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Cheshire rock-salt baring destrored this branch of manu- i trace the use of the term back to the fifteenth century, and facture everywhere. Its port, too. was of great note, for find its origin in the act of James Fitzstephen Lynch, a in Edward III.'s reign it contributed more than twice as magistrate of Galway, Ireland, who is said to bare lunged many ships for the inrasion of France as Portsmouth. his own son without the formality of a legal trial for the Lymington returned two members to the House of Com- crimes of murder and robbery; wbile a third theory wculd mons until 1868, and one from 1868 until 1885. The derive it from the Anglo-Saxon word liuch, which meant population in 1881 was 4366. It has many houses for to beat with a stick or club. In the well-settled states the accommodation of sea-bathers, a very handsome 1 lynch law is almost unknown, except in times of great parish church, a town-hall, baths, and custom-house, and popular excitement; but in the frontier towns and inining a celebrated yacht-building yard. The harbour admits camps it is still a recognized and useful institution. In vessels of 600 tons. Steamers ply to Portsmouth and the the early history of the western states lynch law was adIsle of Wight.
ministered by regularly formed societies, known as vigilance LYMPHATIC SYSTEM. The lymphatics are the committees, or regulators, and as the authority of these system of vessels which, from the part that they take in bodies was supported by all the reputable members of the the process of absorption, are not unfrequently called ab community, they were able to promptly break up and disperse sorbents. They consist of minute branched tubes of es- any criminal organization, and to keep the most reckless tremely delicate membranes, like very small and thin-walled desperadoes in awe. In dealing with minor offences the veins, and most of them, like reins. are provided with folds punishments administered generally consisted of the givin: called ralves, to prevent a backward flow. Their extremities of a few hours' notice to quit the town or camp for ever, are arranged in a more or less dense network in every part flogging, or tarring and feathering; but burglary, highway of the body, except in the hair, nails, outer skin, and a few robbery, horse stealing, and murder were always punished other non-vascular parts. From this network they gradu- | with death. ally converge into a succession of branches of increasing LYND'HURST, a village in the centre of the New size, and terminate in the thoracic duct, which empties Forest, Hampshire, 8 miles W.S.W. of Southampton, and itself into the left subclavian vein. There is a much 87 miles from London, being 3 miles from the Lyndhurst smaller duct on the right side, emptying into the right | Road station of the South-western line. It has only subclavian vein. The flow of the lyinph is always in one 1589 inhabitants, but contains the king's House, or official direction, and is due to the pressure of the muscles of the residence of the lord warden of the forest. It possesses body upon the lymphatics as they swell when called into a pretty Second Pointed church, with a tower and action, and also the vis a tergo, the pressure of the lymphoctagonal spire 130 feet high. In the vicinity is the itself from behind as it is continually absorbed (compare spot where William Rufus is supposed to have been slain the flow of sap in a tree). The great bulk of it passes by Tyrrel's arrow. upwards the whole length of the spine along the thoracic | LYNDSAY, SIR DAVID, See LINDSAY, SIR DAVID. duct. This is chiefly provided by those absorbents of the LYNN, distinguished as Lynn Regis, or King's Lynn, lyınphatic system which surround the alimentary canal, and a parliamentary and municipal borough, port, and marketwhich are called la because the fluid they extract town of England, in the county of Norfolk, is situated on from the food during digestion is milky in appearance | the right bank of the Ouse, a little above its outiall. It (Lat. lac, lactis, milk); and this milky lymph is called is 40 miles W. by N. from Norwich, 27 N. by E. frum chyle. But there is no essential distinction between Ely, and 99 miles from London by the Great Eastern lacteals and lymphatics in general. All lymphatic vessels Railway. Lynn is supposed to have existed before the pass at some part of their course through one or more of Conquest, and to be on the site of an old Roman tomli. the bodies known as lymphatic glands. These are glandular At present it extends in length a mile on the east bank of structures containing an envelope of nodules of gland sub the river, and is about half a mile in breadth. It is trastance with a central or medullary part of rounded cords, versed or bounded by several narrow streams, which are forming a close fine ineshwork. All this is supported by spanned by many bridges. There are yet remaining a few a kind of fine net or scaffolding of interwoven trabeculæ, fragments of the old walls, and also one of the original processes thrown out from the inside of the capsule of gates. The principal streets are parallel with the river. connective tissue which forms the coat of the gland. The Smaller streets connect them, or branch out from the lymph is poured into the nodular envelope by the afferent The town has been much improved; good streets have been lymphatics, permeates the gland, and is collected and laid out; several old ones widened and iinprored, and many taken away by the efferent lymphatics, which rise in the bandsome houses erected. The town is abundantly supplied central medullary portion.
