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ber undbey, lighting up the civilized world with the reflection | violent reformers were proceeding with such intemperance dits radarce. The nobles and the peasantry, the castles as to damage their cause, he left the castle in March, 1522, and the free towns, feudalism and commerce, rivalled cach and returned to Wittenberg. His influence and his energy aber in enthusiasm for Luther. At Marienburg, at Stras- speedily stilled the commotion that had arisen. bere, even at Mainz, there prevailed a constant struggle In the middle of the same year, Henry VIII. of England tur bis smalicst pamphlets. The sheet, while yet wet from entered the lists of polemical controversy, and published a De press, passed from eager hand to band. The literary reply to Luther's “ Babylonish Captivity." The grateful gids the fourishing in Germany, tinmen and shoe- / Pope rewarded his royal ally with the title “ Defender of Esters, braziers and tailors, greedily devoured the good the Faith" (Fidei de fensor), still borne by English

mer. Hans Sachs, the shoe- monarchs. The reformer answered with his wonted vehe201 post, celebrated in his most melodious strains the mence. In 1525 he still further asserted his independence

tagale of Wittenberg, " and the song, as it spread of the Roman Catholic Church by marrying a nun, Catherine veral the German land, swelled into the trumpet-tones | von Bora, who had escaped from her convent about two da ricton as pæan. The German nobles were foremost years before. She was descended from a noble family, Blus new commanion of thonght and sentiment. They was twenty-two years old, and of a handsome person. supported the Lero-reformer with money; they promised Though tried by the miseries of extreme indigence, the

active aid against all assailants. "I see very clearly," union proved a happy one, and Luther found in his celrich von Hatten, " that we must come to swords, wife a belpmate and a consoler. Four children were born hami, armour, and cannon. Do thou, my father, fortify to him, and in his domestic relations the reformer showed

y cance, and despise these wild beasts. I see each day himself endowed with a heart as true and tender as his Der ber of thv adherents augment; thou wilt be in no intellect was bold and aggressive. Tut of defenders." The friends of Luther were even from this time forward the life of Martin Luther flowed

tent in the Diet at Worms, and in one of the sittings a on with the fulness and steadiness of a great river. His metas produced which set forth that 400 nobles had labours were incessant, for work was the necessary condivi to defend him, and he who read it cried aloud - tion of his active spirit. The publication of his German fschub! Buntschuh!" the war-cry of the insurgent version of the Scriptures was not only an epoch in the his

tory of religion, but in the formation and development of Carles V. king of Spain, had been recently elected the German tongue. By the year 1533 seventeen editions Cent, and crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle, and his first of it were published at Wittenberg, thirteen at Augsburg,

etc Dxt was summoned to assemble at Worms in thirteen at Strasburg, with reprints at Erfurt and Leipzig. *?), w! the avowed object of checking the progress of | The bread was freely cast upon the waters, and was eagerly txt and dangerous opinions. The papal party, headed sought. Many of the German states embraced the Lutheran

Ad-t, prevailed upon the young emperor to issue creed, and its apostle found himself called upon to organize 15 mm for the destruction of Luther's writings. The and superintend the new churches that sprang up around

Es bewever, refused to publish the decree unless the him. From 1517 to 1526 a book or tractate from his pen * T were heard in his own defence, and a safe-conduct marked every year, and he wrote able and learned comB ilm ander which he might repair to Worms. His mentaries on nearly all the books of the Bible. In 1525

w bave had him disregard the imperial man a council was held at Augsburg, which adjourned to Spires **** hot Lather was wiser and bolder, and seized the in 1526, and at it a general council was demanded. In ?T y of proclaiming the truth before the great Ger- | 1529 a Diet was assembled at Spires, which determined o'i

3.1). His journey to Worms resembled a trium- suppressing by force the further promulgation of the 06.02. When he came in sight of the city, on the reformed doctrines. Against this intolerance several of the

apru. be rose in his chariot and chanted the noble German princes, and the deputies of fourteen imperial -tr - Marseillaise of the Reformation "-Ein feste towns, solemnly protested, and hence arose the appellation "T18 Bauer Gott (" A safe stronghold our God is still"). of Protestants, which has ever since been borne by the

the Imperial Diet be maintained the same sublime members of the Reformed Church.
I n the belp of heaven, and expounded his doc- | At this period occurred the camous

