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position among the multifarious "fancy creeds" of the or hallus, while the second family Palapterygiúr, niti pagans until Christianity became triumphant.

species, is characterized by the presence of the bl.a. MITHRIDATES. See MITHRADATES.

The moas were gigantic terrestrial birds, having the wing MITRAILLEUSE. See Gun.

in an extremely rudimentary condition and quite ascles MI'TRE (Lat. mitra, a bead-band or diadem), the for flight, and the breast-bone devoid of a keel. The crown or pontifical ornament worn on the head by arch- largest species, Dinornis giganteus, must hare stood dearly bishops and bishops, and in some instances by abbots, | 11 feet high, the tibia or leg-bone measuring a yard in upon solemn occasions. It was adopted by the hierarchy length. Dinornis elephantopus was a smaller bird, being in the seventh century, and its peculiar form, divided at about 6 feet high, but the framework of the skele:ja. the sides and pointed in front, is believed to be a symbol according to Professor Owen, is the most massive of say of the cloven tongues, “like as of fire,” which sat upon in the whole class of birds, and the toe-boues almust rival each of the apostles on the day of Pentecost. The Pope those of the elephant. How long the moa has been extiset has four mitres, called tiaras, which are inore or less rich, is a much debated question. Not only are the bunes Lord

solemnity of the feast days upon which in an excellent state of preservation, but also portions of they are to be worn. Mitres have not been worn in Eng- skin, feathers, and eggs, some of which contain remains of land since the Reformation, but are used as a heraldic the embryo. The Maoris have only occupied New Zealand ensign, surmounting the episcopal coat of arms. They are for some 500 years, yet they have traditions respecting the not in use in the Greek Church.

hunting of moas for the sake of their flesh and planaz; MITRE-SHELL (Mitra) is a genus of gastropodous

and the charred bones of the moa bave been found in molluscs belonging to the fainily Volutidæ. The initre | ancient cooking pits. It is therefore probable that these shells have an elongated, thick shell adorned with bril- | gigantic birds survived up to a very recent date. liantly-coloured bands, with a conical, elevated spire, com MO'ABITE STONE, a remarkably inscribed stone pressed whorls, and a sinall aperture; the operculum is very

discovered on the 19th of August. 1868. by Mr. Kirin, a small, and often wanting. The foot is small, folded longi German missionary, near the ruins of Dibàn, the ancient tudinally when contracted. The proboscis is generally Dibon, in the land of Moab. It was a piece of hasil very long and large, that of Mitra episcopalis being more about 3 feet 5 inches in height by 1 foot 9 inches in than one and a half times the length of the whole shell, breadth and thickness, and it contained an insription and capable of being projected to the distance of five written in the old Phænician characters, and consisting of inches. The species are numerous, 420 having been thirty-four lines of writing. When deciphered the inscripdescribed, found chiefly in tropical seas, ranging in low tion proved to be a monument of King Mesha, set up to water from 15 to 80 fathoms. When irritated, some cominemorate his victories over Israel, and datio: fra of them emit a purple fluid, having a nauseous odour. period 896 B.C. It was obviously desirable to obtain a The fossil species are numerous, commencing in the chalk. memorial well-nigh 3000 years old, intimately conl'cted Some of the fossil species are described from Britain and with biblical history, and exhibiting nearly tbe w e of France.

the Greek alphabet in the identical Phænician shape, and MIT TIMUS, in the law of England, a term applied offers were at once inade for its purchase. But the Arab to certain writs and warrants in which the word mittimus, though ignorant of the characters of the inscription, kad

We (the king) send,” is expressed or implied. The term long regarded the stone with superstitious reverence as is given to writs issued for the removal and transference the protector of their crops, and disputes arose as to its of records from one court to another, and also to precepts possession, which ended in its being broken up by them. or commands in writing directed to the keeper of a prison the pieces being distributed among the chief families of for the receiving and safe keeping of an offender.

the district. The energy and perseverance, however, of MITYLENE. See MYTILENE.

