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span the river, two of them built by native rulers, and two | gether with one regiment of military police, one of Oudh since the British annexation in 1856. Viewed from a dis irregular cavalry, and two batteries of native artillers. tance, Lucknow presents a picture of unusual magnificence / The town thus contained nearly ten Indian soldiers to and architectural splendour, which fades on nearer view every European, or 7000 to 750. Symptoms of disaffecinto something more like the ordinary aspect of a crowded tion occurred as early as the month of April, when the Oriental town. Nevertheless, many of its streets are broader | house of the surgeon to the 48th was burned down in and finer than those of most Indian towns; and the clear- revenge for a supposed insult to caste. Sir Henry Lowance effected for military purposes after the mutiny was rence immediately took steps to meet the danger by instrumental in greatly improving both the aspect and the fortifying the Residency and accumulating stores. On the sanitary condition of the city. A glacis half a mile broad | 30th of April the men of the 7th Oudh Irregulars refused surrounds the fort; and three military roads, radiating to bite their cartridges, on the ground that they had from this point as a centre, cut right through the heart of been greased with cow's fat. They were induced, with the native quarter, often at an elevation of some 30 feet soine difficulty, to return to their lines. On 3rd May Sir above the neighbouring streets. The Residency crowns a Henry Lawrence resolved to deprive the mutinous regiment picturesque eminence, the chief ornament of the city. of its arms, a step which was not effected without serisos

Lucknow contains two noble mosques, one Imambara of delay. On 12th May Sir Henry held a darbar, and made imperial dimensions, four tombs of regal splendour (those an impressive speech in Hindustani, in which he calli of Saadat Ali Khan, of Mushid Zadi, of Mohammed Ali upon the people to uphold the British government as most Shah, and of Ghazi-ud-din Haidar), together with two | tolerant to Hindus and Mohammedans alike. Two days great palaces, or rather collections of palaces (the Chattar earlier the massacre at Meerut had taken place, and a Manzil and the Kaisar Bagh). Besides these larger works, telegram brought word of the event on the morning after it also comprises a large number of royal garden houses, / the darbar. On the 19th Sir Henry Lawrence received pavilions, town mansions, temples, and mosques. Since the supreme military command in Oudh. He immediately the annexation the nobility of Oudh have built a large fortified the Residency and the Machi Bhawan, bringt, number of town houses. They generally possess an im- | the ladies and children into the former building. On the posing gateway as one main feature of the facade, consist- | night of the 30th May the expected insurrection broke ng of arch within arch, rising from the same base, and out at Lucknow. The men of the 71st, with a few from covered with a modern Oriental profusion of gaudy colour- | the other regiments, began to burn the bungalows of their ing. Various charitable dispensaries, schools, and other officers, and to murder the inmates. Proinpt action was works of public utility have also been built since the taken, and early next morning the European force attack ad, occupation of the city by the British.

dispersed, and followed up for 10 miles the retreating Since the introduction of British rule, the new authorities / mutineers, who were joined during the action by the ith have laid out well-kept roads, widened the tortuous native Cavalry. The rebels fled towards Sitapur. Though ide streets, and founded commodious bazaars, in which due city thus remained in the hands of the British, by the 126 attention has been paid to the comfort and convenience of June every other post in Oudh had fallen into the power both of the commercial classes and their customers. The of the mutineers. The chief-commissioner still held the sanitary officers enforce stringent rules of cleanliness; and cantonments and the two fortified posts at the beginning a municipality, containing many elective members, provides of June, but the symptoms of disaffection in the city and for the welfare of the city with a just regard to native among the remaining native troops were unmistakad.e. feeling and wishes.