At this period occurred the famous controversy as to wel the eloquence of a vigorous and truth-fearing | the Real Presence of the body and blood

the Real Presence of the body and blood of Christ in the wer promises nor threats could induce him to Eucharist. On this point Luther still clung to a modifica"I be word of God," he said, " is not my word, tion of the Romish dogma of the Saviour's actual presence

Blot abandon it. Here am I," he exclaimed ; * I (transubstantiation), and to all arguments replied, " This 25 € do otherwise; so help me God. Amen!"

is my body." The discussion had no profitable result, but ?th of April he left Worins. An imperial edict excited much ill-feeling between Luther and the Swiss wa mway issued against hirn, and all persons were reformers, who stoutly opposed his doctrine of “con

iron affording him any assistance or asylum, substantiation." Terminy i high treason. As the only mode of saving In 1530 was held the memorable Diet of Augsburg, at Le friendly -lector canced him to be arrested when which the Confession of Faith prepared by Melanchthon

fo Alterhausen, and provided for him a secure was formally accepted, and Protestantism, from the dream Lis custle of Wartburg, where he was safe from of a solitary monk, rose to the dignity and substance of a ***n of his sanguinary foes. He spent a year national creed. It was immediately followed by an assem

", laneated by those of his friends who were blage of the Lutheran princes at Smalcalde (31st December, ***The of his concealment, and occupied his time 1530), where they entered into a mutual league of defence,

Lus great work--the translation of the New and agreed, if necessary, to maintain their religious opinions to Getrean. The version was published in by arms. The Smalcaldic League was the first movement

1. Seelu eded and sedentary life filled him with of the Thirty Years' War, which, in the course of its deSITTEO Retsations. He imagined himself to be solating career, brought all Europe within its influence,

the frequent presence of the Evil One, in the until the Treaty of Westphalia secured the rights and
toung moth; and they still show the pilgrim liberties of the European States.
1 black mark on the wall which records the To the excesses of the Anabaptists it is unnecessary to

kitand hurled at the intruder by the re- | allude, except in record of the sorrowful indignation with **** tand. He soon, however, shook off these which they filled the soul of Luther. The reformer con, and learning that Carlstadt and the more | tinued at his labours, earnest and resolute, till, in his


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sixty-second year, his health began to succumb. On the best editions are those of Wittenberg, in nineteen rols. folio, 23rd of January, 1546, he repaired to Eisleben to effect, with a life of Luther by Melanchthon (1539-58); Walch's if he could, a reconciliation between the counts of Mans- | edition, in twenty-four vols. 4to (1740-53), re-issued with feldt. In this labour of love he succeeded—a fitting con- enlargements, in sixty-seven vols., Ger. (1826-57), and clusion to his great and glorious career. On the 17th of twenty-three vols., Lat. (1829-61); and the Frankfurt February he complained of severe ailments in the chest, edition, recently issued at the expense of the Prossian and became so ill that a conviction of speedy death forced government; D'Aubigne's “History of the Reformation" itself upon his mind. He passed an uneasy night, and on (English translation, 1845-47); Ranke's History of the the following day gradually sank. “ Friends, I am dying,” | Reformation” (English translation, 1845-47); Serbohms he said to the anxious faces that thronged his chamber; “Era of the Protestant Revolution" (1877). Among tbe “ I shall remain with you at Eisleben.” He repeated fer-| lives of Luther may be mentioned those of Mathesias vently the prayer, “Into thy hands I commit my soul; (1566), Michelet (English translation, 1846 and 1862), thou hast redeemed me, O God of truth!” “Reverend Croly (1857), and lastly, that of Julius Köstlin (two vols., father," said his physician, “ do you die steadfast in the 1875). A popular edition of the last, abridged and illesfaith that you have taught?” Not a doubt flung its trated, was issued in one vol. in connection with the Luther shadow upon his soul in that supreme moment, and in a festival held in Germany in 1883, and an English transietone of indescribable earnestness, he answered, “Yes." tion appeared in London in 1884. He then fell asleep, and in a few minutes, breathing one! LUTHERANS, a term originally applied by the Roma deep sigh, surrendered his spirit to God. His remains Catholics to those who sided with the reformers of the sixwere conveyed in a leaden coftin to Wittenberg, and interred teenth century, but which was afterwards accepted 33 3 on the 22nd of February with the highest honours. A title by that section of Protestants who adopted the priccimost elaborate memorial to him and his principal fellow-| | ples of Luther, in opposition alike to the Roman Cathower, workers was erected at Worms in 1868.

