waters from the lower by the expanse of heaven. — Above the mountains the waters stood] ; even the highest mountain peaks were beneath the surface of these primeval waters.

-7. At Thy rebuke || At the sound of Thy thunder]. The voice of God speaking in the thunder of the storm, as He rides in His chariot with His angelic winds and lightnings, frightens the Deep and fills it with terror - and the waters flee || haste away). This graphic poetic description takes the place of the calm command, Gn. 1°: “God said, 'Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear'; and it was so." — A glossator inserts a tetrameter couplet to intensify the description, thinking of the agitation of the sea in a storm : 8. They went up the mountains, they went down the valleys, Unto the place that Thou didst found for them], cf. 10725-26. — 9. That they might not pass the boundary Thou didst set]. This v. is directly dependent as a final clause on v.'. The waters fled hastily in terror to the boundary fixed for them by Yahweh, beyond which thereafter they dared not pass. The poet evidently had in mind Jb. 388-11 Pr. 8. - Might not return to cover the earth). The separation of earth and sea was to be perpetual.

Str. III. Four synth. couplets. - 10. Who sent forth springs into the valleys, That they might flow between the mountains). The third day's work of Gn. I is really a double work : first, the separation of land and sea v. 9-10; second, the creation of vegetation v.1-12 The latter is the theme of this and the subsequent Str. The author of Gn. i does not think of the streams, so essential to vegetable life. The poet supplies that defect, and emphasizes the refreshing streams. - 11. That they might give drink to all the wild animals of the field]. The animals come in here prior to their creation, in order to emphasize the importance of these streams, which the poet conceives as belonging to this order of creation. — That the onagers might break their thirst]. The specification of the beautiful wild ass may have been influenced by Jb. 395-8. - 12. That the birds of heaven might settle down), also final clause, dependent on v.", to introduce the birds as dependent on water, as in the previous couplet the animals. The birds settle down, cf. 55", after their flight, on the banks of these streams. The introduction of " by them” by a glossator was unnecessary, and it impairs the measure. From among the branches give forth song); having settled down in the branches of the trees by the streams, they utter their satisfaction in notes of song. — 13. Who watered the mountains from His upper chambers]. The


chambers are those framed in the upper waters v., where are the storm clouds and the lightnings. This must refer therefore to the rains descending upon the mountains. That by His outbursts of water the earth might be satisfied]. This is the most probable original in accordance with the context. The earth is satisfied with the rains, as the mountains are watered by them. The waters come from the upper chambers and from outbursts of these waters in storms. An ancient copyist mistook the form for "fruit," and then was obliged to explain it by the addition of “Thy works”; but it is difficult to see how these words can refer to the rain.

Str. IV. Four syn. couplets.—14–15. Who caused grass to spring up for cattle). The poet, after giving the previous Str. to the fructifying streams, now takes up the vegetation of the third day's work; and first of all the grass for the cattle, then herbage to the labour of mankind). The poet here combines with the narrative of the creation, Gn. 111-12, the thought of Gn. 317-19, the necessity of human labour in the ground, in order to win the products necessary for subsistence. - In order that they might bring forth bread from the earth], dependent upon the previous clause, and defining the herbage as the grain out of which bread is made. To this is added the cultivation of the olive tree for its precious oil : In order that they might make their faces to shine with oil]. While the oil is used for anointing the head, especially at feasts 23', it is also used to soften and smooth the skin of other parts of the body as well as the face. The oil is mentioned probably because it is the product of a tree that needs cultivation. — The original limited itself to these; but a glossator thought that wine could not be omitted, and so he inserted : and wine that gladdeneth the heart of man, cf. Ec. 10''. — It is difficult to see why any one should have added the variant of v.14c, and bread which strengtheneth man's heart, which is evidently from the same hand as v.154. - 16. The trees of Shadday], gigantic trees, cf. 36'. This reading alone explains the variation of 6 "trees of the field," and H “trees of Yahweh,” followed by EV®. — A glossator explains them very properly as cedars of Lebanon that He planted.

These trees have their fill] of the nourishing rain, as in the previous Str. the animals, mountains, and the earth. AV. “full of sap" has nothing to justify it. - 17. Where the birds build their nests]. This is a glossator's general statement, introductory to the specific statement, which only was original: The stork has her home in the cypresses]. Tristram says that where the stork has neither houses nor ruins for its nest, “it selects any tree tall and strong enough to provide a platform for its huge nest, and for this purpose none are more convenient than the fir tree" (Nat. Hist. Bible, p. 248).- 18. The high mountains are for the wild goats). The poet, as the context indicates, is thinking of these lofty mountains as having been well watered, cf. v.13, and so providing vegetation for these wild goats in regions where no other animals can go. Associated with them in these lofty inaccessible regions are the Syrian marmots. — The crags are a refuge for marmots]. This animal “lives in holes in the rocks, where it makes its nest and conceals its young, and to which it retires at the least alarm” (Tristram, Nat. Hist. Bible, p. 75).