In the midst of such a crisis Sir Henry Lawrence's bealta The traffic of Oudh flows southward from Bahramghat unhappily gave way. He delegated his authority to a and Faizabad through Lucknow to Cawnpore. Large council of fire, presided over by Mr. Gubbins, the financial quantities of grain and timber come in from the trans commissioner, but shortly after recovered sufficiently to Gugra districts, while raw cotton, iron, and imported resume the cominand. On the 11th June, however, the goods go northward in exchange. The Oudh and Rohil military police and native cavalry broke into open revolks kland Railway, with its branches, has a station in the town, followed on the succeeding morning by the native infantry. and gives direct communication with Benares, Bareilly, and On the 20th of June news of the fall of Cawnpure arried; Cawnpore, besides connecting with the great trunk lines and on the 29th the enemy, 7000 strong, advanced upra to Calcutta, Bombay, and the Punjab. Manufactures are Chinhat, a village on the Faizabad road, 8 miles from the carried on to a considerable extent, the chief products | Residency. Sir Henry Lawrence marched out and part being those which call for the usual Oriental combination battle at that spot. The result proved disastrous to be of patience, industry, minute manual skill, and delicate | British arms, through the treachery of the Oodh artides, taste in the management of colour. Cotton muslins and and a retreat became necessary. The troops fell bac other textile fabrics have a high reputation. Gold and | Lucknow, abandoned the Machi Bhawan, and concentratiu silver brocade, however, made of small wires, forms the all their strength upon the Residency. The siege of leading manufacture. It is used for the numerous pur- inclosure began upon 1st July. On the 2nd, as Sir Hen: poses of Indian pomp, and has a considerable market even | Lawrence lay on his bed, a shell entered the room, bares in Europe. The gorgeous needlework embroidery upon and wounded him severely. He lingered till the more velvet and cotton, with gold thread and coloured silks, of the 4th, and then died in great agony. Major also employs many hands. Glass-work and moulding in succeeded to the civil command, while the military auta . clav still maintain their original excellence. The railway | devolved upon Brigadier Inglis. On 20th July the workshops employ several hundred workmen.

made an unsuccessful assault. Next day Major Banks W.Ls The chief interest of Lucknow to British readers is its shot, and the sole command was undertaken by Ingela connection with the Sepoy Mutiny in 1857. Two months the 10th of August the mutineers attempted as before the outbreak at Meerut, Sir Henry Lawrence (20th assault, which was again unsuccessful. The thing March, 1857) had assumed the chief-commissionership of I took place on the 18th; but the enemy were losing the newly annexed province of Oudh. The garrison at as they found the small garrison so able to withstan

ithstand then, Lucknow then consisted of the 32nd (British) Regiment. I and the repulse proved comparatively easy. Daca a weak company of European artillery, the 7th Regiment the British within were dwindling away and eager Native Light Cavalry, and the 13th, 48th, and 71st Regi- pecting reinforcements from Cawppore. On 5th Septem ments of native infantry. In or near the city were also | news of the relieving force under Outram and his quartered two regiments of irregular local infantry, to- | reached the garrison by a faithful patire messenget.

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Pcd September the relief arrived at the Alambagh, a | free enough in the rear to march once more upon Lucknow. walled garden on the Cawn pore road held by the enemy in He first occupied the Dilkusha, and posted guns to comfree. Harelock stormed the Alambagh, and on the 25th mand the Martiniere. On the 5th, Brigadier Franks fecht his way with continuous opposition through the arrived with 6000 men, half of them Gurkbas sent by CANON lanes of the city. On the 26th he arrived at the the Rajah of Nepal. Outram's force then crossed the pite of the Residency inclosure, and was welcomed by Gumti, and advanced from the direction of Faizabad Li pallant defenders within. General Neill fell during the (Fyzabad), while the main body attacked from the southactwa outside the walls. The sufferings of the besieged east. After a week's hard fighting, from the 9th to the had been very great; but even after the first relief, it 15th March, the rebels were completely defeated, and their became dear that Lucknow could only be temporarily posts captured one by one. Most of the insurgents, howdefended till the arrival of further reinforcements should ever, escaped. As soon as it became clear that Lucknow