the Swiss Reformers, and the numerous sects which alte. “ Luther's face," says Carlyle, “is to me expressive of wards arose. During the lifetime of Luther serious conhim ; in Kranach's best portraits I find the true Luther. trorersies arose as to the definitions of the terins law ar] A rude plebeian face, with its huge crag-like brows and gospel, and as to the doctrine of the Real Presence; wide, bones, the emblem of rugged energy; at first, almost a re | after his death, other conflicts arose, which ended in the pulsive face. Yet in the eyes especially there is a wild, separation of the Protestants into two great divisions, kr: silent sorrow; an unnameable melancholy, the element of respectively as the Lutheran and the Reformed. Luther's all fine and gentle affections; giving to the rest the true friend and lieutenant, Melanchthon, though he remair:-) sta f nobleness. Laughter was in this Luther; but tears | good terms with the reformer until his death, yet datered also were there. Tears also were appointed him ; tears with him concerning the doctrine of consubstantiatio, ad and hard toil. The basis of his life was sadness, earnest- inclined more towards the teaching of Calvin, in wil Le ness. In his later days, after all triumplis and victories, was followed by a large number of the adherents of ** he expresses himself heartily weary of living; he considers Reformation. Others, more Lutheran than Luther biznes that God alone can and will regulate the course things are clung with desperate tenacity to the more extrme (y** taking, and that perhaps the day of judgment is not far. sions and teachings of the reformer, which they regula1 As for him, he longs for one thing that God would re- as a precious deposit left in their charge, to be defea iel lease him from his labour, and let him depart and be at and preserved inviolate against all comers. The l'niversity rest. They understand little of the man wlio cite this in of Jena formed the headquarters of this party, Witten discredit of him! I will call this Luther a true, great being the centre of the Philippists, or Crypto-cals , man: great in intellect. in courage, affection, and integrity: l as the followers of Melanchthon were called. Notwith 11one of the most lovable and precious men. Great, not asing the obvious evils arising from disunion in the fatti a hewn obelisk, but as an alpine mountain--so simple, I an active and determined enemy, few controversies in honest, spontaneous, not setting up to be great at all; | been conducted with more bitterness than the sacram! there for quite another purpose than being great! Oh, tarian controversy, and at one time it seemed as if I'r.)yes! unsubduable granite, piercing far and wide into the testantism was about to fall to pieces from internal din il heavens; yet in the clefts of it fountains, green beautiful alone. Numerous theological conferences were hel wil valleys, with flowers! A right spiritual hero and prophet; view of settling the dispute and arriving at sone col":<3 once more, a true son of nature and fact, for whom these | form of expression which should unite all parties, but the centuries, and many that are to come yet, will be thankful logians as a class are & somewhat stift-necked race, 6:1 to heaven!”

when in 1577, after much discussion and negotiation, t. Luther's character bad in it much of the heroic. He “ Form of Concord" was published, it was acepted was not to be cowed by dangers, not to be daunted by some of the Lutheran churches, first adopted and this to obstacles; these to his ardent spirit were but incentives jected by some others, and rejected from the ott: ! which stimulated him to greater efforts. He was fond of many. Those who accepted it becaine known as t. the clash and clang of battle. It was in moments of ex- Lutheran churches, while those who rejected it bette. treme peril that he felt all the depth and power of his great for the most part, either Reformed or Calvinist. diary soul, and knew of what grand deeds he was capable. At attempts were made during the seventeenth century the first sound of conflict his spirit rushed to arms, "eager unite the two sections of Reformed and Lutheran with for the fray." The blows he dealt were heavy, crushing, success; but at the beginning of the nineteenth century ti. irresistible, for he was held back by no false sentiment; 1 matter was taken in hand by the civil governm nou tip and when a sham was to be exposed, or a falsehood de- | Gerinany, and the union of the two churches was e stroyed, his arm had a giant's might. Yet his was a heart in Prussia and Nassau in 1817, in Hesse in 1823, ali of infinite tenderness, and in his family affections and his Anhalt-Dessau in 1827. The name taken was that of a friendships he showed himself generous, forbearing, loyal. United Evangelical Church, those who refused to consenta 1 It is true the gold was not without alloy. There was a separated themselves taking the title of the Old Luthers certain ruggedness about his nature which could not but | For a time the separatists were treated with consider offend the dilettante lovers of " rose-water revolutions;" | severity by the different gorernments, but ultimatelyilerbut take him for all in all, and it may well be doubted tion prevailed, and the Old Luthcrans have since formed ? whether the last nineteen centuries have seen a nobler man. recognized ecclesiastical body in Prussia.