with excellent water. The guildhall, an ancient buildi Chyle is elsewhere described (see CHYLE], and lymph of stone and fint, contains court-rooms, assembly-rooms, is just the same, only that it has less fatty and proteid and the muniments of the corporation. Among them is matter and is clear. And the composition of both lymph the Red Book of Lynn, said to be the oldest paper book in and chyle is in all main respects that of the blood, whose existence, which serves as a sort of chartulary for the corwaste it is their function to correct. Lymph is undoubtedly poration. There are also a borough gaol, an exchange and chiefly the liquor sanguinis, which is perpetually exuding custom-house, an excise office, a theatre, market-house and from the blood capillaries into the tissues they nourish, corn-exchange, athenæum, pilot office, and the West Norand which is thus collected by the lymphatics and restored folk and Lynn Hospital. "The Tuesday market-place is to the blood.
one of the largest and oldest market-places in the kingdom, LYNCH LAW, the name given, in the United States having been known by that name, Forum Martis, in the of America, to a rough, summary method of administering reign of Richard I. The Church of St. Margaret's is a justice or exacting retribution without the use of the or- cruciform building of spacious dimensions, containing por dinary forms of the law, which is sometimes adopted by tions of the Early, Decorated, and Perpendicular styles of communities, societies, or even by riotous and disorderly mobs. English architecture. It was thoroughly restored in 2015, The origin of the term is uncertain, though most authorities and a lantern tower of great height erected. The Chapel derive it from the name of a Virginian fariner of the of St. Nicholas is a large edifice, chiefly of Decorated or seventeenth century, who was accustomed to punish thieves | Perpendicular English architecture. All Saints Church is by flogging without calling for the aid of the law, and who, also a cross church, but of smaller dimensions than St. at the request of his neighbours, was accustomed to act as Margaret's The Chapel of our Lady on the Mount, or judge, though without recognized legal authority. Others | Red Mount Chapel, on the cast side of the town, is remark
able for its beautr. All of these have been restored within | mals, while others prefer to regard them as a section of ern times. The town contains some cocoa-nut matting the great genus Felis. The lynx was sacred to Bacchus, and flar mills, corn and seed-crushing mills, agricultural but it is uncertain to what animal the title was applied. ftiplement and inachine works, iron and brass foundries, a Many fables were told of this animal ; its sight was said to
phuikling yard, malt-houses, and breweries. The com- be so piercing as to penetrate opaque objects, whence we merce of the port is considerable, in consequence of the get our epithet "lynx-eyed." covenient harbour, which has been much improved by The Common Lynx (Felis lynx) is an inhabitant of catting a new channel. In 1869 the Prince and Princess | Scandinavia, Russia, and Northern Asia. It is now almost d Wales opened a dock with a water surface of 7 acres. extinct in Central Europe, in the forests of which it was The exports are principally corn and agricultural produce, once tolerably abundant: it is still found, extremely rarely, sent coastwise, and a fine white sand ground near the in the Alps. The lynx inhabits forests in mountain regions. town, and need for making glass. A vast quantity of They live on mammals and birds, and when more abundant shrimps caught on the shores of the Wash are sent to destroyed numbers of sheep and lambs. They are courLd. The imports are