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in the woodcut. It is a shut sac, having one layer inrest- | nausea, cough, pain in the side, and distressed breathing, ing the lung, and the other lining the walls of the chest, the respirations increasing from about twenty in a minute the walls of which are in contact, so that it forms a close to thirty, forty, or even more, up to sixty or serenty. The bag; though in the drawing, for the sake of plainness, a cough, which is short and hacking, is accompanied by esspace is represented between them. The pleura is moist- pectoration, the sputa being of a rery tenacious and sticky ened with a thin serous fiuid, similar to that in the peri- character, and of a peculiar rusty colour. There is also a cardium, which enables the lang and chest to glide upon very marked rise of temperature on the invasion of this one another in the action of breathing. This membrane is disease, and it is not uncommon for the thermometer to very liable to become inflamed, causing acute pain, and mark 103° or 101° within a few hours of the first feeling of constituting the disease called pleurisy.
illness, and this high temperature is generally maintained When a child is born its lungs are empty, and the sides until the period of crisis. As the complaint progresses it is of the chest are as much compressed as they can well be. attended by headache, sleeplessness, and there is commonly Whenever it has got into the air the elasticity of the ribs slight delirium, especially towards the evening, when the ferer causes its chest to enlarge; the outer surface of the lung, reaches its highest degree. The digestive organs are also being in contact with the chest, accompanies it, and so a much disturbed, there is loss of appetite and thirst, the tendency to the formation of a vacuum is caused. The air bowels are generally confined, the tongue becomes coated now rushes down the windpipe into what would otherwise with a white fur, and occasionally the patient is troubled be empty space, and thus the first inspiration is made, and with vomiting. when once made it is repeated eighteen or twenty times per These symptoms usually continue for several days, and minute, during the whole course of our existence.
generally a well-marked crisis takes place about the end of The lungs of a man are estimated to contain about 330 the first week of the disease. The time, however, mar cubic inches of atmospheric air when filled as full as they vary from the third up to the twelfth day, and there is an can hold, by drawing in the breath to the utmost. At old but unfounded theory that the crisis always oecurs on each act of respiration we draw in and expel about 40 one of the odd days. In the majority of cases the crisis is cubic inches, so that when the lungs are at rest, after an marked by a rapid fall in the temperature, the skin beordinary expiration, they contain about 290 cubic inches. comes moist and perspires freely, the urine, which has Now 40 is very nearly one-eighth of 330, so that about been scanty, is increased in quantity, the respiration falls one-eighth of the air in the lungs is renewed at each in frequency, and, to a less extent, the pulse also. Ocact of respiration. Besides the 40 cubic inches expelled casionally the constipation gives way to diarrhea ; there in ordinary expiration, we can, by an act of the will, blow is bleeding from the nose, and an eruption appears upoa out 170 cubic inches in addition, making the whole quan- | the skin. Very often after this change the patient falls tity expired amount to 210 cubic inches. This still leaves into a deep sleep, and on waking feels that the worst 120 cubic inches in the lungs, which therefore never col- of the disease is over, and rapidly recovers. At orber lapse, but always fioat in water. In fig. 3 in Plate the times the process of recovery is more protracted, the lungs of a bird are represented, to show the remarkable temperature falling by slow degrees, interrupted by more contrast in shape between them and the human lungs. or less severe exacerbations, and the condition of the
Diseases of the Lungs.— The highly organized structure patient being marked by great debility. When the terof the lungs, and the incessant exercise of their important mination of the case is unfavourable, death generally function, frequently under noxious circumstances, render occurs at the end of the first, or the beginning of the sound these organs perhaps the most liable to disease of any in week, its advent being marked by wandering of mind, the body. Exposure to damp and cold, sudden atmo- coldness of the extremities, increased difficulty in breathspherical changes and transitions of temperature, want of ing, a feeble ineffectual cough, and ultimately & state proper nourishment, inattention to personal cleanliness, of partial coma. and some of the mechanical employments in which the With respect to the treatment of this discase it was confined and heated atmosphere of workshops is impreg- formerly the custom to bleed largely and to employ done nated with minute particles of foreign substances, such as pressing medicines, such as tartar emetic; but since the stcel, wool, &c., may be considered as among the chief true nature of the complaint has been more clearly petexciting causes of this extensively prevailing class of ceived a more rational method has been introduced, and diseases. The most common and most important of the the mortality has been greatly diminished. It is now diseases of the lungs has already been described in the understood that, like certain other fevers, the pro Tess article CoxSUMPTiOx, and others will be found noticed of the disease cannot be cut short or arrested by soy under the beadings ASTIMA, BRONCHITIS, and PLEURISY. specific, but that it must be the effort of the physicias