For authorities, consult " Luther's Works," of which the In theology the Lutheran churches recognize the suprec..

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xutbority of the Bible, but their chief doctrinal standard is , or in the immediate neighbourhood, Henry the Fowler kand in the AUGSBURG COXFESSIOx, already noticed in defeated the Huns in 934. Here were fought the two this work. In opposition to the Calvinistic churches, the battles of Leipzig or Breitenfeld, in the Thirty Years' War. Lutberins maintain the doctrine of consubstantiation, and Here Gustavus Adolphus fought and died, on the 6th of thes retain in their public worship the use of vestments, November, 1632, for the great cause of civil and religious pictures, images, tbe form of exorcism in baptism, and other liberty. And here Napoleon was repulsed by the allied fra tices similar to those of the Roman Catholic Church, armies in 1813. Not an ear of corn is pure from the blood but which are rejected by the majority of Protestants of men. debere. In Denmark and Sweden there are bishops | " Lützen," says Mr. Herman Merivale, " is a thoroughly oported in the Latheran churches, but in most other old-fashioned, forgotten-looking town, with walls and fosse piaces the civil power is recognized as the supreme author- partially preserved, and the open country on all sides ex15, the affairs of the churches being conducted by means tending close up to them. It has now about 500 houses, Monsistories composed of ministers and laymen, who are and is traditionally reported to have been more considerable pointed by the government.

in olden times." 'About three-quarters of a mile beyond LU TIDINE, an organic base obtained from bone oil. the town, on the Leipzig road, stands a rough mass of It is a colourless oil, soluble in water, having a specific porphyritic stone—the Schwedenstein or Swede's stone.

rity of 09467, and boiling at 154° C. (309° Fahr.) | It commemorates the death of the great Protestant hero, 1:3 astron, hase, forming numerous salts, which are crys Gustavus Adolphus, who fell close to the spot where it taIre and soluble in water.

stands. It bears the inscription “G. A., 1632," is surLU TON, a town of England, in the county of Bedford, rounded with a little shrubbery and gravel walk, and surspirasantly situated near the west bank of the river Lea, mounted by a Gothic arch of cast iron. * far from its source, 14 miles south by east from Bed - The battle in which the Swede king fell may be said to fre, and 32} from London by the Great Northern Railway. have secured the liberties of Protestant Germany, while it Bis the chief seat of the straw-plait and bonnet manu- crushed the pretensions of Austria to the supremacy of Exten in the United Kingdom, and on this account the Europe. The Swedish, or rather allied army, for it included

in increased from 7740 in 1841 to 17,821 in English, Scotch, and Germans in its ranks, consisted of L., and to 23,960 in 1881. The number is subject to about 25,000 men; the Imperialists, under Wallenstein, élution, in consequence of the changes of fashion caus- duke of Friedland, numbered 20,000, while at Halle, 16 **pression or revival in the trade. The proportion of miles to the north-west, lay Pappenheim with 16,000 men,

to males is at least five to three. The factories in the greater portion of whom he brought upon the field in to the mizofacture is carried on are of great size. the course of the struggle. The attack was delivered by Trire a town-hall, corn exchange, court-house, and a the Swedes about eleven o'clock, and the fight continued 1-12 Te parish church is an interesting specimen with varying fortune until night closed over the conquerors G ear witecture, with a square einbattled tower sur and the conquered. Both sides fought desperately, but the

at the angles by hexagonal pinnacles, and a hand- superior discipline and religious enthusiasm of the Swedes er ecurated west door: the interior contains, besides prevailed, and the Austrian army was almost annihilated. painted windows, a curiously carved font, and some | Gustavus was slain early in the battle. Wounded in the

ourents. It is of the fourteenth century, and shoulder by an Austrian trooper, he fell from his horse with * mal in 1865.