corn, coal, oilseed cake, and ageous and bloodthirsty, and capture their prey by stratapra tirber from America; timber, deals, hemp, and tallow gem, either lying in wait or stealing noiselessly upon it, from the Baltic; wine from France, Spain, Portugal, &c. and making a sudden spring. The common lynx is about Io 1883 there were 100 vessels (9000 tons) registered as 40 inches in length from the snout to the root of the tail, bazing to the port. The entries and clearances each the latter measuring some 6 or 8 inches; it stands 25 iterare about 1300 (210,000 tons) per annum. The inches high at the shoulders. The colour is variable, but anak pal borough is divided into three wards, and is goy usually dark reddish-gray, spotted with reddish-brown. anal by sis aldermen and eighteen councillors. The par Its flesh is eaten in Siberia and also in Switzerland. The lunetary borough had a population of 18,475 in 1881. skin is valuable. The Siberian Lynx (Felis cervaria) is It formerly returned two members to the House of Commons, | by some considered a distinct species; it is a little smaller ba: was deprived of one by the Redistribution of Seats Act than the common lynx. The Pardine Lynx (Felis pardina)
1**5. The Norfolk Estuary Improvement Company takes the place of the common lynx in the south of Europe, Lare recovered 4000 acres of land from the neighbourhood being found in Turkey, Greece, Sicily, Sardinia, and Spain. d king's Lyon since 1850, and the work is still in progress. It is smaller, with its fur reddish, spotted with black. The
King's Lyon (called Bishop's Lynn before Henry VIII. Canadian Lynx (Felis canadensis) is abundant in Canada referred on it its present name) received its first charter and the Rocky Mountain district. It is about the same to king John, in return for valuable services done him size as the common lynx. The fur is thick, gray above Bris inbabitants during the baronial wars. Its corporate with darker clouds, and lighter beneath. The Bay Lynx privleces were confirmed and enlarged by several monarchs, or American Wild Cat (Felis rufa) is smaller and is de131 Luty by Charles II. The episode in history most scribed as a cowardly animal. Its fur is reddish-brown. else, y connected with the town is the visit of King John | It is widely distributed throughout the United States, from
tly before he and his army were overwhelmed by the the Atlantic to the Pacific, the species described from During tide in the Wash hard by. He is then said to Texas, Mexico, and the Pacific coast (Felis maculata and £n* given the town a cup, weighing 73 ounces, and a Felis fasciata) being probably only varieties. It is not Bon, which are still exbibited to the credulous, but which improbable that all the so-called species of the lynx will urnal of later date-- the former being conjectured to be be found to be local varieties of one fundamental form. scolher than Edward III., and the latter than Henry VIII. The CARACAL (Felis caracal) is often called the Persian Lon was the only Norfolk town which declared for the lynx, and is nearly allied to this group.
a ainst the commonwealth, and stood a siege in 1643, LYONNAIS, a former province of France, which now 2 ntually had to capitulate after a partial cannonading forms the departments of RHÔNE and LOIRE. Lyons was forum W Lynn.
its capital. LYN TON GROUP of beds is an alternative name LY'ONS (the ancient Lugdunum, and in French Lyon), Sr the lowest subdivision of the Devonian rocks as the capital of the department of Rhône, in France, is situated derraped in South-west Britain. They consist of slates at the confluence of the Rhône and the Saône, 288 miles 64 xh.sts with green and purple sandstones and thin S.E. of Paris, and bad 352,292 inhabitants in 1882.