w the garrison to cut its way out. Outram, who had had been permanently recovered, and that the enemy as a Dow re-assumed the command which he generously yielded combined body had ceased to exist, Sir Colin Campbell to Hareinck during the relief, accordingly fortified an en- broke up the British Oudh army, and the work of relarged area of the town, bringing many important out- organization began. Works within the limits of defence; and the siege began LUCRE'TIA, the name of a great patrician clan or once more till a second relieving party could set the gens of ancient Rome, and subsequently of a less famous besieged at liberty. Night and day the enemy kept up a plebeian gens also. The greatest Lucretius is the poet (see condiccal firing against the British position, while Outram LUCRETIUS]; but one of the women of the family (who of maliated by frequent sorties. Throughout October the course all bore the name Lucretia) lends it its greatest ferisa continued its gallant defence, and a small party celebrity in story. Lucretia was the wife of Lucius Tarstat up in the Alambagh, and cut off unexpectedly from quinius Collatinus, who had unknowingly charmed the ** pain body, also contrived to hold good its dangerous base Sextus Tarquinius, her husband's cousin, the son of post. Meanwhile Sir Colin Campbell's force had advanced Tarquinius Superbus, last king of Rome. This man arrivfren Cartpore, and arrived at the Alambagh on the 10th ing suddenly by night from the army, where he should

Ncrember. From the day of his landing at Calcutta, have been engaged campaigning with her husband, forced fe Colin had nerer ceased in his endeavours to collect an Lucretia to dishonour, threatening her, if she did not subausta rediere Lucknow, by gathering together the liberated mit, to lay a slave with his throat cut beside her and tell

teli force and the fresh reinforcements from England. her husband he had caught and killed him there. Lucretia at the 12th the main body threw itself into the Alambagh, summoned her husband and his friends as soon as Sextus eter a smart skirmish with the rebels. Sir Colin next | Tarquin had left her, declared the whole matter to them, supied the Dilkusha Palace, south-east of the town, and swore them to vengeance, and then stabbed herself, as thes bored against the Martiniere, which the enemy had unfit longer to survive her shame. Thus began the great tired with guns in position. After carrying that post revolution which destroyed for ever kingdom in ancient

freded the canal, and on the 16th attacked the Sikandra Rome, and established in its stead the most powerful Based the chief rebel stronghold. The mutineers, driven republic the world ever saw. is bar, foacht desperately for their fortress, but before LUCRE'TIUS, with his full name Titus LUCRETIUS

10. tte wbole place was in the hands of the British. | CARUS, was born B.C. 95, and is said, on unsatisfactory A as Sir Colin Campbell reached the Moti Mahal, evidence (or rather on none at all, but the bare assertion),

the catskirts of the city proper, General Havelock came to hare died by his own hand, driven mad by a love potion cet from the Residency to meet him, and the second relief administered by his wife B.c. 52, in the forty-fourth year *** sbecessfully accomplished. Eren now, however, it of his age. The poem of Lucretius entitled “ De Rerum Ind impossible to hold Lucknow, and Sir Colin Natura" (On the Nature of Things), in six books, contains

beil determined, before undertaking any further a development of the physical and ethical doctrines of Crafe operations, to return to Cawnpore with his army, | Epicurus. Notwithstanding the apparently unpromising nuz the civilians, ladies, and children rescued froin nature of his subject, there is no writer in whom the Latin kog imprisonment in the Residency, with the view language displays its inajesty and stately grandeur so

narding them to Calcutta. On the morning of the effectively as in Lucretius, who amply proves, in his own - 2 November the troops received orders to march for person, that poetry is not incompatible with science, and

Auhagh; and the Residency, the scene of so long that it is possible for a man to investigate the laws of sing a defence, was abandoned for a while to the nature without blinding his vision to the loveliness of the I atay. Before the final departure Sir Henry Havelock ideal world. Add to this, that the passionate fervour of