Another affection unhappily somewhat coinmon in the to inaintain the strength of the patient, to modify the changeable climate of Great Britain is that known as inore dangerous elements of the disease, and thus to assist inflammation of the lungs, or more technically pneumonia. it towards a favourable termination. As soon as the In this complaint it is the substance of the lung itself disease has manifested itself the patient should be confined that is attacked, the air-cells and parenchymatous struc- to bed, and the room should be well ventilated and kept at ture of the organ being the seat of the disease. As a rule, a temperature of about 60° Fahr. The diet must consist only one lung is involved, but occasionally there is inflam- chietly of liquids, and of these the best that can be used is mation of both lungs, and the disease often co-exists along inilk, of which from 2 to 3 pints may be given in the with other chest complaints. The most frequent exciting course of the day. Stimulants in moderate quantities cause of inflammation of the lungs is cold in some form or are often useful in promoting appetite and assisting the other, and the greatest number of cases occur during those digestive process, and a draught combining an acid and months of the year in which there are the greatest vicissi- bitter may be prescribed for the same purpose. A simple tudes of temperature, notably March, April, and May. It aperient is generally required to relieve the constipation, is more common among men than among women, owing to though active purgation is to be avoided. The pain in the former being, from the nature of their occupations, the side, which is often severe, may be greatly reliered by more exposed to the influence of the weather. It is hot fomentations, or by the application of large hot linked generally very sudden in its onset, being usually ushered poultices to the chest and back, which should be renewed in by a feeling of weakness and depression, which is as often as they get cold. Where there are signs of canliac followed by a sense of chilliness and severe tits of shiver- failure stimulants are required, and where it becomes ing. Other symptoms of fever then become manifest, I necessary to diminish the pyrexia quinine may be given in
mmbination with a stimulant in somewhat large doses. I LU'PINE (Lupinus), a very extensive genus of hardy Lall cases skilled medical assistance should be procured annual, perennial, and half-shrubby plants, commonly is early as possible, as the complaint from its serious cultivated in gardens for the sake of their gaily coloured cáracter and attendant dangers is quite beyond domestic flowers. The species inhabit the western parts of America, treatment.
from British Columbia to Bolivia. A few species Panoptysis, or spitting of blood. Espectoration of are found in the United States and Brazil, and a few in Dond may occur either by exhalation from the mucous the Mediterranean region. The genus is nearly allied to Derbrane of the air-tubes or from the lesion of a blood- | laburnum and broom. resel It generally occurs in early life, from the age of LU'PULIN is the yellow powder found in the flower of Eiten to thirty-five, and in the former instance may be the hop (Humulus lupulus, natural order URTICACE.E). dependent upon local congestion. This determination of It contains a bitter principle and a volatile oil and resin; thead to the lungs may be occasioned by the sudden sup- these together give the aromatic bitter flavour to be pression of some natural or accidental discharge from other is also used in medicine as a narcotic in doses of from 2 to parts, as in suppressed or impaired menstruation, or the 5 grains. arst of a härnorrhoidal discharge, or by pressure of LUP'US or WOLF is the name which is given to tuberculoas matter. From the latter cause it is frequently several forms of chronic disease of the skin, and is 06070i approaching consumption. The expectoration of suggestive of their devouring and destructive nature. The tood is attended with cough. Sometimes the quantity following are the chief varieties of the disease :-(1) boxght up is very considerable, and is expelled with Lupus erythematosus, which is the least troublesome and Wrace; at other times the sputa are only streaked with serious form, and which is marked by the appearance of
The expectorated blood is generally of a vermilion a number of deep red or livid patches on the skin of Cabre, and when in small quantities it is frothy and | the cheeks or nose, which, after remaining for a long ale with air. When the blood comes from the stomach, period unaltered, become covered with thin dirty looking * is broazht up by vomiting and without cough, without crusts, and ultimately end in a thin white scar. Somethe frotiis appearance, and of a dark grumous character. times both cheeks are attacked at once, and the patches Atziazh the spitting of blood may be a sign of serious spread and unite across the nose, while in other cases
sense, this is by no means an invariable consequence, as the scalp, ears, eyelids, lips, or back of the hands be1 dten attends a paroxysm of cough which is somewhat come seats of the disease. It seldom occurs before the betere and prolonged, in cases where there is no indication age of puberty, is more common among women than Caption.
