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of which are native in this country. Lawsonia inermis is | popular. This novel was succeeded by the “Disowned ” tbe celerated HEXNA of the East. Cuphea contains many in 1828 ; by “Devereux " in 1829; and by Paul Clifford" species which are cultivated; they are natives of tropical in 1830; while two works, entitled “ Eugene Aram" and Azerica. Sonneratia apetala supplies good, close-grained “Godolphin," were completed and published in 1833. wud; it is a native of India at the mouth of the Ganges. The Mr. Bulwer of those years was a very busy as well linia cymosa, the Hardpeer of the Cape, is a shrub as a very celebrated man, for in 1831 he was returned to gewing from 4 to 10 feet high in rocky places; its wood the House of Commons as member for St. Ives, and he is used for the axles and poles of waggons, as well as sat for Lincoln from 1832 to 1841. In 1833 he suclo: picture frames, &c. The POMEGRANATE (Punica ceeded the poet Campbell for a few months as editor of Granatum) is placed by Bentham and Hooker in this order. the New Monthly Magazine, and the same year published

The order is closely connected with the myrtles, but his “ England and the English.” To a continental journey the general distinguishing marks are the following:- The we owe the “ Pilgrims of the Rhine” (1834), the “ Last e2yx-l bes are ralvate; the petals are generally corrugate Days of Pompeii” (1834), and “ Rienzi” (1835). On ad deciduous ; the stamens are definite or numerous, the return of Lord Melbourne to power in 1834, he offered attached round the calyx-tube; the ovary is generally free, Lytton, who had helped him with a pamphlet called “The with two or several cells, numerous ovules, attached to Crisis," a place in the government, which was declined, but the axis of the cells, or arising from the base. There is in 1835 Bulwer accepted a baronetcy, which was conferred Obe filiform style with capitate stigma; the seeds are ostensibly as a recognition of his eminence in literature. tittcut albumen. The leaves are mostly opposite, entire, In 1836 Sir Edward Bulwer produced a play entitled " The oiboot stipules. There are about 250 species.

Duchess of La Vallière," which was withdrawn after a run LYTH RUM, a genus of plants belonging to the order of only thirteen nights; but his novels, “ Ernest Maltravers ” LITHEARTELE. Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) is (1837) and its sequel, “ Alice, or the Mysteries " (1838), a satire of Europe, about the margins of ponds and rivers, fully sustained his high reputation as a writer of fiction. and is very plentiful in the British Isles. The colour of the He was ambitious, however, to succed as a dramatist, and eters raries from crimson to purple. The herbage is undeterred by his previous failure he produced in 1838 mirnally almost smooth, and of a dark green, but in dry and the two following years three plays which have kept izations it becomes hoary and downy, as well as more the stage ever since-"The Lady of Lyons," " Richelieu," wat in stature. Lythrum hyssopifolia is found in damp and " Money.” By the death of his mother in 1843 he p*** in England and Ireland.

became the possessor of Knebworth and large estates, and LYT TLETON, a seaport of New Zealand, in the altered his surname to Bulwer-Lytton in accordance with cesty of Selwyn, walled in by precipitous hills, nearly in her will; but he continued his literary labours with inthe coast centre of the Middle Island. It was formerly abated vigour, publishing “Night and Morning" in 1841;

on by the name of Port Cooper, and is also called Port ** Zanoni" in 1842; “ The Last of the Barons” in 1843; Leurs It has a large shipping trade, and is 174 miles "Lucretia, or the Children of the Night," in 1847; and by sea from Wellington, and 190 from Dunedin north. “Harold, the Last of the Saxon Kings," in 1848. In the 1: s oppbected with Christchurch, 8 miles east, of which latter year he published anonymously in Blackwood's

as it is the port, by a railway tuppelled through the Magazine a work written in an entirely different style to EL. The town is fairly built, and well provided with that of his previous novels, entitled “The Caxtons," and not racions edifices, schools, banks, and all the usual insti- until it had made a reputation did he acknowledge the 13 as of a prosperous trading centre. The entrance to authorship. He continued to work with success the new te barbour is about 2 miles wide, and there is every vein he had struck, and followed up “The Caxtons" with