In an an attack of dysentery. He was buried in the the poet's revolt against a creed as cruel as it was superLead, without any monument, a cross on a neigh- stitious finds an echo in many despairing souls of our own

tree alone marking for the time his last resting- age, and we have all the elements of the powerful fascinaat Sir James Outrain, with 3500 men, held the tion which Lucretius exercises over the minds of to-day. SATLb until the commander-in-chief could return to | The primary aim of the poet was a law of life, and philosocerme the capital. The rebels used the interval well phical theories only served as the means of exposition. ** furtification of their stronghold to the utmost extent Nevertheless the early statement of the atomic theory is

now.edge and power. They surrounded the greater / remarkable in Lucretius. It forms the subject of one of the city, for a circuit of 20 miles, with an external the latest contributions to the Lucretian criticism, " The deten detences, extending from the Gumti to the canal. Atomic Theory of Lucretius," by John Masson (London, ten parapet lay behind the canal; a second line of 1881). The English translations of Lucretius which are "To connected the Moti Mahal, the Mess-house, most worthy of notice are by Creech (1714) and by Mason

matibara ; while the Kaisar Bagh constituted Good (1805), and the English prose edition by the Rev. J. S. me citauel Stockade works and parapets closed Watson, M.A. (1851); and there is an excellen

ral acPirt, and loopholes in all the houses afforded an count of the poet's aim and works by Mr. Malloch in the arty for defendine the passare inch by inch. The Ancient Classics Series (London, **s strength of the insurgents amounted to 30,000

LUCUL'LUS, LU'CIUS LUCIN'IUS, descended Wer with 50,000 volunteers; and they pos- from a distinguished Roman family, was born about B.C. pieces of ordnance-guns and mortars. On 115, and served under Sulla in the Marsian war. While arch, 1838. Sir Colin Campbell found himself Sulla was besieging Athens (B.C. 87), Lucullus was sent

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into Egypt and Africa to collect a fleet; and after the market-house, at the end of the main street ; guildhall: conclusion of the war with Mithradates, he was left in prison; house of correction; savings bank; theatre; assembly Asia to collect the money which Sulla had imposed rooms; literary institution; Natural History Society's upon the conquered states. In B.C. 74 he was elected museum of fossils, &c.; Edward VI.'s free grammar-sabool consul, and appointed to the command in the war (1552); blue-coat school, over the market cross; Hosyer's against Mithradates. During the following eight years, and Fose's almshonses; dispensary; two banks, dc. Ludlow and in a series of brillant campaigns, he completely has a trade in malt, and some corn, paper, and other mis defeated Mithradates and his son-in-law Tigranes. Lu- Trout, perch, and roach abound in both rivers. The cullus never appears to have been a favourite with his borough bad a population of 5035 in 1881. The town is troops; and their disaffection was increased by the acts of governed by four alderinen and twelve councillors. Ludbor Clodius, whose sister he had married. He was conse- returned two members to the House of Commons írom 1473 quently removed, and succeeded by Pompey, B.C. 66. to 1868, and one from 1868 to 1885. Milton's "C«mas Lucullus then returned to Rome, and with the vast wealth was first perforined at Ludlow Castle, by the family of Lord amassed in Asia gratified his inordinate love of luxury till President Brackley, the incident of the poem havinbeen his death in B.c. 56. His gardens and banquets are pro- | suggested by the loss of the daughter of the Earl of Bridge verbial. At his Naples estate he laid out vast sums, cut- water for a night in the forest. Henry VII.'s son Arthur ting through hills and rocks, throwing out piers into the was married to Catharine of Aragon here, and afterwards sea, constructing parks and fish-ponds, &c. He invented kept his court at the castle, where he died. new dishes and acclimatized new fruits. Thus he intro LUD'LOW BEDS forin the uppermost member of the duced the cherry into Europe from Cerasus in Pontus, Upper Silurian. They succeed the Wenlock group (with whence its name. Some of his favourite trees were nour- which they have many affinities), and pass upwards withished with wine. His house in Rome was filled with the out serious stratigraphical break into the Old Red Sandtreasures of Greek art, and was thrown open to the public stone formation. They form a well-marked series of beds. on frequent show days. Lucullus was no glutton, though about 2000 feet thick. They are separated into lower and his taste in cookery was excellent and his expenditure upper divisions, between which there is a variable band of fabulous, nor was he ungenerous though so ardent a col limestone-t