a groan, and his page, Lobelting, being unable to lift him LUT TERWORTH, a small market-town of England, again on his charger, he lay exposed to the enemy's cuiras*** cauty of and 14 miles S.S.W. of Leicester, and 94 siers. Some of these riding up fired a pistol through the **la luodon. The church, a large handsome build- hero's head, and terminated his short but glorious career in

tored in 1870, contains a portrait of its famous the thirty-ninth year of his age. His memory is still very ***, the reformer Wyclif (who died bere in 1381), and much cherished in Germany. 13 his palpit. In 1415 the Council of Constance The second great battle of Lützen was fought in 1813,

*** red to gratify their race against his memory by between the French ariny, commanded by Napoleon in per**:lis remains to be disinterred and cast upon a son, and the allies, under the Emperor Alexander, Blücher, * This disgraceful sentence was carried into effect; Morean, and Schwartzenberg. Napoleon, after a desperate ** benes of Wyclif being taken up were burned, and struggle, was compelled to retreat.

be thrown into the Swift. "Thus," as Fuller has LUXEMBURG, formerly a grand-duchy in the Nether

or expressed it, " this brook (the Swift) has con- | lands, but now divided between Holland and Belgium, is it, Le aslts into Avon, Aron into Severn, Severn into bounded E. by Prussia, N. by Liège, W. by Namur, and

seas, they into the main ocean; and thus the S. by France. DUTCH LUXEMBURG, which gives the

Wschif are the emblem of his doctrine, which King of Holland the title of grand-duke, and conferred on * red all the world over." The town is on the him a vote in the old Germanic Confederation, lies east of ".a tietary of the Aron.

Belgian Luxemburg, and has an area of 998 square miles, LUT ZEN, in Germany, a small town in Prussian with a population in 1880 of 209,570. BELGIAN LUXEN

or in the government of Merseburg, 9 miles south- BURG is the largest and more western part of the former 23 Marsbars, on the Elster River Canal. The popu- grand-duchy; it has an area of 1690 square miles, with a

i a'mat 3000. It contains a church and a small population in 1883 of 211,165. The principal rivers of 2", bet no fubiic buildings of importance, nor any | Luxemburg are the Moselle, the Sûre, and the Our, which *-* *. Its interest is purely historical, and derived form the boundary between Dutch Luxemburg aud Prussia;

seat battles of which the neighbouring plain has the Elze or Alzette, a feeder of the Sûre; the Semois, which ** Xene. A recent writer describes this plain as a rises near Arlon, and flows west into the Maas; the Qurthe, Rr e, solded with villages and tall ungainly church which rises near Bastogne, and falls into the Maas near D : kat asd there, bedded in the soil, is one of those Liège; the Lesse, which rises near Neufchâteau, and falls

C al bwalders of dark red granite which the glaciers | into the Maas near Dinant.
I Lath"T, according to modern belief, from distant Luxemburg is crossed from south-west to north-east by

riod which now chiefly serve as landmarks; far a range of high ground, part of the Ardennes, which separ2.sath tbe first blue outlines of the Erzgebirge faintly ates the valley of the Maas from that of the Moselle. The

e tres. This rast level has been the battlefield of soil of this elevated region is calcareous, and is principally Germany from the earliest historic times. Here, occupied as pasturage. The lower lands are very produc

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tive, and yield abundant harrests of wheat, rye, flax, hemp. | Manilla. About 2.500,000 of the people, inhabiting an inangel-wurzel, &c. Such of the high lands as are tilled area of about 30,000 square miles, are subject to Spain. rarely yield anything but rye, oats, and potatoes. Large The whole area is 42,794 square miles. The population is forests are found in many districts. Agriculture is in rather about 4,000,000. a backward state. The vine is cultivated on the banks of LYCABET'TUS (Gr. Lukabittos), a mountain of the the Moselle and the Sûre. The quality of the wine is in- range of Pentelicus (Pentelikos), which forins & striking ferior. In Dutch Luxemburg there are a great number of feature in the view from Athens, coming down close to the distilleries and some iron-works. Horses, horned cattle, north-east of the city, on the left of the Marathon Road swine, and sheep are numerous. The former are much [See Plate ATHENS.) The name is sometimes erroneously prized for agricultural and military purposes. The latter given to the small hill north of the Inyx (Puur. are exported in large numbers. In the Belgian province LYCÆ'NIDÆ. See BUTTERFLIES, HAIRSTREAK. there are iron-works, slate quarries, potteries, tanneries, LYCAN'THROPY (Gr. lukos, a wolf, and anthrópe, a cloth and paper mills. Iron and lead mines are worked; man), a term used to indicate the belief that men in certain copper is also found.