mes Tbey form in the aggregate a series of beds | Lugdunum is said to have been founded by L. Munatius doruderable thickness, but the base is not seen. They | Plancus, who settled a portion of the inhabitants of Vienna i ut rieb in fossil remains, the most plentiful forins (the French Vienne), when driven from their homes by a : brachiopods and corals; these, however, are not of revolt of the Allobroges, about 42 B.C. Strabo describes it as
u species, with the exception of the brachiopod the most populous city of Gaul, except Narbonne (iv. 192, pa reticularis. No remains of either cephalopods or Casaub.) It was the great mart of the Romans, who had epas tave been found. Several species of trilobites a mint here for coining gold and silver; and it gave name GTEI, 2.5 some fragments of fish remains. The beds to one of the four great divisions of Gaul. The city was bres about Loce, Cornwall, and near Lynton and Lyn- utterly destroyed in a single night by fire, about 59 A.D.,
and was rebuilt chiefly by a grant from the Emperor Nero, LYNX is the name of a group of animals belonging to to whom the citizens manifested their affection and fidelity ! tribe (FELIDE). The lynxes are intermediate in on his downfall. In the beginning of the fifth century * 32 hetween the lions, tigers, and leopards and the smaller the Burgundians possessed themselves of the town and of W catsThe ears are long and pointed, with a tuft of the south-eastern part of Gaul. On their overthrow it
ti bair at the tips, and the fur on the cheeks is came into the power of the Franks. During the Roman tence The lynxes are at once distinguished from the period, it occupies a considerable place in ecclesiastical as
is by the length of their limbs and the shortness well as in civil history. The gospel had been early intro**** tail, which is truncated at the tip. The pads of duced into this part of Gaul, and a severe persecution raged to lett are more or less overgrown with hair. The skull in the reign of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, in 172 or 177, ***Et dither in any essential character from that of the and the churches at Vienna (Vienne) and Lugdunum sent ** Tembers of the genus Felis, but that the small a relation of their sufferings to those of Asia and Phrygia. Lour upper premolar tooth is usually wanting, thus re- | Pothinus, bishop of Lyons, was one of the martyrs. His ***.22 15 total noinber of teeth to twenty-eight. Some | successor was Irenæus, one of the inost eminent of the
Les cunstitute a distinct genus Lynx for these ani- | carly fathers.
In the division of the Frankish kingdom under the many alterations and improvements have been made in the Merovingian princes, Lyons, as we may now call it, was widening of streets and the erection of handsome buildings. included in the kingdom of Burgundy (561-613). In the To afford room for the extension of the town southwards, division of the Frankish empire among the grandchildren the two rivers have been made to meet about a mile below of Charlemagne in 843, the city with the district of Lyon- their original junction, thus forming the peninsula of nais, fell to the lot of the Emperor Lothair; and in the Perrache, on which the streets are built with much regusubsequent division of his states in 855 to Charles, king of larity and elegance, and some beautiful promenades are la Provence, who made it his usual residence. On his death ont. In March, 1848, the old fortifications were ordered in 863 it was seized by Charles the Bald, king of France. to be demolished, and a wider enceinte constructed, so as On the re-establishment of the kingdom of Burgundy bv | to include the suburb of Croix Rousse. A considerable Boson in 879, Lyons was included in his dominions. In part of the town lies on the right bank of the Saône, both the troubled period of the later Carloringian kings, the shores of which are lined with quays. Here also is the town was subject alternately to them and to the kingdom steep hill and suburb of Fourvières on the south-west, and of Transjurane Burgundy. It was in these times that the the suburbs of Serin and Vaize on the west. On the left counts or governors of Lyons succeeded in establishing a bank of the Rhône are the suburbs of Brotteaux and Guillohereditary sway over the districts of Lyonnais, Forez, and tière, and the beautiful park and gardens of Fête d'Or; Beaujolais, but not over the city of Lyons, the lordship of its right bank is lined with quays throughout the whole which was obtained by Bouchard, archbishop of Lyons, length of the city, some of them being planted with trees, and after his time remained annexed to the see. The and forming delightful promenades. archbishops, whose temporal power over the city was con The suburbs of Fourvières and Croix Rousse are chicaly firmed by the emperor in 1157, received the title of exarch; inhabited by silk wearers. The hill of Fourvières is said they were allowed free and independent jurisdiction, except to derive its name from Forum-l'etus, an ancient Roman in so far as they were subject to the supreme authority of structure which stood on its summit, and on the site of the emperor and the general laws of the empire.