imestone. Like the Winlock lector. His fondness for natural beauty is a pleasing group of rocks, these beds consist largely of argillaceons trait, and his freedom from grossness or selfishness pre- ! sbale : there is also a close relation in the faun&s of the vents his luxury from unsparing condemnatio

two groups, many species being common to both, especially LU'CUMA is a genus of plants belonging to the order those found in the limestones. SAPOTACEAE. It is chiefly remarkable for the species The Lorer Ludlow Rock consists mostly of brown sindy Lucuma mammosa, which is cultivated in the West Indies shales and mudstones, with some local calcareous beds; and tropical America for the sake of its fruits. These are towards the top it is somewhat flagry. Fossils are plentiful; 4 or 5 inches long, and contain usually a single seed im- | trilobites appear to be on the decline in numbers, and are bedded in a thick pulp, which is very agreeable to the replaced in a measure by the phyllopods. The brachiopods taste, and has been compared to quince marmalade. On are mostly of Wenlock forms. Representatives of the this account the fruit is called Natural Marmalade. The orthoceratites are plentiful; these, with the curved form Caimito fruit of Peru is produced by Lucumia Caimito; it phragmoceras and litulites, forin one of the pe

pecabar is smaller, and of a finer flavour. The species (about fifty features of these rocks. The first representative of rertein number) are chiefly natives of South America, but extend | brate life appears in the Lower Ludlow; it is the remainis northwards into Mexico and the West Indies; a very few of a fish, Scaphaspis (Pteraspis) ludensis, allied to the are found in Australia and New Caledonia. They are modern sturgeon. This interesting fossil was found at trees or shrubs with milky juice, leathery leaves, and flowers Leintwardine associated with typical Lower Ludlow fuel crowded in the axils and growing on very short stalks. forms.

LUD'DITES, a name given to bands of workmen who The Aymestry Limestone, or middle division of the Lodhad a strong aversion to the introduction of machinery, low formation, is a narrow band of earthy limestone of They were most numerous in the years 1812-17, during variable occurrence, but seldom exceeding about 6 feet la which period they resorted to riots and many other kinds | thickness; in many sections it is altogether absent, the of violence, in the hope of intimidating employers. The Upper and Lower Ludlow then coming together and forthname was derived from Ned Lud, an idiot, whose chief ing a thick series of argillaceous beds, that pass into the peculiarity was a strong propensity for breaking machinery. argillaceous series of the Wenlock, where the Wenock

LUD'LOW, a municipal borough of England, in the county limestone is absent. The organic remains of the Aymestr of Salop, and a station on the Shrewsbury and Hereford Rail limestone are not peculiar, they are mostly of species fe and way, 23 miles S. by E. from Shrewsbury, and 1677 from in the Wenlock. The most characteristic fossil is lenta. London. The streets are broad, well paved, and the houses meris knightii. in general well built. Of late years great improvements The Upper Ludlow Rock has almost the same litbohave been made, an effective system of drainage has been logical characters as the lower division, but it bears solde carried out, and water-works erected-providing an ample indications of having been deposited in a shallower sex, supply from springs outside the town. The town is said especially its upper beds, which pass by a series of easy to be the Dinan of the British and the Leadlowe of the gradations through the tilestones into the overlying 0.4 Saxons, and is situated on a hill in a healthy spot, near a Red Sandstone formation. One of the most remarkable bend of the river Teme, where the Corve joins it. There features of the Upper Ludlow is the Ludlow Bone Bed, a are two bridges across the stream. Near the summit of comparatively insignificant layer, not more than a few the hill are the keep (110 feet high) and other picturesque inches in thickness, but of very constant occurrence oni remains of Roger Montgomery's Norman castle, which was a large area, and containing a considerable number of ver the seat of the lords president of Wales from the reign of tebrate remains. These consist chiefly of fragments of Henry VIII. to 1689. It commands an extensive prospect. | fish, represented by bones, tecth, shagreen-like scales, quates, Parts of the old town walls also remain. The principal and spines. Another remarkable feature of the Copper public buildings are:-St. Lawrence's cruciformn church, Ludlow is that among the uppermost beds, near Mag Hilda 228 feet long, with a tower 130 feet high, built by Henry the remains of land plants have been found; these consist VII. and thoroughly restored in 1863; Independent Wes- of twigs and the spore-cases of a lycopod, Pachulkera leyan and Primitive Methodist chapels; town-ball and spherica. The other fossil remains are mostly similar to