Str. V. Four syn. couplets. — 19. Who made the moon || The sun], the fourth day's work of Gn: 114-18. The stars are omitted by our poet. — for seasons), to distinguish the seasons of the month and the year, as Gn. 114. Both authors doubtless had in view the new moons and other religious feasts which are determined by the moons. to know his time of going down], to distinguish between day and night by sunset. - A glossator adds to this simple statement: 20. If Thou makest darkness, then it is night, wherein all the wild beasts of the forest creep forth]. The former is a prosaic repetition of v.19, the latter a general introduction to v.9. – 21. The young lions roar for prey). After sunset the young lions first become active. The night is their time to satisfy their hunger. And to seek their food from 'El], cf. Jb. 384; while eagerly seeking prey, they really depend upon God for it. — 22. When the sun rises, they gather themselves in, And in their dens lie down), for repose after the hunt of the night. As the night is the lion's time for labour, the day is his time for repose. The reverse is true of man. — 23. Man goeth forth to his work, And to his labour until evening). Man toils during the day, and reposes at night. The sun gives the signal for lion and for man alike.

Str. VI. A synth. tetrastich, and synth. and syn. couplets. A glossator inserts before the creation of the animals an exclamation of wonder : 24. O how manifold are Thy works, Yahweh!]. To this he adds, from the conception of WL.: in wisdom hast Thou made them all], cf. Pr. 319 922 39. He then, to make the exclamation apply to all the animals, transposes v.24 from its original place at the beginning of the description of the creation of the land animals. — 25. Yonder sea great and broad]. The fifth day's work of creation, Gn. 120-, now begins. — There are gliding things innumerable; Living things, small together with great], the innumerable and various-sized creatures that swarm in the sea.–26. Leviathan which Thou didst form to play with]. Leviathan is the great sea monster Gn. 1o, probably the whale. This monster, too huge for man, is to God a dear little animal to sport with.

-A late glossator, moved by what influence it is difficult to determine, thought the reference to the sea would be defective without ships, and so he inserted : there ships sail. 27. The introductory line, referring to the creation of the land animals, was removed to v.24. It evidently belongs here: The earth is full of Thy creatures], so JPSV., RV." after 6, which alone suits the context. “Thy riches,” EV., or “possessions," after Aq., 2, 0, I, while a proper meaning of the Heb. word, is not appropriate here. All of them on Thee wait], looking to God for their sustenance. A glossator adds the purpose: That Thou mayest give their food in its season. But this is more appropriately stated in the following couplet: 28. Thou givest to them : || Thou openest Thy hand they gather it || they are satisfied. A glossator adds, without need and against the measure, the object: with good.

Str. VII. Four syn. couplets. – 29. Thou hidest Thy face] in displeasure, || withdrawest their spirit]. The spirit of life of man and animals was imparted by the divine inbreathing Gn. 2?; when that spirit was withdrawn, man and animals expired Gn. 6. To this was appended by a glossator a corresponding word, the primitive curse Gn. 31' : and unto dust they return. — 30. Thou sendest forth Thy Spirit], the divine Spirit which invokes in the creature the spirit of life. they are created], creatures live again || and Thou renewest the face of the ground], with new living creatures in place of the old that have expired. The poet evidently appends to the six days' work what he conceives as happening on a seventh day; probably thinking of these days as extended periods of time. — 31. The glory of Yahweh endureth forever). This in the original must have been a statement of fact || Yahweh is glad in His works], which is the poet's mode of stating the thought of Gn. 132–23, that everything God had made was very excellent, and that after the completion of the works He rested from them. But a later editor, losing sight of this connection, inserted a jussive substantive vb., making the line too long and putting the entire couplet in the form of a wish. This mistake is perpetuated in RV. - The same glossator, wishing to enhance the glory of Yahweh in this connection, brings in the theophanic manifestation : 32. He who looked on the earth and it trembled || He toucheth the mountains, and they smoke], cf. Am. 90 Ps. 144o. - 33-34. The congregation unite in the gladness of Yahweh over His completed work : My musing], contemplation of and meditation upon the works of creation above described. is sweet unto Him] is agreeable and acceptable unto Yahweh || I am glad in Yahweh. A glossator emphasized this couplet by prefixing another from 146° : I will sing to Yahweh while I live; I will make melody to my God while I have my being. — The Ps. has reached its appropriate end; but a Maccabean editor is not satisfied until he can add an imprecation : 35. Let sinners be exterminated from the earth, and let the wicked not be any more.

1. inn UDI '973] is a liturgical addition. — 110] in 1.2 has arisen from dittog. has it a second time. -2. noy] (7113) ptc. here and throughout the Ps. as characteristic. - opis] err. for more n.f. mantle Ex. 228. 26 (E). - Ino] n.f. curtain Je. 420 1020 4929 Hb. 3? Is. 542.-3. ppa) article with demon. force ; dub. Why here and not v.?? Pi. ptc. tp denom. popup n.f. beam, and so frame, lay beams, elsw. Ne. 28 38. 6 2 Ch. 3411; figure of building, as in Am. 96. — nus] pl. Inny n.f. upper chamber in roof Ju. 323. 24. 25 +; pl. upper stories, so v.18 Je. 2213. 14, the successive heights or layers of heaven, here on the upper waters, as in Am. 96. Amos uses nibyo. Hence || Dry dense clouds. — 3137] chariot; some think of the 3177 of 1811, especially on account of the nia yos? by which appears in the parall. I. in


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