men in the proportion of eight to one, is not hereditary Puur wary apoplexy occurs when blood is effused into or ultimately connected with any other special disease, the per Schymatous structure of the lungs.
and it attacks all classes of society. Beyond the disValignant Diseases.—The lungs are also subject to figurement which it causes, it is attended with very little exises cé a specifically malignant nature, such as medul- pain or other inconvenience, except perhaps slight itching. kan sararma and melanosis; but these rarely occur as a but it is very obstinate and difficult to cure, and often FiT aflection. The medullary and melanoid matter is lasts for years. Treatment consists in careful attention
utrd in tbese organs as a secondary affection, in con- | to the general health, diet, and nutrition, and the exhito with its existence in other parts, and frequently in bition of mild caustic applications to the part affected, Ir the majority of the organs of the body
followed by soothing applications, many such alternations hakarmation of the pleura is treated of under PLEURISY. | being usually required before a cure is effected. (2)
LU PERCI, the priests of the god Lupercus, whom Lupus non exedans, a more serious form of the complaint, the trans sought to identify with the Greek god Pan, usually begins as one or more small smooth, reddish-brown test ancient order of the Roman priesthood. They or reddish-yellow blotches, set upon a dark red base of krpe instituted in honour of Romulus and Remus, as it thickened skin. These slowly increase in size, and coalesce *** " the protection of the wolf-god (Lupercus), saviour so as to form patches and become covered with small hornyod stepbrods, that the twins owed their life; for when like scabs, which may disappear without leaving open sores,
and to die at their birth, a wolf was recorded to have though a distinct deep scar remains, or they may ulcerate Panthem. The place where the priests assembled was and thus develop into the most dangerous and severe form furi lsperral, and the festivals took the name of Luper- of the disease, known as (3) Lupus eredans. This
. Tles continued till A. D. 496, when, on account of their affection, formerly termed Noli me tangere, begins almost weegscess, they were abolished by Pope Gelasius. The exclusively on the nose at the tip of the edges, and it often P et ceremony of the Lupercalia (15th February) was attacks simultaneously the skin and the internal mucous Lietus purification of the city by goats' blood (scape membrane. Red or brownish-red nodules are first formed,
4. Two youths were touched on the forehead with beneath which nlcers are found to extend, the surrounding to bed of goats, and the skins of these goats were then parts being swollen and the edges of the ulcers of a pinkish a to paces and worn by the Luperci, who went other colour. There is also a copious purulent secretion, and
tai paked at this festival. The trimmings of the unless remedial measures are promptly applied the ulcer
they cut into thongs, and in this guise they ran ation may attack structures deeper than the skin, and ** the city striking with them every one they met. spread until a considerable portion of the nose, or even the
son pat themselves forward to be struck, esteeming whole of it, is destroved, and severe inroads have been made kure presage of fruitfulness and security in child into the tissues of the cheeks and lips. Though not a The name Februare means to purify, showing | fatal disease of itsel
fatal disease of itself, it is one of a very serious character, ne Lupercalia were older than the name of the month from the great deformity which it may give rise to. ; Nark Antony was a Lupercus when consul, and Happily it is a complaint of very rare occurrence. It en in this half-naked procession of runners. It was is in no way due to syphilis, either hereditary or acquired, w Lapereria that Mark Antony offered Cæsar the and though it sometimes occurs in scrofulous persons, in *n, and he refused it, saying
the larger number of cases the persons attacked seem
otherwise healthy. Unlike the first-mentioned form of Te Ri mans have no king but God. T
lupus, this affection usually begins early in all did see how on the Lupercal
life, and nire ciieffer him
rarely appears after the age of thirty. It is more common kingly crown, thace refuse. Was this ambition?
