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2nd September the relief arrived at the Alambagh, a | free enough in the rear to march once more upon Lucknow. Talled garden on the Cawn pore road held by the enemy in He first occupied the Dilkusha, and posted guns to comface. Havelock stormed the Alambagh, and on the 25th mand the Martiniere. On the 5th, Brigadier Franks icaght his way with continuous opposition through the arrived with 6000 men, half of them Gurkhas sent by LATTUw lanes of the city. On the 26th he arrived at the the Rajah of Nepal. Outram's force then crossed the pate of the Residency inclosure, and was welcomed by Gumti, and advanced from the direction of Faizabad the gallant defenders within. General Neill fell during the (Fyzabad), while the main body attacked from the southact vn outside the walls. The sufferings of the besieged east. After a week's hard fighting, from the 9th to the had been very great; but even after the first relief, it 15th March, the rebels were completely defeated, and their became clear that Lucknow could only be temporarily | posts captured one by one. Most of the insurgents, howdifeeded till the arrival of further reinforcements should ever, escaped. As soon as it became clear that Lucknow allow the garrison to cut its way out. Outram, who had had been permanently recovered, and that the enemy as a DG re-assumed the command which he generously yielded combined body had ceased to exist, Sir Colin Campbell to Havelock during the relief, accordingly fortified an en- | broke up the British Oudh army, and the work of relapad area of the town, bringing many important out organization began. worảs within the limits of defence; and the siege began LUCRE'TIA, the name of a great patrician clan or Core ure till a second relieving party could set the gens of ancient Rome, and subsequently of a less famous besini at liberty. Night and day the enemy kept up a plebeian gens also. The greatest Lucretius is the poet (see cuttual firing against the British position, while Outram LUCRETIUS]; but one of the women of the family (who of retaliated by frequent sorties. Throughout October the course all bore the name Lucretia) lends it its greatest gurison continued its gallant defence, and a small party celebrity in story. Lucretia was the wife of Lucius Tarstat up in the Alambagh, and cut off unexpectedly from quinius Collatinus, who had unknowingly charmed the De main boals, also contrived to hold good its dangerous base Sextus Tarquinius, her husband's cousin, the son of post. Meanwhile Sir Colin Campbell's force had advanced Tarquinius Superbus, last king of Rome. This man arrivtur. Cawnpore, and arrived at the Alambagh on the 10th ing suddenly by night from the army, where he should on November. From the day of his landing at Calcutta, have been engaged campaigning with her husband, forced Sir Colin bad never ceased in his endeavours to collect an Lucretia to dishonour, threatening her, if she did not subamato relieve Lucknow, by gathering together the liberated mit, to lay a slave with his throat cut beside her and tell I beld force and the fresh reinforcements from England. her husband he had caught and killed him there. Lucretia O the 12th the main body threw itself into the Alambagh, summoned her husband and his friends as soon as Sextus

ter a smart skirmish with the rebels. Sir Colin next Tarquin had left her, declared the whole matter to them, wegged tbe Dilkusha Palace, south-east of the town, and swore them to vengeance, and then stabbed herself, as then moved against the Martiniere, which the enemy had unfit longer to survive her shame. Thus began the great bottes with guns in position. After carrying that post revolution which destroyed for ever kingdom in ancient te for the canal, and on the 16th attacked the Sikandra | Rome, and established in its stead the most powerful Paste the chief rebel stronghold. The mutineers, driven republic the world erer saw.

bar, fought desperately for their fortress, but before | LUCRE'TIUS, with his full name Titus LUCRETIUS ETELIS the whole place was in the hands of the British. CARUS, was born B.C. 95, and is said, on unsatisfactory As soon as Sir Colin Campbell reached the Moti Mahal, evidence (or rather on none at all, but the bare assertion),

the cutskirts of the city proper, General Havelock came to hare died by his own band, driven mad by a love potion cet fra the Residency to meet him, and the second relief administered by his wife B.C. 52, in the forty-fourth year **successfully accomplished. Eren now, however, it of his age. The poem of Lucretius entitled “De Rerum mured impossible to hold Lucknow, and Sir Colin Natura" (On the Nature of Things), in six books, contains Campbell determined, before undertaking any further a development of the physical and ethical doctrines of Vesve operations, to return to Cawnpore with his army, | Epicurus. Notwithstanding the apparently unpromising perting the civilians, ladies, and children rescued from nature of his subject, there is no writer in whom the Latin ur lng imprisonment in the Residency, with the view language displays its inajesty and stately grandeur so hotardiog them to Calcutta. On the morning of the effectively as in Lucretius, who amply proves, in his own

of November the troops received orders to march for person, that poetry is not incompatible with science, and be Alimlagh; and the Residency, the scene of so long that it is possible for a man to investigate the laws of

