science of self-government. While in their log-cabins, dressed in homespun and deer-skins, they lost respect for royalty and aristocracy. Thę youth born and educated in the colonies, in the wilds of the forest, in contact with the “ free and independent Redmen,” disdained not only the governors sent over by England, but all manner of royalty and aristocracy. Thus, we see that the Southern States were settled by a very different class of Englishmen from those who settled New England, while the inhabitants of the Middle States of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and Maryland differed from both, they being made up of different nation.. alities and religions.

CHAPTER II.-NEW ENGLAND. The first settlement of New England was made by the Puritans, & peculiar people, who dissented from the Church of England, “as by law established,” in 1602, in the reign of James I, King of England. They formed an independent congregation. They elected their own minister. Richard Clifton and James Robinson were chosen.Moore's Lives Govs. Ply. and Mass. p. 12. Persecution was the order of the times. Archbishop Banchroft and Laud, of Canterbury, persecuted the Puritans with unrelenting severity and cruelty. Exposed to all the rigor of English penal laws, which the British government could enforce, the Puritans were compelled to leave their homes in their native land, and seek new homes in foreign countries. Robinson and his congregation fled from the cruel laws of England and took refuge in Holland, in 1609. In consequence of the war between Spain and Holland the Puritans resolved on emigrating to America, where they would be free to retain their religion, laws, customs and language unmolested. They considered themselves in the like situation as the Israelites, and did not want to mix with any other people or religion. They feared that if they should remain in Holland their people would become absorbed in a foreign nation.Ibid. 14. In 1617, Robert Chushman and John Carver were sent to England to negotiate with the London company with a view to settle in Virginia, and also to ascertain if the king would grant liberty of conscience. Though the king promised that he would not molest them, he refused to grant them, by public authority under the seals, liberty of conscience. After some negotiations with the London company of Virginia a patent was obtained under the company's seal, in the name of John Wincomb, who was to accompany the Puritans to America. -Bancroft, vol. i, p. 305. This patent and the proposals of a London merchant, named Thomas Weston, were carried to London, in 1619, for the consideration of the Puritan congregation. November 3, 1620, a territory, extending from

from 40 to 48 degrees of North latitude and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, was granted to a company of forty persons, with the Earl of Warwick at its head, by James I. This patent is the basis of all subsequent grants, patents or charters of New England.—Moore's Govs. Ply. and Mass. 10. The company had full control over this vast territory, subject to the authority of the king. Meantime, in 1620, Weston went to Leyden, Holland, and the Puritans entered into an agreement with him, that he

should supply them with money and shipping to take them to America. The Speedwell, commanded by Capt. Reynolds, and the Mayflower by Capt. Jones, sailed for America. Both ships had put to sea, but the Speedwell was unfit for the voyage, and on September, 1620,

the Mayflower, with one hundred and one passengers, besides the ship's officers and crew, sailed for America, with the intention to settle within the jurisdiction of the Virginia Conipany, on the Hudson river. But they were driven further north by the winds and perils of the sea, and by force of necessity they landed on Plymouth Rock:

As many New England orators and public men claim that their ancestors came over in the Mayflower, we give the following for their benefit :

The names of the subscribers are placed in the following order, those who brought wives, marked with a dagger (t), and those who died before the end of the next March, distinguished by an asterisk (*).

8 2 5 6 6 2 1 2 4

5 1

1. Mr. John Carver, + 2. Mr. William Bradford, + 3. Mr. Edward Winslow, + 4. Mr. William Brewster, + 5. Mr. Isaac Allerton, 6. Capt. Miles Standisli, t 7. John Alden, 8. Mr. Samuel Fuller, 9. * Mr. Christopher Martin, 10., * Mr. William Mullins, + 11. * Mr. William White, + (1) 12. Mr. Richard Warren, 13. John Howland, (2) 14. Mr. Stephen Hopkins, t15. * Edward Tilly, + 16. * John Tilly, + 17. Francis Cook, 18. * Thomas Rogers, 19. * Thomas Tinker, t20. * John Ridgdale, + 21. * Edward Fuller, + 22. * John Turner, 23. Francis Eaton, + 24. * James Chilton, + 25. * John Crackston, (3) 26. John Billington, t 27. * Moses Fletcher, 28. * John Goodman, 29. * Degory Priest, (4) 30. * Thomas Williams, 31. Gilbert Winslow, 32. * Edmund Margeson, 33. Peter Brown, 34. * Richard Britlerige, 35. George Soule, (5) 36. * Richard Clarke, 37. Richard Gardiner, 38. * John Allerton, 39. * Thomas English, 40. Edward Dotey, (6) 41. Edward Leister, (6)

8 4 3 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

Total persons
Of whom were subscribers to the compact

101 41

(1) Besides a son born in Cape Cod Harbor, named Peregrine.
(2) Of Governor Carver's family.
(3) Morton writes his name Craxton.
(4) In Morton, Digery Priest.
(5) Of Governor Winslow's family.
(6) Of Mr. Hopkins' family."