ir for the loading of vessels, as ships of large draught “My Novel” in 1853, and “What will He do with it?” in Ce it alongside the jetties and wharves, of which there are 1858. He returned to Parliament in 1852, and now sat on beral, carving from 116 to 1318 feet in length. The the Conservative side. He was colonial secretary under Basic or bas been improved by the erection of a breakwater Lord Derby from 1858 to 1859, and was raised to the too Officer's Point, 210 feet long, which affords protection peerage as Baron Lytton in 1866. In 1862 he contributed tries the south-west gales. The Naral Point breakwater "A Strange Story," to Charles Dickens' All the Year * 1434 feet long; the two breakwaters inclose an area of Round, and he afterwards published anonymously two bet 112 acres. The depth of water within the break- | very successful stories, entitled “The Coming Race" and mas rares from 17 to 23 feet at low tide. There is also “ The Parisians." His last novel, “ Kenelin Chillingly," 4 mariag dock. The population in 1881 was 4127. was written almost upon his deathbed, and he was engaged

LYTTON, EDWARD GEORGE EARLE LYT- in correcting the proofs only two days before his death, TON BULWER-LYTTON, BARON, author, drama- which took place at Torquay, 18th January, 1873. In is. and politician, a younger son of General Bulwer of addition to the works already enumerated, Lytton was the H a Hall, Norfolk, was born in May, 1805, His author of brilliant superficial essays on historical subjects,

I was the heiress of Richard Warburton Lytton of and a host of minor productions, while he made earnest Verth, Herts. He graduated B.A. at Cambridge in and persistent efforts to take rank as a poet. Ignoring his in.. .ng in 1825 gained the chancellor's prize for juvenile productions, he published, as his first serious effort

e verse by his poem of “Sculpture.” During his in original verse, “ The New Timon," a satire, in 1845; perka dars be published some volumes of poems, among

rthur," a romantic epic, in 1849, upon which he 2 twite * Isinael" (1820): “ O'Neill, or the Rebel" | declared he would base his best hopes of fame; “ St. (*und be printed, though he did not publish, a Stephen's" in 1860; the "Lost Tales of Miletus" in 1866;

a entitled " Weeds and Wild Flowers." His first and a translation of Horace's “Odes" in 1869. In spite Pro Turk, an abortive romance entitled " Falkland," was of his own opinion of the merits of his works, it is generally 1301 ancaymously in 1827. In the following year admitted that he has failed as a poet, and it is only as

dnond Pelham," which soon became wonderfully novelist that he has any chance of being remembered.

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MACARO'NI was in the last part of the eighteenth | illustration, and he defended Earl Grer's measures with so century the name for a dandy, and was adopted by some inuch vigour and effect that he was offered the secretaryyoung bloods who had travelled in Italy and had brought ship of the Board of Control. In 1832 he was returned home the Italian dish of that name, which they introduced to the reformed House of Commons for the important at their fashionable entertainments. The vice, insolence, borough of Leeds. Two years later he resigned his sit and frivolity of these Macaronis centring round the gardens to proceed on a mission to Calcutta, wbere, as member of of Vauxhall and Ranelagh serve as bases for the fictions of the Council and president of the Legislative Council the period, and certainly have never been surpassed in : (1834), he carried out numerous reforms in the Indian England. The term is preserved in the original verses of laws. In the face of a bitter and unscrupulous opposition, " Yankee Doodle," who

| he passed an Act which submitted to the jurisdiction of “Stuck a feather in his cap and called him Vacaroni."

the local courts the civil affairs of the English scattered

throughout India, and consolidated various heterogenes MACARO'NIC VERSE. AS MACARONI gets its statutes into a harmonious whole, which was known as name from the Italian word macarre, to pound up and the Macaulay Code. mix, macaronic is a very appropriate epithet for this kind of Soon after his return to England (1839) Lord Melbourne verse, invented by the Italian Teofilo Folengo, and first conferred upon him the post of secretary at war, which be published by him in 1521. It is a mixture of Latin, or held until the downfall of the Whig ministry in 1841. In dog-Latin, with a native patois. It is susceptible of very | 1840 he had been returned to Parliament by the electors absurd effects; Molière has given some magnificently ridi of Edinburgh. He continued to represent the Scottish culous examples in his “ Médecin malgré lui.” The best capital until 1847, when he was unseated on account of work on this subject is Delepierre's " Littérature Maca- the liberal vote which he had given in favour of the Mayronique" (Paris, 1856).