M. Ganneau, the French consul, and Captain Warten of the MIXTURE is the naine of a class of stops in church | Palestine Exploration Fund, resulted in the acquisition of crgans, cach stop of which consists of several small ranks the various fragments, which were put together and transof pipes, from two to five, so that every note produces in ferred to the Louvre at Paris. A photograph of the stile reality a chord of a certain composition, varying according has been published by the Palestine Exploration Sety. to the plan of the mixture. Misture stops are only used See Ginsburg's “ Moabite Stone" (1871); and Tristrana's in the full organ, when they melt into the general body of | " Land of Moab" (1873). sound, and are heard no longer as giving chords, but only MO'ABITES, one of the peoples of Hebrew crizin, as brightening the tone of the heavier stops of the organ, frequently mentioned in the books of the Old Testam50 in fact, as being the upper partials of compound tones from their connection with the Israelites. At the period with grave primes. See ACOUSTICS.

when the latter were pressing into the land of Cap.121 the MIZ ZEN MAST, the smallest of the three masts in a Moabites had already become settled in the rich biglands ressel, and the one placed sterumost. A rear-admiral wbich crown the eastern chasm of the Dead Sea, as loists his pendant at the mizzen.

trict which they had taken from a Canaanitish people MNEMON'ICS. See MEMORY.

referred to as the Emim. Their territories had been MNEMOS'YNE, or more properly MNEMOS'UNE, greatly curtailed just before this period by the Amrits; in the Greek mythology, the mother of the Muses, Zeus but they still occupied a position of considerable straction limself being their father, was the daughter of Ouranos. and they were recognized as kinsmen oy the lowell, Her name is literally Memory, and it is evident that who made no attempt to deprive them of their ani. without the parentage of memory no progress in any art (Judg. xi. 18, &c.) But from the story of Balzun it is or science is possible.

evident that the Moabites regarded their new brighters MOA is the Maori name for certain gigantic birds which with apprehension, wbile the Israelites became corrupted existed till, in all probability, a very recent period in New and joined the Moabites in the licentious worship of Baal Zealand. From an examination of bones of these birds, | Peor. Soon after the conquest of Canaan we tiod toe Professor Owen showed that they belonged to the order | Moabites ruling over a portion of Israel, and the deliver STRUTIONES, and were most nearly allied to the APTERYX ance of the latter by Ehud is recorded Jodg. ii. 14-51 or Kiwi, a singular little bird peculiar to New Zealand. | A victory of Saul over them is briefly referred to 1 Sen Eleven species have now been described, the original genus xiv. 47; and a further conquest, followed by a slaughter Dinornis forming the type of the family Dinornithidæ, in of two-thirds of the prisoners taken, by Darid, is rewhich the feet have three anterior toes and no posterior toe tioned in 2 Sam. viii. 2. Soon after the death of Dard

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ther appear to have regained their independence; but | Western taste, the poems of the Moallakat bare but little amri, king of Israel, brought them again into subjection poetic value, but from a historic point of view they are ex

compelled them to pay a heavy tribute, either of wool tremely interesting, from the glimpses they afford into Arab for of sheep with the wool, as mentioned 2 Kings ii. 4. thought and feeling during the period of the old free desert This was refused after the death of Ahab, and an expedi- life of that people. the led against them by Jehoram in alliance with Jehosha- MOAT is a broad and deep trench round the ramparts piii, thoach at first successful, was ultimately compelled of a fortress, that may either be kept dry or filled with to retire ; on account of some unexplained disaster - there water. In practice it is generally dry. The depth is about cama great wrath upon Israel" (2 kings iii. 27). A period | 12 feet and the width 24 and upwards, soinetimes even 120

regular border warfare appears to have followed this feet. The rampart is generally formed of the earth taken catrain, and the Moabites are reckoned among the from the moat or ditch. The more perpendicular the walls per of Israel when Jerusalem was taken by the of the moat, the greater will be the obstruction offered

taldeans. After the return from captivity Sanballat of to the enemy. In regular works the walls are lined with Brunarin, a Moabite, took up a position of hostility to masonry, that below the rampart being called the scarp, lesenish, and the latter at the close of his book mentions and the opposite side the counterscarp. le energetic measures that he adopted to mark his dis- MOA'WIYA, the sixth Caliph, and first of the Omavad

sore with those Israelites who had married Moabitish dynasty, was the chief of that house of Omaya which, islen. By Ezekiel (chap. xxv. 8-11) the Moabites are under his father Abu Sofian, had personally opposed the createned with the invasion of the children of the East; Prophet himself, and more than once almost ruined his n though some centuries afterwards, in the time of career. Moawiya became one of Mohammed's secretaries,

wwflas. they were still a great people, they seem to have when a hollow conversion of the Omaya to Islam took sex cu'nbed to an Arab invasion, and their memory as a place. At the death of Othman (656), Moawiya raised karate pation has long passed away from the land they Syria (his government) against Ali, the Prophet's son-inGubited.