in females than in males, and occurs more frequently in ark Antony's Speech in " Julius Casur."
| the country than in the large towns. The treatment of
Which he did thrice refuse. Wa
s in the diamond
Lupus non exedans is much the same as that indicated (4) Pearly, as in talc and selenite. for Lupus erythematosus, with the exception that more (5) Silky. This is generally seen in fibrous forms of active external remedies are required, but in dealing with minerals, as in asbestos, some forms of selenite, &c. the more destructive Lupus exedans the applications must be of greater power and more rapid in their action. The The degrees of intensity recognized are:caustics most generally used to destroy the new tissue (a) Splendent, when the surface reflects objects distinctly, formed by the disease are caustic potash, nitrate of silver, as in well-formed crystals of zinc-blende. and acid nitrate of mercury. Other methods consist in I (6) Shining, when the reflection is less distinct. the scarification of the nodules, or the removal of the (c) Glistening, when the light is well reflected, but diseased tissue by blunt "scrapers” or “spoons" made for without an image. this purpose. It will be obvious that for the use of such (d) Glimmering, when there is only a feeble reflectica powerful remedies or mechanical methods, delicate surgical of light. manipulation and careful medical control are requisite. (e) Dull, when there is a total absence of any shine, as
LURCH'ER is the name of a dog which was originally in chalk and most amorphous minerals. bred as a cross between the greyhound and the shepherd's LUS'TRUM was the name applied to a period of fire dog, but was subsequently modified by a cross with the solar years among the Romans, as the termination of this spaniel. It is lower and more thickly built than the grey- period was generally marked by a public lustration after hound. It is marked by short ears, thick, wiry, and sandy- the taking of the census was over. coloured hair. The lurcher is quick at scent, a fleet runner, | It is well known that the most ancient Roman year and, when used by poachers, very destructive to game. consisted only of ten months, or 304 days, and that this
LUR'GAN, a town of Ireland, in the county of Armagh, year continued to be used for religious purposes. Niebuhr situated in a flat tract at the northern end of the county, has shown that at the lustrum the civil and religious years 2 miles from the south shore of Lough Neagh, 17 miles coincided, since five solar years, containing 1825 days, north-east from Armagh, and 86 miles north from Dublin. | coincide with six religious years of 304 days each, conThe population in 1881 was 10,184. The town contains | taining 1824 days, with the difference of one day. a handsome church, Roman Catholic chapel, nunnery, LU'SUS NATU'RÆ (Lat., sport of nature), a terin Presbyterian meeting-houses, and Methodist chapels, some applied to a monster or to anything unnatural in the phy. breweries, a tobacco manufactory, and several factories ; ] sical world. also a union workhouse, a court-house, in which petty | LUTE, a stringed musical instrument of the guitar sessions are held, and an Orange Hall erected in 1871. | family, in which the strings sound by being plucked. Its There is a hall for the sale of diapers and linens, which is origin is pointed out by its name, which is the Arabic ud largely attended. The town has progressed greatly during | preceded by the article, al ud. In Portuguese its Dame is the last twenty years. For cleanliness and regularity still alaude. It was introduced into Europe by the Crusaders Lurgan is not surpassed by any other inland town. There The main difference between the lute and the guitar is is a large cemetery, beautifully laid out. The appearance that the body of the former has a beautifully curved back, of the town and vicinity is greatly improved by the adjacent which one might roughly compare to the half of a somewhat demesne of Lord Lurgan, to which strangers have access, ovoid melon in shape, and the whole body takes an oral, Dot