which the church of Notre Dame is now built. The remzins About the middle of the thirteenth century, the citizens of an aqueduct and amphitheatre have been found o became dissatisfied with the government of their ecclesiastical hill. From the terrace close by this church, or from a rulers; they elected a municipal body, between whom and tower erected near it, the view over the city of Lyons, with the archbishop dissensions broke out, which led to the an its two noble rivers, its squares, chief structures, quays, nexation of the city by Louis IX., the judicial administra avenues, and bridges, the bills and plains in the vicinity, tion remaining partly in the hands of the archbishop and and the snowy peak of Mont Blanc and the Alps of Daaphice partly in the municipality or consulate, as the civic council in the far distance, presents one of the most raried and of Lyons was called. The citizens had the right to elect most beautiful panoramas in Europe. their own magistrates, and to control the receipts and out The Rhône, which runs along the castern side of the lay of the municipal officers; they were also exempted from town, flows with a rapid current and a width of 656 feet, the jurisdiction of any courts but those established in the and is spanned by nine bridges, that unite the city to the city. Under this government the town increased in popu populous suburbs of Guillotière and Brotteaux, which are lation, wealth, and commerce, till the sixteenth century, protected from the inundations of the river by high eriwhen it suffered much at the hands of the Huguenots, but bankments. The Saône flows in a gentle current, with a recovered its prosperity in the seventeenth and eighteenth breadth of 492 feet, along the base of the hill Fourvières, centuries. In the year 1793, during the government of a projecting crag of which formerly blocked up the passage the Convention, the citizens rose against the tyranny of along the right bank, but was cut through by the Romans, the revolutionary club which had been established in the and hence it got the name of Petra Exscisa, still remaining city, and seizing the town-hall put Challier, president of in the modern name Pierre-Scise. It is crossed by thirteen the club, to death. To avenge this affront, the Convention bridges. sent an army of 60,000 men with 100 pieces of cannon. | Of the numerous squares or open spaces in the city, the The town was bombarded, and obliged, after a siege of finest are--the Place Bellecour, which is planted with lime sixty-six days, to yield to fainine and force; and during | | trees, and is one of the largest squares in Europe; and the the cruelties that followed in the next five months nearly Place des Terreaux, of which the town-ball and the Palais 6000 victims perished, including those who fell in the des Arts form two sides. defence; the principal buildings were demolished, and a The public structures of Lyons are numerous, and with new name-Commune Affranchie—was given to the city. some exceptions more remarkable for solidity than elegance. This dreadful blow, together with the long war which followed These tho space allowed for this article will permit increly the French Revolution, caused the commerce and manufac- to mention. Among the chief religious edifices are the tures of Lyons to languish. On the return of Napoleon splendid cathedral of St. Jean, on the right bank of the from Elba, in 1815, his cause was espoused by the Lyon- | Saône, the churches of St. Pierre, d'Ainai. de l'Observance, nese. In 1831 and 1834 Lyons was the scene of great | Notre Dame de Fourvières before mentioned, St. Nizier, disturbances, which originated in the disputes of the trades St. Bonaventure, St. Polycarpe, des Chartreux, St. Georgen, unions with the master manufacturers respecting wages, St. Irénée, and St. Just. These, together with the palace but were increased by the republican party, who made use of the archbishop, form a series of buildings interesting of them for their own purposes. In the last-mentioned from their architecture, extent, decorations, and antiquity. year, the insurgents, by barricading the suburbs, contested | Among the civic structures are the prefect's residence, once the possession of the town for two days with the military. a Jacobin convent, recently reconstructed at a cost of £60.000; Numerous famous historical personages have been natives the town-hall, the finest building of the kind in France; of this city; among them Claudius, Caracalla, and Marcus the court-house; the public library ; the Palais des Arts, Aurelius, Roman emperors; and St. Ainbrose, St. Irenæus, in which are galleries of paintings and sculptures, cabinets and Pope Clement Ví.
of medals, collections of minerals and of natural history, The city of Lyons is very advantageously situated on specimens of silk manufactures, &c. ; the ball of commerce, the railway from Paris to Marseilles, and on the navigable built at an expense of £120,000; exchange; the college ; rivers the Rhône and the Savne, in the fork between which the veterinary school; the mint; the general hospital, or the greater part of the town is built. This part of Lyons Hotel Dieu; the Maison de la Charité, or asylam for the formerly consisted of narrow, crooked, dirty streets, formed poor; the Hospital de l'Antiquaille, built on the site of tce by solid-built houses of seven or eight storeys high, but, Roman palace in which Claudius, Caligula, and Germanicus
were born; the Mont de Piété; the prisons; the two once left the sounding-board are free, and can be played iDeatres; and the numerous barracks.