(Moore's lives Gov. Ply. & Mass. page 26.) The Virginia patent was useless, as they had settled without the jurisdiction of the London company, and within the limits of the Plymouth company. They had no authority from any government or power. They were reduced to a state of nature and could establish a government for themselves. They had no protection from the government of England, but were treated as persons outside the pale of the British laws. Being reduced to a state of nature, they were free to make laws for their own protection and safety. They claimed the right to choose their own government and make their own laws.- Vide Vattel's Law of Nations, Book i, chap. 4. pp. 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22. Blackstone's Comm. vol. i, page 245; 1 Kent's Comm. pp. 208, 209. The emigrants to New England and the other colonies had this advantage that they had “neither lords nor common people, neither rich nor poor."

On the voyage onc man died, and a boy, the son of Stephen Hopkins, was born-called Oceanus. November 10, 1620, the Mayflower anchored in the harbor of Cape Cod 42 degrees north latitude, within the territory of New Plymouth. Here the first Englishman, Peregrine White, was born in the colony, on board of the Mayflower, in Cape Cod harbor, Nov. 1620. The last survivor of those who came over in the Mayflower was Mary Churchman, daughter of Isaac Allerton. The Pilgrims met in the cabin of the Mayflower and drew up articles of association. This may be called the first convention in the United States. These articles were a constitution for the government of the colony. At this meeting, they pledged themselves to be governed by the rule of the majorityto submit to such government and governors, as we should by common consent agree to make and choose.” The Puritans were opposed to monarchy, so thought King James I in 1604, when he said of the Puritans, “You are aiming at a Scots presbytery, which agrees with monarchy as well as God with the devil! I will have none of that liberty as to ceremonies."-Bancroft, vol. I, p. 298; Neal, ii, 52; Moore's Lives Govs. Ply & Mass. p. 24, with notes. After this compact was signed, John Carver was elected governor, by a unanimous vote, for one year. This was the first government of the people in America, where the people made their own laws, clected their own officers, civil, military and ecclesiastical, without patent, grant, charter or authority from any king or power in the world. This was establishing a democratic government in the wilds of America. The Puritan clergy were elected by the congregation. The Puritans were a joint-stock company. They mortgaged their labor to London merchants who supplied them with means to emigrate to America. They had to work on the credit system. The London merchants who supplied the Puritans with ships and money had a monopoly of the trade of the colony. They were adventurers. They were also shareholders in the colony. They relinquished all their rights to the colony for £1,800 sterling. There was no oath of office required of John Carver, as he had no patronage. There was no danger of political corruption. The politicians did not get rich on the people's money. The people were poor, frugal, and they possessed a stern and unflinching honesty. They did not want idlers"; they despised “ a proud heart, a dainty tooth, å beggar's purse, and an idle hand.” by lot."

From the nature of their compact, being a joint-stock company, they established a community of goods. They planted one field in common with corn; they found the seed in an Indian mound. All had to work, even the governor of the colony. They worked like bees. They had no drones in the hive. Oh, shades of the Puritans!! no Long Branch for the government to live in kingly style!!!

While every man worked in common, the people suffered great privations, and in some instances suffered from famine—at one time they were so far reduced as to live on five grains of parched corn each daily. They would have perished only for the supply of fish. They had to share with the new emigrants who came to the colony. In 1623, Governor Bradford is reported to have said, “By the time our corn is planted, our victuals are spent; not knowing at night where to have a bit in the morning, and have neither bread nor corn for three or four months together.”—Moore 68. Such was the state of the colony during the time they had a community of goods. So the colonists, in violation of their agreements with the London adventurers afore-mentioned, in the spring of 1623, agreed that every family should plant for themselves, on such ground as should be assigned to them

They had but one boat in the whole colony, and parties of seven men fished in their turn for the benefit of the whole colony; when a deer was killed it was divided among the whole people of the congregation or colony. The people, while a community of goods lasted, lived whole days on fish and ground-nuts ! They were in debt and had to pay 30 per cent. per annum for money. But after every man was able to work for himself, industry was encouraged, and the people of the colony, in 1629, were free from the debt they owed the London adventurers, and they were freemen! So much for communism. There never was a time, since Adam was expelled from Eden, more favorable than this to try the experiment of a community of goods, as the Puritans were all of one nation, religion, manners, customs, and habits and spoke the same language. They were one congregation-all governed by public opinion and religion. They were as one family. Yet, while they were one corporation--all one partnership concern-all possessing a community of goods, they were in a state of starvation. But when every man was for himself, they soon paid off the debt of the colony and sent for their friends to Holland.

