Koraish, Solaim, and Ghatafan, amounting

Ce period over 100 of them, mostly young men, had to 10,000 men; and after this army had retired without and protec

re. Still he gained converts, and in effecting anything, he took vengeance on the Jews who the sixth year of the call he was joined by his uncle, had assisted them, and ordered all the men, 600 or 700 in Hana, a Dan of wealth and influence, and by Omar, a' number, to be beheaded in the market-place, the women V.IX of great strength, strong will, and resolute courage, and children being sold into slavery. One woman, after Bol.com atuence on the Prophet and upon Islam was of the being compelled to become a convert, the Prophet took to

e marked character. Further, he gained converts out- wife. The following year he made an attempt, at the . Vua, and though he nearly lost his life in an attempt, head of 1500 men, to make a pilgrimage to Mecca, and

n the people of Taif, he received the adhesion of the though prevented by the Koraish, the latter offered to bei Yathreb, afterwards called Medina, who had been sign a truce for ten years, and permit him to come the

cu by his teaching when on their pilgrimages to the next year unmolested if he would withdraw till then. Bu suth In the midst of these labours he lost his wife Mohammed accepted the conditions, and after signing the

11. jul, and her death was soon afterwards followed by treaty led his followers back to Medina. By the terms of * lis urce Abu Talib, these events being followed this agreeinent he was left free to send his missionaries

creasing Lostility on the part of the Koraish. At, everywhere, and the number of his adherents increased

Iaters reached a crisis. A plot was formed for the daily. Moreover, he was not compelled by the treaty to 63ation of the Prophet and the suppression of his keep the peace with the Jews, and in A.H. 7 he led an

*IN, # that early in 622 A.D), be coinmanded his fol- expedition against the rich families occupying the cities of **to emigrate to Medina, and the same year followed Khaibar and Fadak, both of which, after a short siege,

nelf. It is said that the front of his house was surrendered. He spared the lives of most of the prisoners, *** by a pumber of men who had leagued together to but stripped them of all their property, dividing four-fifths

als assassination, but that the Prophet, with Abu among his followers and reserving one-fifth for himself. Heal, escaped by the back, while Ali lav upon the bed | The prince of the Jews was put to death for concealing Rated with the green robe of Mohammed, so as to his family jewels, his wife, a woman celebrated for her

te Lis would-be murderers. When the Koraish dis- | beauty, being added to the harem of the Prophet. Another *****ed the deception they respected the friendship which Jewess at this period attempted to poison him with a piece

do cetated it, and permitted Ali to join Moliammed' of meat she had roasted; and though the attempt, for *1**ed. For three days the Prophet and his com- | which she was put to death, was unsuccessful, Mohammed Bawy lid in a cave in the neighbourhood, and when believed that ever afterwards he suffered from the effects

en fout of the pursuit had subsided they resurned their l of the poison. During this year he sent messengers to 3. Met ad arrived safely at Jedina. The whole of the several of the neighbouring kings and chieftains, demand

Itdan world dates its chronology from this flight, ing their adhesion to Islam, and one of these envoys being derra illedschra), the year 1 of the Mohammedan era beheaded by Amru the Gbassanide, an army was sent ile 622.d year Anno Domini, and the fifty-third of against him, which, however, was entirely defeated. In

spite of this defeat his power continued to increase, and 1berpe of Medina at this period were divided into before the truce with Mecca had lasted two years, he was

w Lentile clans, whose fends had been a constant | able to set out against that city at the head of 10,000 " Yuiet; but the arrival of Mohammed secured men. In addition he had secured friends within its walls, the union of these parties in the common cause so that it fell into his hands almost without resistance,

Very soon the Prophet was placed in the posi- A.Il. 8 (630 A.D.) Here he carefully avoided bloodshed, reme arbitrator in all matters of dispute, and and though he purified the Kaaba of its idols, all of which

doin of his decisions he greatly strengthened | were destroyed together with the household images, he "upon the peuple. His short creed, " There is made it the centre of his religion, and forbade any but his Lt Nah, and Mohammed is his prophet," was followers to worship there. After the capture of Mecca

pred, and the duties of regular prayer and his ascendency was quickly recognized throughout Arabia, almăgiving were enforced in a way that made and the various chiefs hastened to enlist under his banner of Pery dangerous. All true believers were and swear fealty to his cause. The year following this * regard each other as brethren, and all tribal (vent is known in Moslem chronology as the "year of em

att slips were to be laid aside in the in- bassies," from the numerous ambassadors despatched by

common cause of Islam. Soon the neigh- the Arabian tribes to acknowledge his authority and to os saw a new community forined in their midst, embrace Islam. All who submitted were required to accept ere cuin pelled to regard with wonder, not the Moslem law, which was introduced by qualified delealarm. Sor was the aların unfounded, forgates from Medina, to abandon idolatry and profess faith e Prophet had consolidated his power at | in Allah and his prophet, to perform the five daily prayers,

la Popket's life.

5. f xafretne arbit

the om of his de

led but

TE Latic alm giving were en

.Kind to re sito relatie slips were to

**s the common caus uz: Araba saw a new Wat they were como pelled

ar with alarm. Sor was bass the Prophet ha

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