from either side. The strings of the lyre passed over a The fortifications of Lyons were enlarged and bridge erected on the soundboard, to which their vibrations strengthened under the imperial régime, and consist of were thus communicated; and from the bridge they passed a girdle of eighteen forts. Its environs are now dotted freely up to the cross-bar or "yoke." To support the crosswith numerous country seats, gardens, and vineyards. bar two uprights were necessary, and these were called
Lucus is an important manufacturing town. The staple “horns;" the back of the soundboard, from its shape, was ar: cles of industrial produce are silk stuffs of all descrip- called the "tortoise-shell." The mostancient Grecian lyre had this, which are famous for solidity of texture, richness only four strings (efga). That of Terpander had seven ud permanence of dye. and beauty of design. In this (676 B.C.); and these represented a second tetrachord or
.bufacture about 250,000 of the population are directly group of four notes, beginning where the first left off, e indirectly concerned. Cashmere and silk shawls, rib- a bb c d'. Terpander's lyre ran therefore altogether burs, cotton cloth, hosiery, hats, printed calico, jewelry, efgabb c' d'. Later on an eight-stringed lyre was used, aquars, chemical products, gold and silver lace, crapes, where by beginning the second tetrachord a note beyond tuje glue, sheet lead, musical strings, ornamental paper, the first the consonance of the octave was obtained; thus, &r., are also made. There are, besides, numerous printing efg a, b c d'e'; the old seven-stringed lyres were made to **bishments, dre-houses, metal foundries, glass-works, serve for the new music by leaving out the note c' and peteries, tan-vards, breweries, boat-building yards, &c. tuning the last notes as d'e'. For the further development
Lyons is also, from its advantageous position, a place of of the lyre see GREEK MUSICAL SYSTEM. The defect mest emmerce. The products imported into the town in instruments of the lyre kind is that each string can only ut its own consumption, or for re-exportation, are wine, give one note, stopping (as in the lute or guitar, upon the brandy, oil, hemp, flax, soap, rice, chestnuts, salt, raw neck) not being possible with the open strings of the inatien, coffee, indigo, sulphur, lead, teazles, madder and strument. Therefore from eight strings only eight notes (T re-stuffs, &c. Timber, firewood, building stone, can be obtained as long as the tuning is unaltered. The od asphalt are the chief articles brought down the lyre was probably used merely to support the voice, and Ise to this city. Down the Saône are brought timber was of little more use melodically than a well-tuned drum. d all kinds, oak staves, firewood, charcoal, tanning bark, LYRE-BAT. See LEAF-BAT. na and iron ore, gypsum, hay, straw, corn, building LYRE-BIRD (Menura superba) is a remarkable face, bricks, tiles, &c. Steamers ply on the Saône to Australian bird, belonging to the order PASSERES, but ( n-sur-Saône, and on the Rhône to Avignon and not having any marked affinity with any other member of Arks. The town has communication with the Rbine by the Canal du Rhône-au-Rhin, and with Paris by the Sine and the canals that join it to the Seine. A railway, aj nues in length, unites Lyons to the great manufacturing ut of St. Etienne and the extensive coal-fields of the urpartment of Loire.
Lowas gives title to an archbishop, whose see includes the departments of Rhône and Loire. It is the seat of sob court and of a university academy. Connected wys the unirersity there are in Lyons faculties of theology 1. the sciences, a secondary school of medicine, and a
The city has also a tribunal of first instance, a sound and chamber of commerce, a council of prud'Barnes, an academy of sciences and arts, a theological ode 1 school of the fine arts, a mint, an establishment the draf-mutes, a school of arts and trades, besides various
er literary, scientific, and benevolent institutions.