LUSTRATION (Gr. luó, I wash), among the ancients, an elliptical form, the narrow end of the oval being uppera mode of purification by sacrifices and other religious most, and the back starts at once from the soundboard. The ceremonies. The initial ceremony seems always to have guitar, on the contrary, has a much more violin-like outline, been the sprinkling of the place or people with water and a flat back and soundboard, which are separated by scattered from an aspergillum, or from a laurel or olive the curving sides of the instrument, perpendicular to both branch, followed by the burning of some sweet-smelling l of them. Both lute and guitar hare a long neck stretchin incense. Hence the early Christians derived their use of upwards from the body, so that the strings which pass up holy water and incense, though they afterwards attached to the head, where they are wound round the tuning-pegs. meanings of their own to these usages. Thus they were may be stopped" by pressure against the neck; and one accustomed to purify their cities, armies, or people, after string be made to give out many diverse notes, according to any impurity or crime; and the Romans also purified the sounding length of it, as determined by the stopping their fields after the harvest and their sheep after the This is of course the plan of construction of the violin fanily lambing season. Then was it that they sang the hymn also; but the guitar family, including the lote, differ from of the Fratres Arrales (the Field Friars), the oldest violins in not having the neck (or “finger-board ") smooth. monument of the Latin language. (See LATIN LANGUAGE.] Guitars and lutes have frets across the neck, raised edges of The Roman armies also underwent sprinkling with holy | ivory or of metal slips let into the neck and projecting a water before entering on a campaign. There was scarce little above it; and the frets are so placed along the Deck any action performed, at the beginning and end of which as to indicate the places for stopping successive notes in the some lustral ceremony was not required, to purify them musical scale of the country. A violinist can play any selves and appease the gods.
scale he pleases, and any interval, however small it be; a LUSTRE OF MINERALS is one of the charac lutenist can only play in his set scale, and is held to exactiteristics resorted to as aid in recognizing and describing tude very nearly as rigidly as a player on an instrument of the different mineral species. It is produced by the reflec fixed tones, such as a pianoforte. (The lutenist can say tion of light from the surface, and is of course affected by his tones a little, according as he presses orer the fret or the nature of that surface. There is no means of judging behind it, &c., but the range is not great.) When hautlustre accurately, it is altogether a matter of appreciation teau endeavoured to study Arab music, his task among the of the eye; but several varieties and degrees of intensity | savants who were sent out from France with the great are recognized, which can be best judged by reference to Egyptian expedition of Napoleon Bonaparte (1798). he was the minerals which are taken as typical examples. The continually foiled by his Arab teacher singing ont of tube, most important are:
while when he repeated the airs on the violin the Arab found (1) Bletallic, or that possessed by native metals and the same fault with him. After a period of perplexity, be some minerals, as galena and iron pyrites.
thought of examining the frets of the native lute, and st (2) Vitreous or glassy. This is well displayed by once saw that the musical scale of the Arabs is quite difquartz and rock-salt.
ferent from ours, and we can neither sing to them in tune (3) Resinous or wary, as in zinc-blende and amber.
| nor they to us.
The Arab late came originally froin Persia in the sixth was a miner, and in possession now of two furnaces of his festury. Its strings, varying in number, are of twisted silk, own-it was determined that the youthful Martin, already ad the frets are often made by tying pieces of the strings giving evidence of an active and powerful mind, should rsand the neck at the proper places.
study the law, and he was entered in 1501 at the UniverIbe modern Egyptian lute (oud or e'oud) has seven pairs sity of Erfurt, in Thuringia. For legal pursuits, however, c! gut strings, and is played with a quill plectrum, not with he showed no appetite; his intellect swept away at once stagrs. But there was a lute-like instrument called the cobwebs and trickeries of the law, and he devoted wir, with an exceedingly long neck, used by the ancient himself to the study of belles lettres and music. Music Luptians in the most reinote antiquity. A piece of wall- | throughout life was his favourite art; he taught it to his painting of the time of Moses, now preserved in the British children, he ranked it next to theology, and was accustomed Nesom, depicts a concert of nefrs, and the strings and to say of it, “ Music is the art of the prophets; it is the trets of the instruments are well shown. The performers only other art which, like theology, can calm the agitations him women, and they play with plectra, apparently of ivory. | of the soul, and put the devil to flight."