| law and legitimate successor, and against Ali's sons Hassan Tat at times a very bitter feeling of enmity prevailed and Hussein, the grandsons and only descendants of the tin the Israelites and their neighbours, the Moabites, Prophet. Thus began the first civil wir among the Moslems. sendent from many of the incidents of Old Testament Ayesha, Mohamined's wife, " the mother of the faithful,"

y, and from the tradition concerning their origin aided Moawiya against Ali, of whom she had always been

ved in Genesis xix. 30 et seq.; but at the same a bitter enemy, and Ali's victory on the Day of the Camel" tre tbere must bave been long periods when the two was almost jeopardized by her ferocious courage in the field, *ks were in a state of friendly intercourse, as when when she refused to quit her camel though seventy men da ci went down to dwell in the land of Moab, and when fell at her bridle in the fight. In the long contest that tJews at a much later period, driven out by the King of 'ensued 70,000 Moslems fell. Eventually by the assassiB: S, took refuge with the Moabites (Jer. xl. 11). | nation of Ali at the hand of some obscure fanatics, who 1: * the allusions of the Old Testament also we are also attempted unsuccessfully his own life, Moawiya, on

ided many glimpses of the condition of the Moabites. Hassan's retirement in 661, succeeded to the caliphate, Lu the people of Israel, they recognized a national deity and the hereditary foe of Mohammed at last sat in Moham

wlon their king was vicegerent; they were the med's seat. The fate of HASSAN and Hussein is given te of Chemosh, as the Israelites were the people of in the article under that title. Moawiya reigned till 680. Jaiah Nam. xxi. 29; Judges xi. 24). Possessed of a MOB, an undisciplined or disorderly crowd; a contraction

te land, the people were high-spirited, wealthy, and of the Latin term mobile rulgus, the fickle or restless I ss for the number of their sheep and their cultivation commonalty. The word mob was first used for the lower Fiberine. But they have left scarcely a trace in history, orders by the courtiers of Charles II. Si spurt from the Scriptures scarcely anything is known MOBILE, a seaport and the largest town of Alabama, piter habits or customs.

in the United States, is situated on the Mobile River, imMOAK KIBAT, recording angels in the Mohammedan mediately above its entrance into the bay of the saine Indle ods of the Koran, who count daily the good and name, 140 miles east by north of New Orleans, and 1033 '* bad deeds of the inan whose attendants they are from from Washington. It has an advantageous position for ** cravie to the grave, entering the good deeds ten times trade, being the natural outlet of the greatest cotton region #tum, but waiting seven hours before entering a bad in the south, and possessing good railway accommodation. why i lest happily the sinner may make full repentance, The site is a level sandy plain, sufficiently elevated for the blot it ont.

purpose of convenient drainage, being about 15 feet higher MO ALLAKAT, an Arabic terin signifying suspended, than the bay. The streets are wide and planted with • in by the Arabs to seven long poems in their language' trees. The entrance to the harbour has been much imdi Lurr come down from pre-Mohammedan times. An proved with the aid of Congress grants, and a breakwater

i oft-repeated tradition asserts that these poems were was constructed in 1877. The city has the usual public i opis, on account of their superior excellence, to be written buildings, a Roman Catholic cathedral, numerous churches,