The pilgrims followed the example of the Jews-like them they claimed to be the chosen of the Lord. They united church and state. ment of the colony was composed of the church and the congregation.Moore's lives, Govs. Ply. & Mass, 284, 289, 290, 291, 300, 318. The governor was elected by the people, in town meeting, the same as we now elect Town Officers. The whole body of the people or congregation elected their own officers, and transacted all business pertaining to the church and the state. While Governor Carver lived, the whole people had a vote. Both clergy and congregation, with the governor as chairman, met in one assembly, like the Greek Republics, and made laws and regulations for the colony. The town meeting was both court and legislature. The governor possessed no power but that of a magistrate. He could arrest criminals, but they were tried before the whole body of the people, as judicial and legislative power was then vested in the whole body of the people in town meeting. The governor presided the same as the foreman of a Grand Jury. He was the sole executive officer of the colony. He had no patronage, as he had neither the power to nominate or appoint to office. All officers, civil, religious and military, were elected by the people. The governor was moderator and with his deputies presided at town meetings-voting was

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by ballot. In time, the franchise was confined to freemen, who had taken a freeman's oath. There was no distinction or exemption from military duty-all had to stand "watch,” even the clergy. The highest military officer in the colony was Captain Miles Standish. The town was impaled, and cannon planted on the roof of the church. The people met in town meeting on a common plain. It was an assembly of the sovereign peoplefor sovereignty was in the people; for they acknowledged no higher law-making power. They perpetually exercised the rights of sovereignty; they named their magistrates, concluded peace or declared war, made police regulations, and enacted laws as if their allegiance was due only to God.” De Tocqueville, p. 19.

For the English laws were repudiated, in 1636, by the declaration in the cabin of the Mayflower. New Plymouth entered upon the record, November 15, 1636, that “the authority of the English laws, at present or to come is expressly renounced and Parliament denied the right of legislating for the colony." This was perfectly right as the Puritans were denied the protection of the King of England. They were reduced to a state of nature, and were free to make laws for themselves.—Vattel's Law of Nations, book i, chapter 4, pp. 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23. Kent's Comm., vol. i, pp. 208–9. Blackstone's Comm., vol. i, page 245. Thus the town meeting is the parent of the Colony and the State mass-meetings and constitutional conventions. “ The Republic was already established in every township.”—De Tocqueville, 28. Governor John Carver was succeeded by William Bradford, in 1621. The first change from the “time-honored town meetings,” the fear and dread of kings, a stumbling-block to the Kings of England, and the royal governors sent over to govern New England-or the general court, where the whole people assembled for executive, legislative, and judicial business together, was the appointment of an assistant, or deputy governor. In time, the assistants were increased to five and afterwards to seven. The Puritans had no charter of title either from the king or the Plymouth company. The first patent was taken in the name of John Pierce, and the second in the name of William Bradford, in trust for the colony, in 1629. In 1640, Governor Bradford surrendered this patent to the general court-this title was as good as the crown of England could make it. In 1636, the Puritans declared their “lawful right to their lands in respect of vacancy, donation, and purchase of the natives.' In Bradford's patent was granted the right of fishery in Maine, and a tract of land of fifteen miles on cach side of the Kennebeck river. In the patent was the following enabling clause to empower the colony to "enact such laws as should most benefit a state in its nonage, not rejecting or omitting to observe such of the laws of their native country as would conduce to their good.” The patent granted to William Bradford provided “to frame and make orders, ordinances and constitutions, etc.” In 1634, an important change took place in the colony. The governor and assistants were constituted the judicial court, and afterwards the supreme judiciary of the colony. The government was remodelled. The Executive and Judiciary vested in the governor and seven assistants, the town meeting remaining the assembly or general court. In 1639, the first assembly of the colony met. It was composed of four deputies from the old town of Plymouth, and two from each of the other towns. In 1649, the legislature or general court was composed of members from each town. These deputies to the general court or legislature were chosen from the freeinen of each town.

The towns were governed by town officers called selectmen, who had jurisdiction in civil cases where the amount did not exceed forty shillings, with the right of appeal to the court of assistants. In 1649, the qualification

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