The Italian late was an enlarged and beautified varia-| Dividing his attention between the classics and the tro of the original Arab copy, and down to the time writings of the schoolmen, young Martin Luther strode of Back, who wrote for it, it was a favourite instrument. | forward in his career. At the age of twenty he was hon1x beton-shaped oroid body was built up of staves of pine oured with the title of Master of Arts, and then, by the of crdar; the flat soundboard was of pine, and was sup- advice of his kinsmen, he began to apply himself to jurisprted by a sound post and strengthened by a longitudinal prudence. In the Augustine monastery at Erfurt, which ber, as in tbe violin; a circular soundhole, or a pattern he joined in July, 1505, he excited general admiration in ruande up of several soundholes, pierced the middle of the the public exercises by the facility with which he extricated kubbard. The body was relatively large and the neck himself from the labyrinths of dialectics. He read assidu
utt. The strings were of catgut; and those which ran ously the prophets and the apostles, then the books of ka the neck were usually in pairs, four to six pairs being St. Augustine-his " Explanations of the Psalms," and his sesuai pumber, each pair being in unison and close set, book on the “Spirit and the Letter.” He studied with te the strings of a bichord pianoforte. Beside these were earnestness the writings of Occam, whose logic he preferred usually one or two large strings, which lay quite outside the to that of Duns Scotus and Thomas Aquinas. facer-board and were attached to a part of the head pro- An accident, as the world would call it, determined his petang somewhat sidewards; these were tuned to the chief future career. He saw one of his friends killed by light1.tes of the key, and were not alterable by stopping, sound- ning at his side. He resolved thereupon to dedicate him
arrays one note. This plan was found so serviceable self to God's service, and entered upon a life of the most that it was extended, and the large theorbos and archlutes rigid self-denial. "If," he says, “ Augustine went straight Ein e druve the small ordinary four or six stringed lutes to heaven from the walls of a monastery I ought to do so, Ich cf existence.
as all my brethren would testify. I fasted, I watched, I The inte required constant tuning; as Matheson laughs, practised all the austerities of a cenobite, until I absolutely 2.Dast eighty years old would have spent sixty in tuning | fell very ill." But as yet, like John Bunyan, he was be strument. For amateurs, who paid for the constant wandering in the wrong path, and soon he was beset with pun and adjustments required, it was said that a lute doubts and fears which wrung his very soul. He lingered
* about as much as a horse to keep. These jests show long in the valley of the shadow. Often might he be seen la treablesome the instrument was to keep in order. It at the altar foot, with clasped hands and streaming eyes, *w arsidered advisable to keep the lute in a bed which declaring himself “the chief of sinners." He kept weary
outstantly used. Their prices were high for those by vigil throughout the night, wrestling with temptations 218x makers; in the seventeenth century a first-rate lute, which sprang from his diseased imagination. “Jerome esprimely if a century old or so, fetched £100, representing and other fathers," he afterwards wrote, “never endured A po baba sum in our own value of money. The great such trials. Augustine and Ambrose, too, had their sorCarity on the late is Thomas Mace's book (Lond. 1676). | rows, and treinbled before the sword; but what is this o re of the lute was very thin, expressive, and delicate compared with the angel of Satan, who strikes with the is was not only used to accompany the voice, but was the fists? If I live I will write a book on temptations, for reut solo instrument of the middle ages, until superseded without a knowledge of the subject po man can thoroughly
De Sion. Its music was written in TABLATURE. comprehend the Holy Scriptures, or feel the due love and LOTE'OLIN, the yellow colouring matter of the fear of the Lord." & Weid (Reseda luteola, natural order Resedacea). A weak mind gives way before these inward struggles; trailizes in yellow needles, soluble in alcohol and a strong mind, after much buffeting to and fro, rises out of at slightly soluble in water. Uy soluble in water. It is a weak acid, and It is a weak acid,
them a conqueror; and Luther was reserved to accomplish Les with alkalies, forming salts of a deep yellow a glorious mission-to open up to the intellect of Europe, The fonnula is C 40.