ter's of gold on rolls of cloth and hung upon the walls medical and Jesuit colleges, inarket-house, two hospitals, mea cand. This tradition can be traced back for about and an intirmary. The bay is 30 miles long by from 3 to , Tears, but its falsity has been conclusively proved by 18 miles broad, protected at the entrance by Forts Morgan * In xbolarr. There is every reason to believe that and Gaines, taken by the Federal squadron under Admiral * * D* were not written at all until about the eighth Farragut in 1861. The population in 1880 was 29,132. *****y, but until that period were transmitted orally by MOCH'A or MOKHA, a fortified town and a port, in . 4 of men termed ruris, who made it their business the province of Yeinen, in Arabia, is situated on the eastern Pam and repeat the works of the poets. The seven shore of the Red Sea, near its mouth. The celebrated

w of the Moallakat are selected from the works of the Mocha coffee is brought from the interior for shipment, **** Ainrualkais, Tarafat, Zohair, Labid, Antara, Amr ibn and about 10,000 tons are annually exported to Jeddah, Atvirn, and Harith ibn Hilliza, who flourished during Suez, and Bombay, besides dates, guins, senna, horns, *?ath and the early portion of the seventh centuries. Of hides, balm, irory, and gold-dust. The chief imports are

forts, Labid is the only one who became a convert to rice, piece-goods, iron, hardwares, slaves, and ghee, from i "Tedanism, and his poem was composed during the Abyssinia, but many of the goods are only brought to pas period of his life. When tested by the standards of Mocha in the way of transit. The harbour is only adapted

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souri throughout is rapid, and its waters turbid (the name In summer they feed on the grass of the prairies, and in itself signities “Mud River "); but no serious obstacle is winter on the cane and rushes of the alluvial soil. Here presented to navigation from its mouth to the falls, a and hogs are numerous. The bison is met with in le distance of 2570 miles, except perhaps shallows during herds on the prairies enst and west of the Ozark Morinthe season of drought. The Missouri is a larger river than tains, and also elk and deer. The sur trade is considerable the Mississippi prior to the junction between them; but as The minerals chiefly consist of lead, coal, iron, copp, and the former was the first explored, the waters below that | salt. The principal lead region is on both sides of Bg point received and retain the name of the Mississippi. | River, an affluent of the Maramee, and extends about 100 The total length of the Missouri from its source to its miles in length by 40 in width. The ore is of the ribe junction with the Mississippi is 2908 miles, to the Gulf of quality, and very abundant. Iron ore exists in m Mexico 4194 miles.

tainous masses 200 and 300 feet higb, and some of the MISSOU'RI, one of the United States of North yield 80 per cent. of metal. Coal exists in several para America, is bounded N. by Iowa, E. by Illinois, Kentucky, | There are also numerous other minerals and marbies. and Tennessee, S. by Arkansas, and W. by the state of Much wine is made by the large Gennan population in Kansas, the Nebraska and Indian Territory. Its mean the state. There are also woollen and cotton factor. length from N. to S. is 280 miles, and its mean width from | iron-works, breweries, distilleries, and tanneries. The E. to W. 225 miles. The area is 65,350 square miles. principal export trade is in beef, pork, tatlow, Lives, 4.1 In 1880 the population was 2,169,091.

live stock, with lead, furs, timber, and Indian car. T. In the southern part of the state an extensive bottom-western towns supply caravans or trains to New Mexica land extends along the Mississippi, as far north as opposite Utah, and California. the mouth of the Ohio. It includes many large swamps, Though this country for more than a century had been which are rendered almost impenetrable by a dense growth visited by the French from Canada, no settlement was of trees, mostly cypress. The most extensive of these formed before 1763. St. Louis was founded in 1761 swamps, called the Great Swamp, commences near the In 1803 the United States obtained possession of tone head of the bottom and passes southward to the mouth of region, which was then comprehended in Louisiari. Tthe river St. Francis, penetrating far into the state of following year the state now called Louisiana was separato Arkansas. The high grounds along the Mississippi begin from it, and Missouri became a separate territory. La 1! 12 miles below Cape Girardeau, and extend to the mouth | it was admitted as a member of the Union, and format 15 of the river Missouri. This undulating country extends constitution. The state of Missouri joined the Satleri westward to the river Gasconade, occupying the basin of Confederacy in 1861, and was the scene of many audicis the Maramec as far south as the lead-inining district. It in the War of Secession. is diversified with many extensive prairies and forests, the MIST, aqueous vapour, rendered visible by thtenpr. lower lands being well wooded, but the high grounds very ture of the air being so far reduced as to precipitate scI! thinly.