circumstances are transformed into wolves or other animals. Up to 1866 Dutch Luxemburg was connected with the This belief can be traced back to the most remote periods, old Germanic Confederation, and in consequence of this the and it is found in full strength among most savage people, Federal fortress in the city of Luxemburg, which was of and as a lingering, decaying tradition in many civilized immense strength, was garrisoned by a large Prussian force. | nations at the present day. During the middle ages, aal After the dissolution of the Germanic Confederation, sub- so late as the beginning of the seventeenth century, it s sequent to the battle of Sadowa, the King of Holland a fixed belief, even among educated people, that certa a privately sold the territory to the Emperor of the French; witches or wizards were able at will, by the use of a certain but the Prussians, who wished it to be annexed to the ointment, girdle, or charin, to transform themselves into North German Confederation, and very strongly objected wolves, and that it was their practice to do so in order that to France obtaining possession of such a strong fortress they might feast upon human flesh. Not only so, but close to their country, declined to evacuate the city, and at many persons were arrested on the charge of having coin one time a war on the subject between France and Prussia mitted this crime, and after trial were executed for the seemed imminent. This was fortunately averted by a con- , offence. As in the case of witchcraft, it was not unconference of the great European powers, which took place in mon for those arrested to plead guilty, and to give to London, and at which it was agreed that the sale to France, court minute accounts of their practices, a circumstance should be ignored. that the Prussians should retire, and that which naturally confirmed the popular belief on this subject. in future the territory should be strictly and perpetually. It seems also evident. from the records of these trials, that neutral, although in other respects under the King of Hol- in some instances the persons arrested eridently beered land. The fortress has since been dismantled.

in their own powers, and under the delusion that they had LUXEMBURG, the capital of Dutch Luxenburg, stands' become wolves had been really guilty of murder and cannipartly on level ground on the banks of the Alzette, and · balism. Where this belief prevailed and was accepta partly on a scarped rock, 200 feet high, which is reached without question it is perhaps not very wonderial that by flights of steps and zigzag streets. The grandeur of insanity should take the form of wolí-madness, or that it the scene is considerably enhanced by the vast viaducts of should at times assume the form of an epidemie in certain the railways to Trèves and Diekirch, and the colossal districts, diffusing terror far and wide. It is said that in Petrus viaduct, which spans the ravine between the railway the early part of the seventeenth century multitudes in the station and the south side of the Oberstadt. The fortress Jura were attacked by the hallucination, and some 600 on this rock was regarded as perhaps the strongest place, people were executed on their own confession. It has in Europe after Gibraltar. The fortifications were con been observed in those countries of Europe where the besef demned to demolition in 1867, but most have been left still lingers among the peasantry, that where wolves preval standing on account of the great expense attending their men are still regarded as changing themselves into this removal. It has manufactures of linen, gloves, cotton, animal; but in other nations the transformation is believed leather, &c, a public library, athenæum, and museum. to take place into that of the aniinal most dreaded, u The population is about 16,000.

men are supposed to become bears, tigers, serpents, be LUXOR. See THEBES.

leopards, &c. See Barny Goald's ** Book of Were Wurre LUXUL'LIANITE is a variety of granite in which the (London, 1865), and Moncure D. Conway's " Demodus mica is replaced by schorl or tourmaline. This rock con- | and Devil Lore," vol. i. (London, 1879). sists of a ground mass of black schorl, in which are em LYCA'ON. See HUNTING DOG, CAPE bedded grains of quartz and large crystals of orthoclase. It LYCE'UM (Gr. Lukeion, so called from its bons is a highly ornamental stone, and takes a good polish; close to the temple of the god Apollon Lukeins from it the sarcophagus of the late Duke of Wellington is Greek antiquity, a famous academy or school situst! made. The stone occurs in the vicinity of Luxullian, upon the bank of the Ilissus at Athens. It consisted Cornwall; hence the name, but it has not been found there several porticoes and numerous open and covered walks in situ.