like Columbus, a new world. LU THER, MARTIN, or LUDHER, LUTTER, or ! In his twenty-third year the business of his monastery
HER-for be signed his name in all these various ways called him into Italy. The journey opened up a new era, - 2 botn at Eisleben, in Lower Saxony, on the 10th of
LINeben, in Lower Saxony, on the 10th of not only in Luther's life, but in the history of religion : for **.1403. When six years old he was sent to the the shams and falsehoods and open vices of the Italian
we had at Eisenach, and to gain his daily bread was capital disgusted his clear moral sense and offended his ni sait alms by singing before the houses of the vigorous intellect. He penetrated into all the mysteries of h ad charitable, a custom both then and at a later time the papal court, and beneath its flowers and gilding recog
poor students of Gerinany. Let no one," says nized the abomination of iniquity that corrupted the church wtrat reformer in one of his works, “speak contemptu and society. So, with thoughts arising in his heart that
3 try presence of the poor fellows who go from door were to prove the germs of a great revolution, he quitted 6. Enging and begging bread propter Deum! You the city of the popes, and shook the dust off his feet. te psalm savs, • Princes and kings have sung.' I On his return to his convent solitude he devoted himself
& once a poor mendicant, seeking my bread at to the study of the Scriptures, reading thein with the ases, particularly at Eisenach, my own dear assistance of Erasmus, whose interpretation, however, did
not always satisfy him. His renown as a scholar now obCurcumstances improving-the elder Luther tained him the chair of professor of philosophy in the uni
***il ras once a poor?
La lather's circumstances impro
versity which Frederick the elector of Saxony had founded | den from which there was no hope of return, and demanded at Wittenberg (1508). Here he addressed himself to a of the Pope that the German monk should be tried in his full and lucid exposition of the divine word, and enunciated own country. His influence procured the concession that opinions which, though as old as the days of the apostles, he should be examined by a legate in the free town of fell upon his startled hearers with all the effect of novel Augsburg, where the elector himself was then residing. truths. So long, however, as his doctrines were promul With the courage born of faith Luther proceeded thither, gated from the professorial chair they exercised but little journeying on foot, without a kreutzer in his pocket, and influence, because they were confined to a limited audience; in a worn-out gown. At the gates of Augsburg he was but through the influence of Staupitz be passed from the received by a crowd of priests and laymen, rich and poor, chair to the pulpit, and Aung out his genius upon the mul who welcomed him in God's name. Before the legate, titude. Crowds flocked to hear this bold and original Cardinal Cajetan, he preserved his wonted composure, and teacher, who spake as man had never spoken since the age defended his convictions with earnest eloquence. The of the primitive fathers, and who put new life into the cardinal called upon him to retract, or threatened him with dry bones of an antiquated theology. He had not yet, the vengeance of the church. A four days' dispute ensued. however, stepped forward as the reformer. His foot was in which the reformer's arguments proved irresistible, and on the threshold, but custom and traditional influences | Cajetan broke up the examination in great disorder. The still held him back. His mind required an external im monk returned in safety to his cell and his palpit. “I pulse to assist it in throwing off its fetters, and this impulse leave the place," he wrote to the cardinal, " in the name of was afforded unwittingly by a Dominican monk named the Lord, and I appeal from Leo misinformed to Leo better Tetzel. The resources of the Roman see proving inade- informed." Between Luther and the papal court ron. quate to the accomplishment of the many ambitious pro- ciliation was henceforth impossible, and it was well for kim jects which filled the teeming brain of Pope Leo X., chief that he had secured the protection of a patron so powerful among them being the ardent desire to complete St. Peter's and so sincere as Frederick of Saxony. at Rome, he resolved to increase them by the sale of indul Day by day the breach widened. Luther still retained gences.