of the vapour in minute liquid particles. When the ans Between the rivers Gasconade and Osage, both of which is very thick it is called a fog; but it is rather paradoxical are affluents of the river Missouri, a range of low hills that a mist is always wetter to the feel than a fog. Periap approaches the Missouri, rising from 150 to 200 feet above the reason is that the particles of moisture are larger in the level of its water. They are thinly wooded, and con mists than in fogs. See also Fog, DEW, CLOUD. stitute the most northern offset of the Ozark Mountains, MISTLETOE (Anglo-Saxon misteitan), a parasitia which rise to 2000 feet. The country west of this moun- plant which flourishes on the branches of many kiads or tain region, especially the basin of the Osage, resembles trees in Northern Europe. It is the liscum album of that which is east of the river Gasconade, its surface being botanists, and is frequently found on the apple, ani. undulating and diversified with woodlands and prairies. often on the oak in the west of England. In its natural The prairies occupy by far the largest part of the surface. | state it is beliered to be propagated by the missel thrast, This region, however, does not extend to the banks of the which feeds upon its berries. Artificial propagation is Missouri, being separated from it by a rich alluvial soil, effected by bruising the berries, and, by means of their 13which extends along the river from the mouth of the Osage cidity, causing them to adhere to the bark of fruit trees to that of the Mine River, with a width of 4 or 5 miles. where they readily germinate and take root. The beauties This bottom is probably the most fertile portion of the or shoots of the mistletoe, reduced to powder, hare ben state. Opposite to it extends a similar bottom-land along employed in epilepsy. The plant belongs to the LORANthe northern banks of the Missouri from Côte-sans-Dessein TUACEÆ. The Druids regarded it with peculiar revert. to the river Chariton. In the country north of the At the commencement of the winter solstice a fetime! 728 Missouri, which comprehends about one-third of the state, held, when the Druids and the people went furth will et the fertile tracts are nearly exclusively confined to the pomp and rejoicings to cut the mystic plant. It apa. In bottoms along the Missouri and Mississippi.

ance on the tree was held to betoken the presence of The MISSISSIPPI washes the eastern boundary for 550 god of healing, the Druidic Apollo, the many-panei B.. miles, and the Missouri traverses the state from west to lenus, Barvo, Grannus, &c. (See DRUIDS.) In the se east. The Grand River and the Chariton fall into the mythology it is the mistletoe, weakest of trees, unahra Missouri on the north bank; the Gasconade, Osage, and stand alone, which yet furnishes the shaft for the rest Mine River fall into it on the south. The Maramec and with which the blind Hödur killed Baldur, god of being Salt River are affluents of the Mississippi.

| See BUDUR. The climate of Missouri is cold and extremely variable. | MIS'TRAL or MAESTRAL is a north-west wird The winters are severe and long. The Missouri is frozen which prevails on the south coast of Europe at certaa so hard for several weeks as to be safely crossed by loaded times of the year. The Italians call it vloestrale, fruca waggons. The summers are often hot, but very variable. | the Lat. Magistralis, the masterful wind. The sun

Tobacco, cotton, maize, wheat, rye, oats, and barley are its approach are a sudden change of temperature fra the staples of Missouri. The soil and climate adapt the warm to cold, a clear sky, and, if at night, an extraurdia country to yield all the products of the southern states, brilliancy of the stars. The wind dries up the sui, Sexcept sugar, as well as most of the vegetables and fruits / perses the vapours of the atmosphere, canses much 42m of England. A little hemp and flax are cultivated along to the fruit trees in blossom, and raises a tumult in * the Mississippi, and cotton is grown in the south. Cattle waters of the Mediterranean, which is much dresded bp abound where the bottoms and prairies are near one another. / the French and Italian sailors.