nooth College endowment. Macaulay was keenly sensible MACAS SAR or MANKASSAR, the chief town of of the injustice done him, and retired for a time from a Dutch settlement of the same name, on the S.W. penin- | Parliament to devote himself to his favourite studies. At sula of the island of Celebes, is situated at the mouth of the instance of Lord John Russell, however, he held the the Goa. The port is free, and the harbour affords good office of quartermaster-general, which he had accepted in anchorage. The chief exports are rice, sandal wood, ebony, 1846, with a seat in the Priry Council, until 1848. In opium, tortoise-shell, gold, spice, coffee, sugar, cocoa, nuts, the latter year he was unanimously elected Lord Rector of and edible nests. Cotton, firearms, and spirits are imported Glasgow University; and in 1852 Edinburgh again returned from Europe. There are valuable trepang fisheries. The him to Parliament, without the slightest solicitation on his climate is healthy. The population is about 20,000. It part, or without his even having promised to accept the was colonized by the Portuguese in 1512, became subject office if he were elected. to the Dutch in 1710, and was made a free port in 1846. Notwithstanding his parliamentary and official labours, The harbour is defended by Fort Rotterdam, whose ancient Macaulay had found time to prepare his * History of Engand irregular batteries descend to the sea-line. Its trade | land," the work by which he is best known, the first with China is considerable and direct.

volume of which appeared in 1848. Blending in bis MACASSAR STRAIT, 300 miles long, and from 60 to narrative traits, pictures, allusions, biograpbical sketches, 240 miles broad, separates the islands of Celebes and Bor and even classical quotations, he troubled himself but little, neo. The western side is much frequented by vessels bound | as he said in his preface, about what is called the dignity to China late in the season.

of history, so long as he succeeded in conveying to his MACAU'LAY, THOMAS BABINGTON, LORD readers an exact knowledge of the public and private life MACAULAY, historian, poet, man of letters, and states of their ancestors. Nor did he pretend to absolute inman, was born 25th October, 1800, at Rothley Temple, in partiality. He could not but profess for the heroes of Leicestershire. He was the son of Zachary Macaulay, a liberty, for the patriots who had bled and suffered wealthy merchant, whose indefatigable devotion to the cause England's freedom might be established on an eternal basis of the emancipation of the negro was rewarded after his that earnest admiration which he felt, and he lauded the death by a tomb in Westminster Abbey. After the usual achievements as warmly as he denounced the tyranny er course of instruction under a private tutor, he was sent to bigotry of their oppressors. His History, therefore, bus Trinity College, Cambridge, where his remarkable mental | not escaped the attacks of political critics, and Tory powers immediately attracted notice, and served to gain writers have laboured to impugn many of his conclusios for him a fellowship which was afterwards of great service. It cannot be said, however, that he has been convicted of Destined for the law, he was next entered at Lincoln's Inn. misrepresentation except in two instances; and even bis In 1826 he was called to the bar, but he thenceforth vir warmest admirers must admit that he has failed to do tually abandoned the legal profession.

justice to the memory and fame of William Penn and John, In the preceding year (1825) his essay on Milton had duke of Marlborough. appeared in the Edinburgh Review. Its brilliant style, The gradual decline of his health, and the immense solid criticism, and extensive information produced an research necessitated by a historical work conducted on instantaneous impression that a new and superior luminary such novel principles and laid out on so elaborate a scale, had risen upon the literary horizon. This essay was the prevented Macaulay from continuing his enterprise with first of a series which was continued for fifteen years with any great rapidity. It was not until 1855 that the thin constantly increasing excellence. The most able and inter and fourth volumes of his History appeared, and the on. esting are those on Milton, Addison, Hallam, Pitt, Bacon, carried the reader down to the peace of Ryswick in 1697. Byron, Chatham, Frederick the Great, Johnson, and As a poet, Macaulay's fame will rest on his " Lars of Gladstone.