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those of the lower beds, and many of them are Wenlock | shallow enough for a stone railway dyke to be carried species. The trilobites have declined considerably, but the across. It is navigated by steamers. One of the mounorthoceratites have increased both in number and size. tains, San Salvador, on a promontory washed on two of

On approaching the top of the Ludlow rock, Silurian its sides by the lake, rising to the height of nearly 2000 ferms of life gradually die out, and in the typical Silurian feet above the level, is a sublime object from the lake, and area of South Wales the beds assume the general character commands from its summit a most magnificent and varied of the overlying Old Red Sandstone. In most other dis- prospect. In some parts, however, the banks of the lake tricts where the upper Silurians are developed, the several slope gently down to the water's edge, and are covered with subdivisions are not so clearly defined, but the rocks have villages, vineyards, and gardens. The Bay of Lugano, on been more altered, and there is a well-marked break its western side, with its surrounding amphitheatre of hills, between them and the overlying Old Red Sandstone, which is particularly fine. Its waters are quite transparent rests on their upturned and denuded edges.

LUG'GER, a vessel which carries a lugsail on each of LUFF, a nautical term: the order to the helmsman to its masts, and occasionally a topsail. The lugsail is of a put the tiller towards the lee side of the ship, in order to make ber sail nearer to the wind. A ship is said to spring ber luff when she obeys the helm.

LUGA'NO, one of the chief towns in the canton of Tessin, Switzerland, is a pretty, thriving place on the northwest bank of the Lake of Lugano, 36 miles N.N.W. of Milan. It is thoroughly Italian in character, with dirty arcaded streets; bat it has some fine churches, and large mansions, an bospital, theatre, college, manufactories of silk, paper, tapacco, and leather, iron and copper foundries, and 7000 imhabitants. It is an entrepôt of the trade between Italy and Switzerland. During the Italian struggle against the Anstrians it formed a convenient centre for the agitation of Mazzini and his fellow-patriots. The vicinity is planted vith rines, olives, and other southern trees, and abounds rith country-bouses and grottoes.

quadrilateral shape, and is bent by the upper side upon a LUGA NO, the ancient Lacus Ceresius, is a lake of straight yard, which is slung on the mast in an oblique North Italy, partly in the canton of Tessin, and partly in position, one-third being to the windward and two-thirds Lornbardy, between the Lakes Como and Maggiore, into to the leeward side of the mast. Luggers, in England, the latter of which it sends its surplus waters by the river scarcely ever exceed large fishing vessels in size, but in the Tree. It has an elevation of about 200 feet above these French navy ships as large as British schooners are often lakes, or 900 feet above the level of the sea. Its length lugger-rigged. The forin of the sail enables them to beat from N.N.E. to S.S.W. is 16 miles; its greatest breadth, close to the wind. 2 mies. The shape, however, is very irregular. The LUG-WORM or LOB-WORM (Arenicola piscaabores are lofty, abrupt, and richly wooded, and the scenery torum) is a worm belonging to the order POLYCHÆTA. do more solemn character than the sister lakes. The | The lug-worm is well known on British coasts, burrowing depe varies from over 1000 feet to a depth, near Bissone, in the sand or mud near low-water mark. The body is

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ad cylindrical, attaining a length of about 10 inches. | LUI'NI or LOVI'NI, BERNARDINO, was born at 1. El nits of which it is made up are subdivided into Luino, on the Lago Maggiore, about the middle of the *LIT. ST of superficial rings. The prostomium or lobe in fifteenth century. He was a pupil of Lionardo da Vinci.