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MITE is the name commonly given to small arachnids away with him, that (so the tale runs) he was impervious fring the order ACARIDEA, but often restricted to a to all poisons known. He became one of the most skilled faily of that order, Acarida. The Acaridæ or true mites athletes of his time, and as for his culture, the simple fact are among the lowest types of the Arthropoda. Many of that he was accustomed to transact business in all the bem are parasites, living on or under the skin, within the twenty-five languages and dialects spoken in his rast mngs and air passages, the muscles and blood vessels, of dominions shows the great extent of his learning. As soon the animals. Others, again, live in decaying animal and as he wielded supreme power he extended his empire over spetable substances, in unrefined sugar, flour, cheese, &c. Kolchis and bevend the Caucasus, annexed the Tauric They are very minute, the body is soft, and the skin thin. Chersonesos (Crimnea), and erentually the kingdom of Tie jawy are nipper-like or pointed, in the latter case being | Bosporos itself. His empire now inclosed the Euxine retra tile into a horny sheath ; and there are no eyes. The (Black Sea), and he aimed at nothing less than rivalry caws are sometimes provided with suckers. The cheese- with Rome. In 88, therefore, he attacked the Roman nuite is Turoglyphus siro, belonging to a genus which in- provinces of Asia and Phrygia, Galatia, &c. (Asia Minor), dades several other injurious species, as Troglyphus sac- and speedily became their inaster. At his command all

hari, found in unrefined sugar, and Tyroglyphus farina, Asia rose against the hated masters of the world, and found in four. The ITCH-MITE (Sarcoptes scabiei) also 80,000 Romans and Italians perished in one massacre. belied to this family. One of the most degraded forms Rome was beside herself with rage. Her greatest comstremder jolliculorum, which occurs in the hair follicles mander, Sulla, was despatched at once through Greece and sebaceous glands of the human skin, especially in against the foe. The main forces of the king met those those of the nose, and is doubtless the “ maggot in cheese- of Sulla in Greece, and were twice completely defeatedtxa Zer's nose of Butler's " Hudibras," It is a minute, at Chairôneia and at Orchomenos—while the king himself sender, elungated, worm-like mite, with a suctorial mouth, was overthrown by the legate Fimbria in Asia (B.C. 87). asi te ring in the anterior part of the body four pairs of Mithradates sued for peace, and as Italy had rerolted against vert abort legs, each of which terminates in two claws. Sulla's government in his absence he was fortunate enough

MIT FORD, WILLIAM, a historian of some celebrity to obtain it (B.C. 84) at the price of all his conquests, Dis das, was born in London, 10th February, 1744. He eighty ships, and a fine of 3000 talents ( £732,000) in gold. stand at Oxford, but left without taking a degree. In Sulla's lieutenantsannoyed Mithradates after their general's 1769 be made the acquaintance of Gibbon, and it is sup- departure by petty incursions, till Sulla peremptorily ordered pused that his intercourse with that historian induced him them to cease (1.C. 82); and this is sometimes called the to ordertake his own literary work. His chief work, a second Mithradatic War. The third and greatest war arose ** History of Greece," was published in successive portions over the inheritance of the kingdom of Bithynia, which between 1784 and 1818. It is now entirely superseded the Romans claimed, while the King of Pontus supported by be works of Grote, Thirlwall, &c. Mitford died 8th the native heir. He had by this time (74 B.C.) got together Ferarv, 18 27.

ia large army of nearly 200,000 men, all trained on the MIT FORD, MISS MARY RUSSELL, a cele- | Roman model, and with this powerful force he succeeded brated Dorelist, was born at Alresford, Hants, in 1786. in utterly defeating the Roman consul, Cotta, at Chalkêdon,

* *as the only daughter of a physician, whose extrava- and then lay siege to Kuzikos (Lat. Cyzicus), in the Sea a baits reduced his daughter to the necessity of seeking of Marmara. The other consul, Lucullus, compelled hiin berans of subsistence by the labours of her pen. Of to retreat with great loss (B.C. 73), and in the next year pers: appearance as an authoress she thus speaks in her followed him and thoroughly defeated bim. Mithradates 21 Taphical memoir-+ In my very early girlhood I fled to his son-in-law, Tigranes, king of Armenia. Lu

wed my destiny, as a pupil of Miss Rowden, by | cullus followed him in 69, and both in that year and the penitting the sin of rhyming. No less than three octavo next defeated the two kings in critical engagements. But trapes had I perpetrated in two years. They had all the as soon as he retired Mithradates gathered strength, and the