Ancient Rome," his * Armada," "* Irry," "Naseby," and A warm partisan of pure Whig principles, which colour "Moncontour." In other departments of poetry he would all his writings and influence his estimates of the men and probably have failed through his very affluence and prodideeds of the past, he was called at a comparatively early l gality; his prize poems and some of his early writings age to play an important part in the political world. He show that, like Tarpeia, the weight of his golden spis entered Parliainent in 1830 as member for Calne, and would have crushed him. But the essence of the ballad, participated in the violent debates which attended the as an accomplished critic remarks, is simplicity-simplicity introduction of the celebrated Reform Bill. His speeches not inconsistent with the richest word-painting. The were characterized by forcible reasoning and felicitous | vivida ris-the life, force, movement-conspicuous in all

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Moular's writings, are displayed in his ballads with , with only a few scattered minute hairs. From their size, kiirlar success, so that in English literature, and in their brilliant plumage, and good temper these birds are favourite

peculiar line, they are unrivalled. They have called pets. The natives of South America give the general name Birth a bost of imitations, but none have even approached of Ara or Araraca to the macaws, a denomination which wir excellence. It must not, however, be supposed that is evidently in imitation of their note. Hence some orniVacaniar was a poet in the higher sense of the word, but thologists prefer the generic name Ara, while others use a be possessed the poetic faculty, and it is this which en- | third generic title, Sittace. the rare and surpassing merits of his prose,

The Scarlet or Red and Blue Macaw (Macrocercus la 17 he was raised to the peerage, a tribute, it has macao) is the largest of the group, measuring sometimes town said to his high and blameless character and literary as much as 3 feet from the bill to the tip of the long tail. ** stoo, and an act of royal favour quite unexpected, It also surpasses the rest in magnificence of plumage. bu Lils approved by all whose approbation was of real The principal portion of the plumage is of a bright scarlet TEX. Though he took his seat in the House of Peers, colour; the quill-feathers of the wings are of a fine blue; Derer spoke in that “august assembly."

| the greater wing-coverts are yellow, tinged with green; the Macsular was never married. Yet was he a man upper and under tail-coverts are blue, the two middle tror domestic affections, and he lavished a wealth of | feathers of the tail crimson, and the remainder of the taile ng the children of his sister, Lady Trevelyan. He feathers, which gradually decrease in length towards the TuS 4 wann friend and a generous opponent, and it may sides, are partly red and partly blue. The feet are dusky be truthfully said of him that in all his political life he black, the naked skin of the cheeks wrinkled and white, the *Intei no lasting entity,

upper mandible whitish, and the lower one black or dusky. He lot vears were harassed by the distressing symp- This splendid bird inhabits Central and South America ins of polmonary disease, and his friends and admirers as far as Bolivia. It dwells in pairs or in small family

wth deep regret that there was little chance of his parties in the depths of the forests, generally taking up its

to complete the colossal work on which, as on a abode about the palm-trees, upon the fruits of which it to 2-6 2Tent more enduring than brass—monumentum ære a great extent subsists. The nest of this species is made peren uns-be had hoped to establish the superstructure in a hollow tree, and the bottom is lined with feathers. * 19 during fame. Yet his end, when it came, came It has two broods in a year, and lays two eggs at each

Lit and unexpectedly. He fell asleep, as tranquilly time; these are white in colour and about the size of ste Lad lived, on the 28th of December, 1859, in the pigeons' eggs. The young birds are tolerably easily tamed, * your of his age. On the 9th of the following although they do not exhibit the docility of many other

T his remains were honoured with interment in parrots, and rarely learn to speak, even indistinctly. The destr. ister Abbey.