that feeling of deference towards the church which springs Luther was struck with amazement and horror at this from tradition and prescriptive authority, and to sunder proceeding. “When I beheld," he says, “this unholy the tie that bound him an external impulse was again and detestable traffic taking place in open dav, and thereby necessary. It was at this time that John Eck put forth sanctioning the most villainous crimes, I could not, though a public challenge to Luther to dispute with him at lag I was then but a young doctor of divinity, refrain from zig. Thither proceeded the reformer, accompanied bp protesting against it in the strongest manner." He Carlstadt, Melanchthon, and a large body of students. A thundered resolutely against the monk and his mission; fierce debate ensued, in which logic was on Luther's side Tetzel retorted; Luther, growing bolder in the cause, and authority on that of Eck. But unhappily for the stepped into the arena, armed at all points. On the 31st | Pope the course of the discussion led the Wittenberg proof October, 1517, the eve of All Saints, he nailed to the fessor to examine the papal claiins to the primacy, and he church door ninety-five theses against the doctrine of in soon found reason to assume a bolder tone and adopt 3 dulgences, and aonounced his readiness to defend them. more vigorous course. Through the printing press be A copy found its way into the hands of Tetzel, and excited appealed to the people, and his voice stirred the heart of his alarm and indignation. He published 106 counter Germany like a trumpet. In October, 1520, he issued Es propositions, in which he asserted the Pope's infallibility, indictment against the papacy in a work of great power and branded Luther and all who abetted him as heretics and furious invective, entitled “The Babylonian Captivity and heresiarchs. The discussion spread. The introduc of the Church." He set forth that the church was heid tion of printing and the consequent diffusion of books had in bonds, and that the Saviour, constantly profaned in already awakened a spirit of inquiry, and the people threw the idolatry of the mass, and scornfully disregarded in the themselves with eagerness on the religious pasture from dogma of transubstantiation, was virtually the Pope's which they had been so long excluded. Luther's theses prisoner. A bull of excommunication arriving from Rotte were printed in thousands, devoured, and circulated in every stimulated him to further onslaughts. He immediately direction, so that even their author was alarmed at his issued a pamphlet " Against the Execrable Boll of Antisuccess. He was not yet prepared to throw off the autho Christ," and on the 10th of December publicly burned the rity of the Pope, and at this juncture seemed disposed to papal anathema at the gates of Wittenberg, with the car a abandon the whole matter. But his pacific resolve was law, the decretals, and the extravagantes of the popes, exsbaken by Tetzel, who had burned the heretical theses claiming-** As thou hast afflicted the holy of the Lord, só in public, and, as it were, dared Luther to the conflict. mayest thou be consumed in everlasting fire." In an The inhabitants of Wittenberg retaliated by consigning address he added "Hitherto I have merely jested #th Tetzel's productions to the flames in the Great Square, the Pope; the serious struggle now begins. And from and thus began the great religious revolution known as that date Luther held no more communion with the Church the Reformation. Several others joined in the chase of Romc. which Tetzel had started; John Eck, Prierio, and Hoogen The circumstances of the time, as we have said else straaten opened upon him in full cry. At first the com- | where, proved eminently favourable to the success of motion was viewed with indifference at Rome. "Monkish Luther's mission. The discovery of printing had aroused jealousy," cried Leo X.; "this friar Martin is a man of the intellectual faculties of men, while it provided tha fine genius!” And when Luther appealed to him against means of supplying them with the nutriment they so love the lawfulness of indulgences, he privately requested his had lacked. The printers, necessarily men of boid er friend Staupitz to persuade the resoriner to rest in peace. quick intelligence, became Luther's most powerful and But when at length the Pope's master of the ceremonies enthusiastic supporters. They frequently printed his bunkt wrote a defence of Tetzel, and Luther published a masterly at their own cost, and always with a loving care. Past reply, the alarm and ire of the papal court were fully aroused. numbers of copies were struck off, and rapidly distributed He was summoned to appear at Rome within sixty days, throughout Germany by those heretical monks wbo bal and Pricrio, one of his strongest antagonists, was placed at thrown aside their cowls and returned to the world to pr»the bead of the tribunal appointed to try him. But the mulgate the principles of a reformed creed. The tire wai Elector of Saxony, who was favourable to Luther, knew latent in the earth, and as the vivifying flame pused weil tlat if be ventured to Rome he ventured into a lion's I quickly from one point to another, it burst forth in all its