where Aristotle instructed his scholars in the principles of LUZERN'. See LuCERNE.

philosophy and logic. As they walked there daily a LUZON', the largest and most northerly of the Philip- the hour of anointing, they received the name of Phno pine Islands, is of a very irregular form, and with shores patetics. In modern usage the term is sometimes cal rocky and deeply indented. It is about 450 miles long for an educational establishment, as in the case of 10 by 10 to 140 broad. The interior is occupied by moun- French Lycées. tains, which attain 6000 or 7000 feet elevation, and are | LYCH'NIS, a genus of plants belonging to the order covered with luxuriant forests, producing useful and orna- | Caryophyllacea, and to the suborder Silenee. Lychnis mental woods. There are many fine valleys and rich plains; | Chalcedonica (the scarlet lychnis) produces scarle., TO and among the numerous valuable products are rice and coloured, or white flowers, and is a great farourite in jur tobacco, extensively grown; indigo, coffee, cocoa, sugar, gardens. Lychnis grandiflora has large beauifal sarit and wax; also gold, iron, copper, and rock-salt. There flowers, and is a native of China and Japan. Lychni are many volcanoes and volcanic products, but granite and Flos-cuculi (ragged Robin) has rose-coloured petals, and the old slates and tertiary formations have been observed is an abundant plant in the moist meadows and pastares to occur, and coal has also been found. The capital is Great Britain, as well as the whole of Europe. Lycknu

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perpentina (white campion) is a common plant in the that this substance was an extract, called Rusot in India, nebunks of Europe. This and Lychnis diurna (red and prepared from the wood or root of various species of campion) are sometimes regarded as varieties, and then Indian Berberis (Barberry), viz. aristata, Lycium, and Dutcai Lychnis dioica.

asiatica. The root-bark of these three species has been LYCIA, an ancient province of Asia Minor, was made officinal in the Indian Pharmacopæia. It is tonic, beaded on the N. by Phrygia, on the E. by Pamphylia, antiperiodic, and diaphoretic, and is valuable in fevers, ra the W. by Caria, and on the S. by the Mediterranean diarrhea, and general debility, and also in the form of See. The interior was almost entirely unknown till the extract in ophthalmia.

uuseries of Sir C. Fellows, which have corrected the LYCIUM is also the name now given to a genus of STOD RODS representations of the maps. The coast is bor SOLANACE.E, of which the species Lycium barbarum is ward by lofty mountains, but there are no high mountains well known under the name of Tea-plant. It grows E che interior. The Xanthus, which has been represented rapidly, and though rather straggling, is often cultivated;

a small stream, is a river of considerable length, flowing it has small lilac flowers, succeeded by scarlet or orange ho the mountains in the porth of Lycia; and the whole fruit. of the interior is a fertile plain, surrounded by mountains, LYCOPODIA CEÆ, a group of CRYPTOGAMIA, e inined by the Xanthus.

chiefly consisting of moss-like plants, inhabiting moors, Lat Lycia was early colonized by the Greek nation is boggy heaths, and woods in many parts of the world.

det, not only from the account of Herodotus, but also They never exceed the height or length of 2 or 3 feet, and so many other Lycian traditions, as well as from the usually grow prostrate. The spores of Lycopodium clara

intip of Apollo, which was spread over the country. tum (Plate III. CRYPTOGAMIA, fig. 21) are sprinkled Lasties as a Cretan settlement. The chief temple of upon pills to prevent their adhesion. Some of the species, Apa was at Patara.

especially Lycopodium catharticum, are violent purgatives, I the time of Strabo the Lycians had a kind of feder and it has been proposed to use others as dyes ; but in 2.c Listing of twenty-three cities, which sent deputies general they are of little importance to any except the

2. 2 bis, in which a governor was chosen for the systematic botanist. The large fossils common in the coal Teie ot Lucia, as well as judges and inferior magistrates. measures, and called LEPIDODENDROX, are the relics of an Al matters relating to the government of the country were extinct gigantic race of these now pigmy species. ved in this assembly. The six principal cities, The Lycopodiacea are divided into two tribes, LycopoIrss Patara, Pinara, Olympus, Myra, and Tlos, had dieæ, with only one kind of spore, and Selaginelleæ, with Professites each, other cities two votes each, and the re- two kinds of spores. The former contains four genera, of

de only one each. In consequence of dissensions which one is important and native in Britain, Lycopodium ; Het the diferent cities this constitution was abolished the latter contains two genera, Selaginella, commonly ***Emperor Claudius, and the country was united to grown in our hothouses, and Isoëtes, a native plant. The erince of Pamphylia.