its incident to a young lady's verses; and one of them year 67 saw him in possession of the greater part of his dans deservedly castigated by the Quarterly.” When ! original kingdom. Cn. Pompeius (Pompey the Great) was

tnt series of Our Village," on which Miss Mitford's next sent out, and under his vigorous command Mithradates 13 is chiedly built, made its appearance in 1806, it was again driven into exile. With a small army he now

ested a very favourable notice from the same review. marched round to the head of the Palus Jæotis(Sea of Azof), de these delightful sketches other four volumes were whither l'ompey declined to follow him; and he was pre

rd, and the fifth and last appeared in 1832. In paring to invade Italy by land when a determined rebellion 113* be produced her * Recollections of a Literary Life," among his troops foiled all his plans. He quickly found atste rolames; and in 1854 her dramatic works, * Julian" | himself a prisoner in the tower in which he had taken

*25). “ Foscari "(1826), ** Rienzi" (1828), and "Charles refuge, and seeing all was lost he rainly tried to destroy bart, were collected in two volumes 12mo. She died himself with poison. But he had long since made himself 52!*v. Her Life," told by herself in letters to her friends, proof against all poisons, and at last he called in an fby the Rev. A. G. L'Estrange, with an introductory attendant, who at his request despatched him by the sword : be the Rer A * by the Rev. W. Harkness, was published in 1870. (B.C. 63). Cicero, his contemporary, considers him the

TARADA'TES, a common name among the Medes strongest opponent the Romans ever had, and the greatest i l'ersians (from Hithras, the Persian name for the sun). ruler since Alexander. Barne was written in several wars. On the Greek MITH'RAS, the sun-god of the Persians, which they it is written Mithradates. The most celebrated worshipped as the purest emblem of the divinity. This prices of the name were the kings of Pontus, de- , solar cred spread over a great part of Asia, and under from Artabazes, one of the seven Persian chiefs various forms extended throughout Europe. On the revival Tihrew the Magi (B.C. 521). The Mithradates of the Persian religion under the Sassanids, the mysteries ures so largely in the history of the close of the and festivals of Mithras were celebrated with great splendour.

pablic was King of Pontus from 120 to 63 B.C. | In ancient statuary he is represented as a young inan with Med Eupator, and also ** The Great." He ascended a turban on bis head and kneeling on a prostrate bull, one * 28 a boy of eleven, and at once had to use all of the horns of which he holds in his left hand, while with Tuinary abilities and address against his faithless the right he is plunging a dagger into the animal's neck. · He 80 saturated himself with antidotes to The worship of Mithras was introduced into Rome soon

consequence of the frequent attempts to make after the fall of the republic, and maintained a certain

B Tan Republic was Hvis spied Eupator. this time as a boy his straordinary abilit pardians. He so satur

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for vessels drawing 10 or 12 feet of water. All round the decoyed by the fancied calls of their mates, or dive with shore is a hot sandy waste. The town is strongly fortified. precipitation into the depths of thickets at the scream of It contains several mosques and caravanserais, and a popu- what they suppose to be the sparrow-hawk." lation of about 5000.

The mocking-bird is between 9 and 10 inches in length; MOCK SUNS or PARHELIA. See Halo.

the plumage of the upper parts is brownish-ash colour, with MOCKING BIRD (Mimus polyglottus) is a well- the wings and tail nearly black; the lower parts and known American bird belonging to the thrush family brownish-white. The mocking-bird is found principally is (Turdida). It inhabits a very considerable extent of both the woods of low districts, where it feeds upon the berries North and South America, having been traced from the which grow in profusion on the luxuriant thickets of the states of New England to Brazil, and also among many of swamps, and also upon insects, which it often captures un the adjacent islands; it is more numerous in the states the wing with great dexterity. In winter it lives ehitiy south than in those north of the river Delaware, being near farmhouses, and at all times displays a liking for the generally migratory in the latter, and resident (at least proximity of the human species. many of them) in the former. A warm climate and low The mocking-bird builds a nest of twigs, leaves, grasses, country, not far from the sea, seem most congenial to its cotton, flax, &c., in the fork of a branch; the eggs, frotn nature; accordingly we find the species less numerous to three to six in number, are pale green, blotched and spotted the west than east of the great range of the Alleghany, in with umber brown. It becomes very familiar in captivity. the same parallels of latitude.