Perpey, representing the lyre of Mercury or of Orpheus. Is 3 surrounded by Cygnus, Aquila, Hercules, and the head e Draco (see Plate CONSTELLATIONS, Northern Hemiplese, midway between the pole and the figure xvIII.,
* the colure). Its brightest star, Vega (« Lyræ) is a er sopar deras object in the sky from June to November. In A22st it is overhead from nine o'clock till midnight. Vega
sererth star in the sky for brightness; it shines with caesh lustre. The spectroscope shows that it contains Iratim, magnesium, sodium, and iron. If a line be drawn Sagt. the middle of Cassiopeia, the Pole-star, and the
Lyre-bird (Menura superba). 2 e of l'rsa Major, this fine star may be seen nearly in a fet ad:cular to that line drawn through the Pole-star. that order. The lyre-bird was first discovered in New
LY TRE (Gr. lura), a musical instrument of the stringed South Wales in 1798. The adult male is remarkable for tad, Entr under various names from the earliest histori- its long and beautiful tail, which is carried erect, and pre
period. Scme of the Greeks ascribe its invention to sents a singular resemblance to an ancient lyre. It is comBeren, sme to Hyperion; but it is possible that they posed of sixteen long feathers, the two outermost of which zey Lave had it from the Egyptians, and the Egyptians are very long and broad, and beautifully curvea
arved so as to ta Ace Of many instruments figured or described in represent the two sides of the lyre: they have the inner early writings it is difficult to decide whether they should web very broad, and the outer web very narrow. The beurd lyres, lates, harps, or guitars. The distinction middle pair of feathers have a narrow inner web and no
mes the true lyre and a guitar (citharis) is that the outer web; they cross one another near the base and di* Las a nerk extending from the soundboard behind the verge, curving round towards the tip like the outer feat!
2vbile in the lyre, as in the harp, the strings having | The rest of the feathers of the tail are furnished only
long slender barbs, disposed at intervals on the shaft. This | towards the end of the Peloponnesian War, and was placed beautiful tail is not acquired by the male till the fourth year, in command of the Lacedæmonian troops on the coast of and then is only present in its full beauty during the breed- | Asia Minor, B.C. 407. Unlike most of his countrymen, be ing season. The lyre-bird is about 3} feet in total length. had great flexibility of character, and gained the regard and The head is furnished with a crest of feathers, and the bill confidence of his Persian allies. During his year's command is rather long and robust.
he defeated the Athenian fleet, commanded by Antiochos, The legs and feet are long and strong. The tarsus and as lieutenant of Alcibiades, at Notion. In September, 406, toes are covered with shield-like plates; and the claws are he was superseded by Kallikratidas, who was defeated and long and nearly straight. The general colour of the plum- slain in the memorable battle of Arginousai. The allies age is brown, with red tints upon the secondary quills, the petitioned that Lysander might be reappointed; and having upper tail-coverts, and the chin and throat; the lower resumed the command he gained the decisive victory of surface is brownish-ash colour. The two outer tail- Aigospotamos, which terminated the Peloponnesian War. feathers are grayish-brown on the upper surface, and white | Lysander sailed to Athens, destroyed the fortifications and beneath, near the base; beyond this they are marked with the famous Long Walls, and set up the oligarcbs of the bands of grayish and reddish-brown, and terminated by a | Thirty Tyrants there. He accompanied Agesilaos, king of black patch. In size and general aspects it presents no Sparta, during his first campaign in Asia, where his popusmall resemblance to a pheasant, and it is known to the larity and renown threw his superior into the shade. About colonists of New South Wales under the name of the wood B.C. 396 he returned to Sparta, and meditated the overthros pheasant. Its habits also, in some respects, are very of the Spartan hereditary kingship. But when he consulted similar to those of a game-bird; it dwells principally the oracles he everywhere met with ambiguous responses on the ground, where it runs with great facility and The meaning of these, to the ancient Greeks, was 8000 scratches after the fashion of the true Gallinæ. So swift shown; for when, in the following year, on occasion of a is it in its movements among the brushes of New South quarrel with Thebes, he was sent into Phocis to collect Wales that Mr. Gould declares it to be the most difficult to contingents from the northern allies, be was taken by surprocure of all the birds he ever met with. “While among prise, and slain by the Thebans, at Haliartos in Baotia. the brushes,” says that distinguished ornithologist, “I and his grandiose plans came to nought. For some time have been surrounded by these birds, pouring forth their Lysander was the greatest power in Greece, and he was the loud and liquid calls, for days together; and it was only first to whom altars were built and sacrifices offered during by the most determined perseverance and extreme caution his life. that I was enabled to effect this desirable object."