great beauty of their plumage, however, causes them to be There is a common impression that in society Macaulay highly valued, notwithstanding the excessive harshness of Teasing and overpowering. Every one has heard the their cry; and in former times a specimen of this bird was *ty saring of his old friend Sydney Smith (no two men not an unacceptable present even to royalty itself. *24 appreciate each other more highly or more justly) | The Blue and Yellow Macaw (Macrocercus ararauna)

tubes of silence." But in the quiet intercourse is another large and beautiful species. The upper surface a xoze friend, no great talker was more free, easy, is of a rich blue, and the lower yellow; the long graduated 1.aial than Macaulay. There was the most equable tail is blue above and yellow beneath; there is a large finlange of thought; be listened with as much courtesy black patch on the throat, and the bill is of the same at bespoke with gentle and pleasant persuasiveness. In colour. Artificial flies for salmon fishes are largely made I circle, such as he delighted to meet and assemble of the feathers of the tail. It is more docile than the scarlet cond hun to the close of his life, a few chosen intimates, | macaw. Another species, somewhat rarer in collections, is

vep'isted ladies, foreigners of the highest distinc the Red and Yellow Macaw (Macrocercus chloroptera), , who were eager to make his acquaintance, his man which ranges from Panama to Brazil. The Red and Green

. frank and open. In conversation in such a circle, Macaw (Macrocercus militaris) is remarkable for extenda "manding voice, high animal spirits, unrivalled quick- ing as far north as Mexico. It is smaller than the last

appreliension, a tow of language as rapid as inex- species. The general colour of the plumage is a fine dale, care him përhaps a larger share, but a share green, changing into blue on the upper surface; the fore

a few were not delighted to yield up to him. His head bears a crimson band; the wings, rump, and upper cts were like lightning, and clothed themselves at tail-coverts are bright blue; and the tail-feathers are scar$ns words While other men were thinking what they | let. Some ten or twelve other species are known, all com42 , and how they should say it, Macaulay had said paratively rare in captivity: one of these (Macrocercus fel, ami a great deal more. And the stores upon which tricolor) is peculiar to Cuba. So far as is known the

!!!Tery could draw seemed inexhaustible. A wide habits of all the inacaws are similar to those described for * Gink and Latin history and literature, English, the scarlet macaw.

Italian, Spanish ; of Gerinan he had not so full a | MACAW-PALM. See ACROCOMIA. Ask, bat be knew the best works of the best authors ; MACBETH or MACBEATHAD MACFINLEGH,

Te be learned for the purpose of his History. With | as the chroniclers call him, whose name is immortalC ette anecdote, touches of character, drollery, fun, ized by Shakspeare's tragedy, was at first maormon or "1**tres excellently told.

ruler of the province of Moray, and by marriage with the "ibe Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay" (London, granddaughter of King Kenneth Macduff became allied en by his nephew, George Otto Trevelyan, M.P., is one to the older royal family. He took up arms against king > post fiminating biographies of our time.

Duncan M.Crinan, grandson of Malcolm II., who had killed MACAW (Macrucercus) is a genus of birds belonging | King Kenneth and usurped his throne. Macbeth succeeded

e P-ITTACI, which contains the parrots and the “gracious Duncan" as king of Scotland, on Duncan's aiks. Tbe inacaws are confined to tropical America, | defeat and death in battle, near Elgin, in 1039. In his

er fra Paraguay to Mexico, and only one species at administration he displayed great energy, no ordinary * mesest day is found in the West Indies. The macaws ability, and a fervent love of justice; but the partisans of LY!? Le trst part big sbowy birds with large bills and the Duncan dynasty rose against him, and, assisted by

****; the upper mandible is much curved, and the Siward, the Danish earl of Northumbria, and Macduff, * L. ciets the cheeks is nearly naked, being clothed the maormor of Fife, defeated him at Dunsinane Hill in

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Perthshire, in 1054. It was not on this occasion, bowever, I Romans, and who ruled the land with much justice, mildnor by the land of Macduf, the man "pot of worra born," , Dess, and wisdom for over seven years. The quiet prosthat Macbeth fell. He was defeated and shain in iar sight, i perity of these years caused the rem of Simon to be at Lamulanan in Aberdeenshire. in 1056, after a re zu of long rernembered as a bright spot in the later history of seventeen years, and Jaicoim Canmore, son of Danean, the Jews, the periods before and after being marked with succeeded, after a brief attempt to retain the crown on the much turbulence and blood bed. Simon was treaclercas's part of Macbeth's nephew.