but its powers of song are much weakened by its loss of Wilson and Audubon have both expatiated on the astonish- liberty. There are about twelve other species of the grous ing vocal powers of this wonderful song-bird, and the grace Mimus, mostly from South America, all possessing remarkand elegance of its actions. The following is a portion of able powers of song. Wilson's description :-“The ease, elegance, and rapidity of MODE (Lat. modus), in music, is the order of the sounds his movements, the animation of his eye, and the intelli- forming the different scales. [For the modes of the ancient gence he displays in listening and laying up lessons from Greek music, see the article GREEK MUSICAL SYSTEM; almost every species of the feathered creation within his for the mediæval modes, see the article MODES, ECLESThearing, are really surprising, and mark the peculiarity of ASTICAL] Mode, in modern musical language, siguines his genius. To these qualities we may add that of a voice the melodious arrangement or derelopment of the scale od full, strong, musical, and capable of almost every modu- the octave. When all the intervals of a key (reckised lation, from the clear mellow tones of the wood-thrush to from the keynote) are major, it is said to be in the man the savage scream of the bald eagle. In measure and mode, and when the Third and Sixth are minor, the boy accent he faithfully follows his originals; in force and is in the minor mode. The chromatic mode contains tweito

notes to the octave, each a semitone apart.

MODEL, THE NEW, the title given to the army of the Long Parliament after its vigorous reorganizatioa in connection with the SELF-DENYING ORDINANCE (arst passed in the Commons, 19th December, 1644) This to organization was not achieved until after almost internecie struggles in Parliament; but the bill was finally passed for the New Model (Fairfax baving been previously elected general) 19th February, 1645. Thenceforth the king had never a chance against the army of the Parliament, an the Civil War drew rapidly to a close.

MODELLING. Modelling in clay requires the aid of a few tools; but no tool is more useful than the fine, indeed, tools are mere aids to the fingers, designed to do what these cannot well perform. Wire tools are most be ful, being fashioned into loops of various shapes and size,

round and angular, fixed into wooden handles. The woouen Mocking Bird (Mimus polyglottus).

tools are made of box and ebony, of various shapes and

sizes-curved, straight, pointed, rounded, and tlal and sweetness of expression be greatly improves upon them. broad; the broad tools being notched, and designed chess Neither is this strain altogether imitative. His own native for working the large convex masses, or large folds un notes, which are easily distinguishable by such as are well drapery. acquainted with those of our various song-birds, are bold The clay used is common potter's clay, but of the fines and full, and varied seemingly beyond all limits. They quality. It must be so wet that it will not stand in a 1146 consist of short expressions of two, three, or at the most much higher than its own width without support. In five or six syllables, generally interspersed with imitations, supports for the clay are a most important cousideratas; and all of them uttered with great emphasis and rapidity, for if not properly attended to, the finished work, the frib and continued with undiminished ardour for balf an hour of months of labour, might suddenly fall to pieces by." or an hour at a time. His expanded wings and tail, own weight. Sculptors generally model figares of the glistening with white, and the buoyant gaiety of his action, ordinary size upon a bench or stand called a banker, at arrests the eye, as his song most irresistibly does the ear. | 30 inches high and about 30 inches square-for a bet: He sweeps round with enthusiastic ecstasy; he mounts must of course be much bigher; above this a solid circus and descends as his song swells and dies away. While plinth is fixed on a wooden box, and is revolved apou si thus exerting himself, a bystander destitute of sight would or more wheels, or wbat are better, short slightly coora) suppose that the whole feathered tribes had assembled rollers, fixed to the plinth near the circumference. Are together on a trial of skill, each striving to produce his volving plinth is necessary to enable the sculptor to see his utmost effect, so perfect are bis imitations. He many work on all sides in any light, and it allows him to work times deceives the sportsman, and sends him in search of on all parts in one spot or in the same light. On the birds that perhaps are not within miles of him, but whose centre of the plinth is built up a skeleton framework of notes he exactly imitates; even birds themselves are fre- iron and wood, projecting in various directions, to support quently imposed on by this admirable mimic, and are the various parts of the figure.

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