Lycopodieæ branch in all directions, the Selagineæ branch i contry is now well inhabited, chiefly by Turks, in one plane with leaves which are arranged in four rows, "To whom lead a life half settled and half nomadic; and are of different sizes, the upper and lower of smaller 1 * are stinguished by their excellent character. Most leaves than those on the sides. In both adventitious roots un are farmers or herdsmen; trade is chiefly carried are produced. In Lycopodium two or more fibro-vascular

Armenians and Greeks, who live in the sea towns, bundles are combined in the centre of the stem, and surin the greater portion of the population of the inland rounded by a sheath of thin-walled cells, and these by other

Almali, which is the largest in Lycia, the popula- | lavers of thick-walled cells. In Selaginella the bundles binabat 25.000. The breeding of horses is carried are quite distinct from one another, and are surrounded by 1. 19 eat extent, and herds of many hundreds are often air cavities. In Isoëtes, a genus of aquatic plants with - pazng together in the valleys. The only kind is slightly developed stem and grass-like leaves (see Plate III,

* of which such spirited representations are seen in the CRYPTOGAMIA, fig. 19), there is an axial woody body, E vet inarbles; the head is of Arabic cast, the chest is consisting of short vascular cells with spiral markings. trany are the feet are remarkably fine and thin, and the The spores are contained in capsules called sporangia, m 2 wall as in the antique. They are not shod. No which are found in the axils of leaves, and burst when ripe.

Aca Minor contains such splendid valleys as those In Lycopodium, the portion on which the sporangia are *Santias and the Dolomon Chái. Myrtle, oleander, placed forms a spike-like receptacle. In the Selaginelleæ, 2. mgranates cover the banks of the rivers ; the plains the large spores, which ultimately produce new plants, and *** the rivers are well cultivated, and in many places the the small spores, which fertilize the others, are contained

bare inclosed by fences of myrtle and the small prickly in distinct capsules, macro-sporangia and micro-sporangia. 41. SIN with the orange, the wild olive, the pomegranate, LYCOPODIUM, a fine mobile, tasteless, inodorous print green storax, which are most beautifully matted pale yellow powder consisting of the spores of the Lycopo

ty vine, clematis, and many other climbers. The dium claratum, or common club moss, natural order Lyco* Cuvered with large oaks and planes, which supply podiaceæ. It is very inflammable, and when blown through must timber. The high plain round Almali, which is a candle burns with a rapid bright flame; it is used in theatres * lot above the sea, is one of the largest and best to imitate lightning. The names of Witch-meal and Vegered corn tracts in Asia Minor ; its chief produce is table Sulphur have been applied to it. It is used in phar

utch is the common food for horses. Maize is macy for rolling round pills to prevent sticking together, also T ! in the vallers and on the coast. The name for dusting infants and excoriated surfaces. It is extremely red to that part of Anatolia which is opposite to resinous and repellent, and when sprinkled on water, on

which it floats, the band can be dipped into it without LY CIUM was the name given by ancient writers to a wetting it. 2e breacht chietly from India, and used to restrain LYCO'SIDÆ. See WOLF-SPIDER.

Tity and other discharges, and especially in the LYCUR'GUS (Gr. Lukourgos), the great semi-mythiDa of ophthalmic inflammation. This substance cal Spartan legislator. The account of him in the largely *** red very precious, and was sold in singular legendary form in which it has come down to us is that he

le specimeas of which may be seen in collections was the brother of a king of Sparta. His brother died, - y actities, with the name of the drug inscribed and the widowed queen, who loved Lycurgus, proposed to

e perca who sold it. In 1833 Dr. Royle proved him to share the throne with her, and to murder the child

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