murdered along with two of his sons (B.C. 135) br bris The legend of the murder of King Daf by his fassal son-in-law Ptolemy, and was succeeded by his son Jcha Donwald and his wife when on a visit to then at Forres, Hyrcanus, who renewed the alliance with Rome, and which Shakspeare found in Holinsted's Chronicle History captured and destroyed (B.C. 103) the fortified city of of Scotland," be skilfully interwove with the account of Sanaris. After his death (B.C. 106) his eldest son Duncan's assassination by Macbeth, which Holinshed sub- | Aristobulas I. reigned for one year, and be was followed by stitutes for the king's death in battle. The witches' pro- | Alexander Jannaus (B.C. 103-70), a vindictive and blood. phecy, the murder of Banquo, and the other main incidents thirsty warrior; the wife of the latter, Alexandra (B.C. of the tragedy are all to be found in the pages of the old 78-69), who ruled according to the counsels of the Pharichronicler, who had in his turn copied it from the still sees; Aristobulus II., who had to contend for the throne earlier work of Boece (1527). Gruach, Lady Macbeth, the against his brother Hyrcanus, and who, after being seat a princess of history, not of poetry, was, as is shown above, prisoner to Rome, was poisoned on his way back (B.C.45); the representative of the true line, Duncan of the usurping and Hyrcanus II. (B.C. 46-30). Marianne, the proad and family. The historical (not Shakspeare's) Macbeth had beautiful wife of Herod, may be called the last of tbthus a warrant for rebellion.

Maccabean family. She became the wife of Herud, B.C.3.. MAC CABEES, the name given to a Jewish family and was put to death by his orders, B.C. 26. celebrated for their heroic resistance to the oppression of MAC'CABEES, THE BOOKS OF THE. Fin the Greek kings of Syria in the second century before the books have come down to us under this title, of which Christian era. The original of the term has been variously | three are still reckoned among the canonical Scriptores derived, one account finding it in the combination of the by the Eastern Church, and two by the Roman Catho initial letters of the Hebrew sentence, “ Who among the Church, but which are all rejected as apocryphal by the gods is like unto thee, Jehorah ?" (Exod. xv. 11), and Protestant churches. The First Book of the Vaccaters another in the cognomen of Makkabis (hammer) assumed contains the history of the Jews during forty years, fruar by a prominent member of the family.