LYSIM'ACHOS (Gr. Lusimachos), King of Thrace, w.23 The nest is placed on or near the ground, at the side of one of Alexander's generals; and when the vast empire a steep rock, or at the foot of a tree. It is composed of the great king broke up at his death (323 B.C.), and of sticks, roots, and moss, and covered with a dome-like was shared out into half-independent governments or viceroof, having the entrance at the side. The single egg royalties among the leading chiefs, Thrace and the countries is large, of a purplish-gray colour, with purplish-brown as far as the Danube fell to his share. He was a Maceblotches. The young bird is hatched about July, and donian by birth, but of mean origin, and made himself disremains in the nest for six weeks. The food of the bird tinguished for undaunted courage and activity. He took the consists of insects, especially in the larval state, and, title of king in 306 B.C. He joined other Macedonian kings according to M. Verreaux, the larvæ of a species of cock- against Antigonos, king of Asia, their foriner collea_ue, chafer constitutes its favourite food. The same orni and took part in the victory of Issus (301), where Antithologist tells us, that when they quit their resting-places gonos was crushed after many years of warfare, His share in search of food, the males are usually followed by several of the spoil was the northern part of Asia Minor. Daring females, although during the breeding season they live his wars against the barbarians to the north of his own terin pairs, and he adds that besides their natural song, they ritory, he was once compelled to surrender with his whole imitate the notes of all other birds so accurately as to de army (291), but eventually he rose to great power, and was ceive not only the ornithologist, but even the birds them able in 286 to drive Pyrrhus from the throne of Macedonia, selves. The note of this bird is liquid and varied. The so that he ruled thenceforward over all the European do flesh is dry and tough, and quite uneatable. The lyre-bird minions of Alexander, as well as a large part of Asia Minor. is known to inhabit New South Wales and the southern He was induced by his second wife, a daughter of his for parts of Queensland. Two other species have been de mer colleague, Ptolemy, king of Egypt, to put to death his scribed, Menura Victoria, taking its place near Melbourne, eldest son and his proper heir, Agathokles, and the widow and Menura Alberti, having a more northerly range of this prince fled for succour to Seleukos, king of Syria, Both species are very similar in character and habits another of the Alexandrian kings (281). He took up ber to the common lyre-bird. Prince Albert's Lyre-bird cause, and was joined by many of the cities of Lysimachos (Menura Alberti), however, does not possess the remark in Asia. The kings met in the plain of Corus, and Lysiable lyre-shaped tail; and its outer tail-feathers are machos fell. He was in his eightieth year. shorter than the rest.
LY'THAM, a pleasantly situated watering-place of LYRIC POETRY is commonly understood to be that England, in the county of Lancaster, on the north bank kind of poetry which is composed for musical recitation; of the Ribble, 2248 miles from London, in a remarkably but the epithet has been transferred to all kinds of verse well-cultivated district. It is frequented for sea-bathing; partaking in any degree of the same nature as that to which and a handsome pier, 914 feet long, has been erected for it was first applied. Thus we hear of lyric measures in steamboats as a promenade, and by the levelling of the Horace, where there is no ground to suppose that they were beach a good public walk, 2 miles in length, has been sung, and no special fitness for the purpose of music. Lyric obtained. There is every convenience and accommodation poctry may, then, be now defined as that class of poetry for visitors, numerous places of worship, a market-boose, which has reference to and is engaged in delineating the custom-house, and a dock where vessels discharge their composer's own thoughts and feelings, in distinction from cargoes for Preston. The population in 1881 was 4122. epic poetry, which details external circumstances and events. In ancient times the name of the place was spelt Ledin The former is therefore called subjectire, and the latter and Lethum. objectire.
LYTHRA'RIEÆ is an order of plants belonging to LYSAN'DER (Gr. Lusandros). a Spartan (either a the POLYPETALA (series Myrtales). The order derives slave in youth or of slave origin) who rose to eminence | its name from the genus LyTIRUM (Loosestrife), species