! euring a defence, was abandoned for a while to the nature without blinding his vision to the loveliness of the T. ATY. Before the final departure Sir Henry Havelock | ideal world. Add to this, that the passionate fervour of en fra an attack of dysentery. He was buried in the the poet's revolt against a creed as cruel as it was superligbagh, without any monument, a cross on a neigh-stitious finds an echo in many despairing souls of our own Dari tree alone marking for the time his last resting- age, and we have all the elements of the powerful fascina, S. Jaines Outram, with 3500 men, held the tion which Lucretius exercises over the minds of to-day. z a antil the commander-in-chief could return to The primary aim of the poet was a law of life, and philoso

in the capital. The rebels used the interval well phical theories only served as the means of exposition. pire fortification of their stronghold to the utmost extent | Nevertheless the early statement of the atomic theory is

**** knowledge and power. They surrounded the greater remarkable in Lucretius. It forins the subject of one of But if tbe city, for a circuit of 20 miles, with an external the latest contributions to the Lucretian criticism, “The - 5 dniences, extending from the Gumti to the canal. | Atomic Theory of Lucretius," by John Masson (London, A parapet las bebind the canal; a second line of 1884). The English translations of Lucretius which are

s connected the Moti Mahal, the Mess-house, most worthy of notice are by Creech (1714) and by Mason d e Imambara; while the Kaisar Bagh constituted Good (1805), and the English prose edition by the Rev. J.S.

resel eta iel. Stockade works and parapets closed Watson, M.A. (1851); and there is an excellent general acpon T Street, and loopholes in all the houses afforded an count of the poet's aim and works by Mr. Malloch in the fontart for defending the passage inch by inch. The Ancient Classics Series (London, 1878). I ntat strength of the insurgents amounted to 30,000 LUCUL'LUS, LU'CIUS LUCIN'IUS, descended Se tasther with 50,000 volunteers; and they pos- from a distinguished Roman family, was born about B.C. to 100 pieces of ordnance-guns and mortars. On 115, and served under Sulla in the Marsian war. While kan 13 of March, 1838, Sir Colin Campbell found himself Sulla was besieging Athens (B.C. 87), Lucullus was sent

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LIST OF PLATES.

VOL. IX.

To be Bound at Commencement of Volume in Following Oriler.

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MAJOLICA, . . . . . . . To face Title, Vol. IX. LUNG, . . . . . . . . . . . PLATE I. MACKEREL, . . . . . . . . .

I. MAMMALIA, . . . . . . . . . , I.-III. MARANTA AND MANIHOT, . . .

, 1. MARS, . . . . . . . . . MARSUPIALIA AND MONOTREMATA, . . MATE, . . . . MERIDIAN CIRCLE, . . . . . . . . MESOZOIC FOSSILS, . . METEOROLOGY,. . .

„ I.-IV. MINING, . . .

COLOURED MAPS I.-IV. MIRAGE, . .

. PLATE I. MOLLUSCA, . . . . MOON, . . . MOORISH ARCHITECTURE, . MOSAIC, . MOSSES, . . . . .

1. MOTHS, . . .

1.-11. MUSCLES, · · · · ·

1.-11. MUSTELIDÆ, . . MYRIAPODA, . . MYRTACEÆ, . .

1. NEBULÆ . . . . NEOZOIC FOSSILS, . NERVOUS SYSTEM, . . NECROPTERA, . . . . . . . . . , I. NEW ZEALAND, . . . . ... . . COLOURED MAP.

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I.-III.

. I.

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TIIE

NATIONAL ENCYCLOPÆDIA:

A DICTIONARY OF

UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE.

LUCIFER.