the accession of Antiochas Epiphanes, B.C. 175, to the Wen by the efforts of Antiochus IV., and the indiffer- | death of Sinon, B.C. 135. The original, according to the ence of the mass of the Jews, the worship of Jehovah unanimous testimony of the fathers, was written in He seemed about to give way to the adoration of the deities of brew, but this version has long been lost, and the book the Greeks, Jattathias, a priest who had withdrawn in has been preserved by means of the Greek transitiu sorrow from the desecrated temple and city of Jerusalem From internal evidence the book is ascribed to a Palestras to the small town of Modin, gave the signal for revolt | Jew, and though its date is uncertain it is generally placed (B.C. 167) by killing with his own hand a renegade Jew | by scholars between B.C. 120-100. The writer appears to who was about to offer idolatrous sacrifice. In the tumult have had access to official records and the narratives of occasioned by this act the Syrian officials were also slain, eye-witnesses, and his history bears throughout the trans and Mattathias with his five sons, John, Simon, Judas, of honesty and candour. The Second Book of the lacneEleazar, and Jonathan, took refuge in the desert country | bees is avowedly the abridgment of an earlier work in tive of Judea. Here they were joined by many courageous and books, by one Jason of Cyrene, which had been comb resolute adherents of the old faith, and an irregular war- | from various sources. It begins with two epistes ? fare was commenced against the Syrians. Well acquainted posed to be addressed by the Palestinian Jews to t with the country, and assisted by their friends in the brethren in Egypt, inviting them to celebrate the feast of towns and villages, they were able to surprise and destroy the reinauguration of the temple. These are certains several of the small armies sent against them, and wher- spurious and of late date, and the history, though it is ever they obtained the upper hand they threw down the a few years earlier than the first book, is mainly a repe heathen altars and temples, circumcised the children, and tion of the latter, mingled with observations of a mitad reinstituted the worship of Jehovah. On the death of and religious character. It is less trustworthy than the Mattathias (B.C. 166) the command of the insurgents was first book, and it plainly bears the stamp of being written assuined by his son Judas, whose victories over the superior for a religious purpose. It appears to be the work of an numbers of the enemy were so striking and effectual that he Alexandrian Jew, and to have been originally written 13 was enabled to take possession of Jerusalem (B.C. 164), Greek. The Third Book of the Vaccabees records 3 purify the temple, and reconsecrate it to the service of persecution of the Alexandrian Jews by Ptolemy 18. Jehovah. In commemoration of this act a feast, the feast | Philopator, and of their deliverance by Divine interposam of the Dedication of the Temple, was afterwards annually and the ultimate repentance of the tyrant. It is quite observed by the Jews. Judas was subsequently besieged in unhistorical in its character, and the events it records tot Jerusalem, but was saved by the withdrawal of the Syrian to a time earlier than that of the Maccabees, but it is still general, and later he endeavoured to obtain the pro- | read in the Eastern Church. The Fourth Book of the tection of Rome for the new Jewish state. His embassy | Jaccabees, also known by the title, On the Supreme was favourably received, but before it returned Judas fell Sorereignty of Reason, contains chiefly a fuller bistory of in battle, tighting to the last against overwhelining num- the martyrdom of Eleazar, of the seven brothers, 121 bers of the Syrians. The command then devolved upon their mother, which forms the subject of 2 Macc. 57. Vion Jonathan, who renewed the treaty with Rome, took an ) and the author uses these incidents to illustrate the soves important part in the dispute between the rival claimants | reignty of pious reason over the pasaions. The authorip for the Syrian throne, and obtained from one of them the of this book was ascribed by Eusebius and Jerome to appointment of high priest. He was murdered by the Josephus, but modern scholars reject this theory, and orders of Tryphon, the guardian of the young prince Antio- | nothing certain is known as to its origin. The ! chus Theos (B.C. 143), and was succeeded by his brother Book of the Jaccabees only exists in Arabic and Spra, Sinon, who in his capacity of high priest and chief ruler | Its history extends from the attempt of Heliodorus of the Jews obtained recognition both from the Syrians and plunder the temple to within a few years of the burta »


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miler has made use of the two books of the ages, especially favoured by knights in armour, as more of Josephus, and has no claim to be con- | effective against armour than the sword, and less cumber

some than the lance. Hence it grew to be a symbol FIELD, a municipal borough of England, of command, being the appropriate weapon for a commiles froin London by the North-western mander (as for instance, William the Conqueror at the

miles S.S. E, of Manchester, is situated on battle of Senlac or Hastings); and for state purposes and at the base of a range of high land which it still serves in that capacity. The mace of the city ets of Cheshire and Derbyshire, and is a part of London (Sir William Walworth struck down Wat un region of the latter county. The Bollin, Tyler with his mace before despatching him with his the Jersey, runs through the town. A canal, dagger) and that of the House of Commons ("* this the Grand Trunk and Peak Forest canals, bauble," as Cromwell called it when dismissing the Rump) Macclesfield, and thus opens a water com are the two most celebrated state maces.

most parts of England. The town has MACE, a Chinese coin, is the tenth of a Chinese tael,
y accommodation. There are four principal and is worth about 7d. English.
ng from the market-place in various direc- MACE is the crimson covering of the nutmeg, the

se number of smaller ones. Considerable whole being inclosed in a fleshy fruit. When the fleshy
dave been carried out in various parts of the part is removed the mace is stripped from the nutmeg and
cent times. The guildhall is a modern dried, in this state constituting the well-known spice. The
graceful design, and the public room is mace is botanically considered as the Aril, while the
concerts and meetings. A subscription nutmeg is the seed. See NUTMEG.
bout 20,000 volumes, and in 1876 a fine MACEDO'NIA, an ancient country lying to the north
ng a building and 10,000 volumes, was of Thessaly. In the days of Strabo the boundaries included
cown by Mr. Chadwick, M.P. The town a considerable part of Illyria and Thrace; but Macedonia
ke hospital and infirmary, built in 1871, Proper was separated from Thessaly on the south by the
nd was added in 1884, a free grammar- Cambunian Mountains; from Illyria on the west by the
1902, and rebuilt in 1866. A public great mountain chain called Scardus and Bernus, and which,

been laid out, and a cemetery was under the name of Pindus, also separates Thessaly from the sanitary condition of the town is Epirus; from Mæsia on the north by the mountains called n-rate usually low.