of the mouth is very minute, and the most anterior Many of his greatest works, in oil and in fresco, are still in

als are devoid of bristles and can be telescoped. a good state of preservation in the Ambrosian Library, and * Flureeding segments are provided with bristles, and in the Brera at Milan. Luini was still living in 1530, but

Welve or thirteen segments in the middle of the the date of bis death is not known. carry branchial tufts, which are spread out in a beauti LUKE, ST., the Evangelist. Respecting the birth and Borescent form and supplied with bloodvessels. These early life of this evangelist we have no certain information ;

ruits are red or purple in colour, and the worm of his later history we learn something from his own work, Cilen red or carmine, but sometimes brownish or the Acts of the Apostles. A considerable knowledge of

The lag-worm makes a burrow about 2 feet, the Greek language is displayed in his writings, especially lites with its head downwards. Its castings are in his introduction to his Gospel, which is written in elegant

m of coils of sand lying above the burrow. This Greek. On the other hand, bis language contains many Z as much esteemed for bait on some parts of the Eng

Hebraisms, and he was evidently well acquainted with the | religious rites of the Jews, whose mode of computing time

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he follows. (Luke sxii. 1; Acts ii. 1; xii. 3, 4; 58. 6,' quently considered not to be binding; for, after revisiting 16, &c.) Hence it has been much disputed whether he Italy, and in vain seeking to excite sympathy and co-operawas a Jew or a Gentile before he embraced Christianity. tion in his designs, he reassumed, unassisted, bis enthusiastic It was a tradition current in Jerome's time, that Luke was enterprise. Proceeding first to Cyprus, and thence to a Greek by birth, but became a proselyte to Judaism early Africa, he was nearly stoned to death, and, when cast into in life. The general belief is that he was by descent an prison, owed his liberty to the generosity of some Genorse Hellenistic Jew, and that he was born at Antioch. From merchants. Upon his return to Europe Lully visited its Col. iv. 14, and from the testimony of Eusebius, Jerome, principal cities, preaching the necessity of a crusade for the and other early writers, it appears that Luke was a physician. recovery of the Holy Land, a plan of which he laid before

The first distinct mention of Luke in the New Testa- Pope Clement V., by whom it was received with little or ment is in Acts xvi. 10, 11, where, in relating the vision no favour. Unchecked, however, by so many disappointwhich Paul saw at Troas, the writer suddenly begins to ments, and with the ardour of his enthusiasın still 90use the first person plural, whence it is inferred that Luke abated, Lully returned a third time to Africa, where bis here joined the apostle (about A.D. 53), whom he accom- zeal for conversion entailed upon him dreadful torments, panied to Philippi (verse 12). He seems to have remained from which he was a second time rescued by the generosity at Philippi during Paul's journey to Athens and Corinth, of the Genoese. The sufferings, bowever, to which he had for he drops the first person at verse 17, and does not re- been exposed were so great, that Lully died on his passage sume it till he relates Paul's return to Philippi (xx. 5, 6). | home, within sight of his native country, in the year 1315. From this time it appears from the Acts that Luke was In addition to the labours inentioned, Lully devoted Paul's constant companion till his arrival at Rome (about much study to alehemy, and was believed to have disA.D. 61 or 63), where he remained with the apostle for corered the philosophers' stone. Although this is obviously some time, probably during Paul's first imprisonment. He legendary, it is certain that he made some important is mentioned more than once in Paul's epistles, written chemical researches, and was acquainted with a considerduring this period (Col. iv. 14; 2 Tim. iv. 11; Philem. | able number of important bodies. 24). Respecting the end of Luke's life, the tradition is, LUL'LY or LULLI, JEAN BAPTISTE, the father that after Paul's liberation from his first imprisonment he of French dramatic music, was the son of a miller, and born retired to Achaia, where he resided some few years, wrote at Florence in 1633. Having attracted the notice of the his Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles, and died at an Chevalier de Guise, he was by that nobleman reccmmended advanced age (some say eighty, others eighty-four years), / to Mademoiselle de Montpensier, niece of Louis XIV., as a probably by a natural death. The emblem chosen for | page, and sent to Paris in his fourteenth year. Not being St. Luke in mediæval art was the ox chewing the cud. prepossessing in person, he was sent into the kitchen, but

LUKE, ST., THE GOSPEL OF. See GOSPELS. his musical talents soon commanded the notice of the king,

LUKOUR'GOS, LUSAN'DROS, LUSIM'ACHOS. and then he rose quickly in public estimation. When the See LYCURGUS, LYSANDER, LYSIMACHOS.