LUCKNOW. LU CIFER (Luci-fer, the light-bringer, in Latin, and, as long as the animal, is cylindrical, pointed, and slightly Resphorns, its exact equivalent in Greek), the name among heeled at the base. There are about seventy species. txarts of Venus as a morning star; Noctifer, Hes- Their geographical range is wide ; they are found on the ***. Vesper, &c., were her names as an evening star. coasts of Norway and of the West Indies and New Zealand. Lyler is also used as an epithet of several goddesses-- | Two hundred and fifty species have been found fossil, com

Anasa, Diana, &c. In the classical mythology Lucifer or mencing in the Upper Silurian. The species of the family b ut was a son of the star-god Astræus and the dawn- Lucinidæ are numerous; they are chiefly natives of temEX Aurora (Eos), or, as some poets have it, of Kephalosperate and tropical seas, living upon sandy and muddy

A Lim. He was held to be the father of the Hesperides. | bottoms, and ranging from the sea-shore to great depths. l". Detal times Lucifer came to be the original name of The genera Corbis, Kellia, Diplodonta, and Ungulina are *, itt embodiment of pride, the archangel who fell included in this family the gun ambition.

LU'CIUS was the name borne by three popes.

Lucius I., Bishop of Rome, succeeded Cornelius, 25th 14 that one who was created noble Wire than all other creatures, down from heaven, September, 252, and was martyred at the hands of the ng with lightnings, fall upon one side."

pagans in March, 253. --Dante, Purg." xii.

Lucirs II. (Gerard) succeeded Celestine II. 12th March, This for highly ariers from the passage in Isaiah (xiv. 12) | 1144. Immediately on his accession the people met on the Tortir pr phet inveighs in a parable against Nebuchad- | capitol and declared the Roman republic re-established, and Eet, earthly embodiment of pride in his day: "How while professing obedience to the Pope in spiritual matters falien from hearen, O Lucifer, son of the morn

threw off their temporal allegiance, and elected a patrician 23" Miton uses Lucifer as the special pride-giving or temporal governor. Resistance was overborne on every eilet of Satan, and in one fine passage couples the epithet

side, and the distressed Pope appealed for aid to the Emre the star also

peror Conrad. As the emperor did not respond Lucius him

self led the party of reaction, and was slain by a slinger's stone "Kor then, that after Lucifer from heav'n,

in attempting to storm the capitol, 25th February, 1145. call him, brighter once amidst the host 0*agels than that star the stars among,

LUCIUS III. (Ubaldo) succeeded Alexander III., 1st Fell with bis flaming legions through the deep

September, 1181. Stormy Rome rose and drove him out Iaco bis place . . . ." &c.

in 1182, and again in 1183, with varied forms of insult. -Paradise Lost," vii. 131.

He held a council at Verona with the Emperor Barbarossa perser's "Faerie Queene" Lucifera is the goddess of (Frederick I.), 1184, and died at Verona soon after its prb, wise splendid house is built on sand.

close, 25th November, 1185. LUCIFER MATCHES. See MATCHES.

LUCKNOW' (Lakhnao), the capital of the province of LUCIF UGA is a genus of remarkable fishes inhabit-Oudh, British India, is situated on both banks of the

be subterranean waters of caves in Cuba. As these river Gumti, and is distant from Cawnpore 42 miles, from A Dever see the light. eyes are useless, and are therefore Benares 199 miles, from Calcutta 610 miles. The popu

** apetit altogether, or corered by the skin and quite lation is 261,303. Though quite a modern town, Lucknow Tertiary. The body is elongated and covered with at present ranks fourth in size among Indian cities, being Este scales. The median fin is continuous, running only surpassed by the three presidency capitals of Calcutta,

the greater part of the back round to the vent. The Madras, and Bombay. It stands on an elevated plain, 403 tahs are mere filaments attached to the shoulder | feet above sea-level; and although destitute of any con

138 barbels on the snout of its allies are replaced | siderable trade or manufacture, still possesses very great EL!

**za by numerous minute cilia or tubercles. Luci- | wealth. Till recent years it formed the metropolis of a Sa 03 to the family Ophidiidæ, of the order ANA great Mohammedan kingdom, and afterwards contained

the administrative headquarters of a considerable British CI NA is a genus of LAMELLIBRANCHIATA, a type province; while even at the present day it retains its Two larry Lacinidæ, The shell is orbicular in shape, position as a centre of modern Indian life, being the leadlike ani closed, and of a white colonr. The umbones are ing city of native fashion, and the chief school of Indian

the lunule distinct; the margins small or music, grammar, and Mussulman theology.
tentated. The animal has the mantle freely Lucknow stands on both banks of the Gumti, but the
the siphonal orifice simple ; the mouth minute ; | greater portion of the city stretches along its western side,

on each side; and the foot, which is twice la few suburbs only covering the further shore. Four bridges

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