Orbelus and Scomius, which run at right angles to Scardus; was founded by Eleanor, queen of and from Thrace on the east by the river Strymon. The There are several other churches in Macedonia of Herodotus was still more limited. Macedonia

the suburbs, Sutton and Hurdsfield. Proper, as defined above, is watered by three large rivers, Places of worship belonging to differ- the Axius (Vardar), the Lydias, and the Haliacmon,

which flow into the Thermaic Gulf (the modern Gulf of the chief scats of the silk-throwing Saloniki). The whole of the district on the sea-coast, and o tourishing as formerly, but still | to a considerable distance in the interior, between the Axius

enty mills. Every variety of silk and the Haliacmon, is low and marshy. The only other From the narrowest ribbons to the rivers of any importance were the Strymon and the Angites, s, Plain and figured gros de Naples, whose valleys were separated from that of the Axius by a

Velvets. It is likewise the chief range of mountains which run from Orbelus on the north The facto r e of silk handkerchiefs of every towards the peninsula of Chalcidice. The Strymon (Struma)

es are situated on the Bollin, and rises in Mount Scomius, and flows into the Strymonic Gulf d-looms

not fitted with power-looms, but (Gulf of Orphano). Not far from the sea it forms a lake. till emploved. In addition to the called Cercinitis (Kerkine), into which the Angites flows

re also some cotton factories in from the eastward. s two weekly markets, and five The Macedonians were probably an Illyrian people, though

it appears that their princes were an Hellenic race, and
Norated by a charter of Prince parts of the country were inhabited by Hellenic tribes from
1. in 1261, and subsequently by an early period. Perdiccas is usually regarded as the

n e . It is divided into six wards, founder of the kingdom, the limits of which were confined
c ermen and thirty-six councillors. to the country in the neighbourhood of Edessa, between the

as 37,514. Macclesfield was Lydias and the Haliacmon. Very little is known of its Dorough, but was disfranchised history till the reign of Amyntas I., who was king at the

time of the expulsion of the Pisistratidai from Athens, B.C. o f barony and seaport of Scotland, 560. Amyntas was succeeded by his son Alexander I., D ated a mile from Banff, and 49 who was obliged to accompany the Persian army into On the Moray Frith. The town is Greece, but was able to render important services to the

the sea-shore, and is a favourite Grecian cause. The time of Alexander's death is uncertain, protet o ur is suitable for small vessels, but he lived at least to B.C. 463. He was succeeded by

in 1877. It is the private pro Perdiccas II., who took an active part in the Peloponnesian

Hose residence is in the vicinity. War, and alternately assisted Athens and Sparta. His suc

on in grain and cured herrings; cessor Archelaos, Lat. ARCHELAU'S (B.C. 413) was the wisimported. The principal build- est king that had till then sat upon the throne of Macedonia. Church, Free church, Congrega On the assassination of Archelaos, 399 B.C., confusion - house. Previously to 1783 the prevailed for many years; and it was not till the accession

Doune, but it was then changed of Amyntas II. (393 B.c.) that order was restored. l e family name Macduff, and its Amyntas was succeeded by his eldest son Alexander II.,

et attained by the aid of his suc- who was assassinated at the end of the first year of his Soft staat in 1881 was 3641.

reign by Ptolemy Alorites, who was regent for three der with a large heavy head (the years during the minority of Perdiccas; but in consequence

ed from the Latin word for a of abusing his trust he was cut off by Perdiccas, 364 B.C.

a weapon of war in the dark | Perdiccas, after a reign of five years, fell in battle

Moje field was incorno krvi, sa of Henry III., II

sovereigns of Ens-1 1 0

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