Académie Royale de Musique was founded Lally intrigued LUL'LY, RAYMUND, surnamed the Enlightened in the most despicable manner till, by the favour of the Doctor, an enthusiastic and remarkable character of the king's mistress, Madame de Montespan, he was placed at thirteenth century, was born at Palma, in the island of its head; and his success in this capacity was so great that Majorca, in 1234. In early life he followed his paternal he realized a handsome fortune, and was raised to the situaprofession of arms in the service of the King of Aragon, tion of secretary to the king; often working at his art with and abandoned himself to all the license of a soldier's life. the illustrious Molière, who nominally filled a kindred state Passing from one extreme to another, Lully subsequently post. Between them these two crowned the magnificent retired to a desert, where he pursued a life of solitude and masques and ballets at the fêtes of the young king with a rigorous asceticism. Here he believed he had visions, and, glory unknown before. On the recovery of Louis from a among others, a manifestation of Christ on the cross, who severe operation Lully composed a Te Deum," and during called him to his service and the conversion of the Moham its rehearsal, while beating the time to the band with bis medans. He accordingly divided all his property among cane, he struck his foot a violent blow, and having placed the poor; and in his thirtieth year he began to prepare himself in the hands of a quack, his life paid the forfeit of himself, by diligent study, for the labours and duties of a his credulity. He died in Paris in 1687. Lully is always missionary. Learning Arabic from a slave, he read in that accused of avarice. He left a fortune of 342,000 livres. language several philosophical works, the perusal of which, Though we cannot respect him as a man, for his stinginess, in all probability, suggested to him his celebrated system his falseness, his meanness, and untruthfulness, yet as an of mechanical logic, by which he imagined that men might artist he is truly great. Many of his ballet airs are still in reason upon all imaginable topics without laborious thought, I great favour in our orchestras, needing only such alterationis and by means of which he hoped to reform science, and as are necessary to bring them up to the fulness of modern thereby the world itself. Full of this idea, he had a second harmony, &c., to make them charming. vision of the Saviour in the semblance of a fiery seraph, by LUMBAGO, a rheumatic affection of the muscles of the whom he was expressly enjoined to commit to writing and loins, those on one or both sides being involred. It is usuto poblish the treatise to which he himself gave the name ally very sudden in its onset, the patient being seized by of ** Ars Lullia," but which his followers and admirers sharp pains of a cutting or stabbing character, wluch are dignified by the title of the “Great Art” (Ars Magna). greatly aggravated by any movement of the body which Having besought James, king of Aragon, to establish a tends to stretch the muscles implicated. The muscles are monastery in Majorca for the education of thirteen monks also very sore when pinched between the fingers, but there in the Arabic language and the duties of missionaries, he is an absence of the acute, defined tenderness upon pressure went to Rome to seek the countenance of Pope Honorius IV. such as marks abscess or neuralgia. Sometimes the pain is for siinilar institutions and his own mission. Receiving, 80 severe that the patient is contined to bed, and he is onhowever, little encouragement, he visited Paris and Genoa able to move without intense suffering, but generally he can with the same design, and with as little success. From walk or sit, though with difficulty and a good deal of stilGenoa he crossed to Africa, where he was in danger of los ness. The disease is distinguished from intlamination of the ing his life in consequence of his dispute with a Moham kidneys by an absence of pain in the groin and of nansa medan whom he sought to convert, but was saved by the and vomiting, but careful examination of the back is oftea intercession of an Arabian mufti, on the condition of quit- necessary to prerent the danger of treating cases of serious ting Africa for erer. This promise, however, he subse- | disease for simple lumbago.

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