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All His works), the entire creation here personified, I in all places of His dominion), throughout the entire heavens and earth, everywhere. The whole Ps. concludes with a liturgical addition most suitable for public worship, however much it disturbs the poetical construction: Bless Yahweh, O my soul.

rdgas 68 [כָל־גְמוּלָיו .2 - 12 % .prosaic addition

; so v.19 . 2o אֶת [את יהוה .1

' ] — ] ndo as tàs alvéoeis aútoù interp. as praise rendered to God; as benefits, the usual translation, is an interp. of what God renders to His creatures. The more general mng. is dealings (284). So is an intensive gl. — 3. ()] Aramaic sf. in assonance at the close of each l. of Str., also with vbs. — to'xobno) diseases, elsw. Dt. 2921 2 Ch. 2119 Je. 1418 164. Aramaism for in. — 4b without the assonance is a gl., interpreting 5 a. — – 5. 7 22] is dub. 8 Thy #Tuệuukav oov, W desiderium tuum="?!, Tiad 'days of thine old age, so JPSV. J bonis ornamentum tuum, $ 20. It is usual to interpret '79 ornament as syn. 1132 and referring to the DJ; but as there is no other such usage, it is improbable. The parall. suggests thy so long as thou livest, as 10483 1462. The 3 of these passages may have been omitted by haplog. — nynon] Hithp. a.1. 6 åvakainio Oñoetat; the change of form from ptc. indicates that the 1. is gl. from Is. 4031. – 170] n.m. eagle or griffon, vulture, as Dt. 3211 +. 7. ubeby] cf. 912, 6 Deanuata autoll prob. paraphrase. —8 is gl. from Ex. 346.–9. 7101] Qal impf. + [103] vb. (1) maintain anger, Lv. 1918 Na. 12 Am. ili Je. 35. 12; (2) keep safely, vineyard Ct. 16.6 811. 12. – 10. vp Spy] makes 1. too long; late style for sf. 5o, cf. 75 1821, which latter was doubtless original. – 11. ;] is dittog of ? prep. The l. is better in all respects without it, as v. 12a. — 933] so 6 and all Vrss. It is tempting to substitute nai with Hu., Gr., Du., Che., al.; but improb. as unnecessary. — 17-"] is a gl. of limitation; so v. 136. 176; here and v.135 for 1958. — 14. 175] In: n.m. thought, purpose framed in mind, Gn. 66 (I), form of image made by potter Hb. 218, cf. Is. 2916; only here of the form of man, based on the use of ng Gn. 27-8, as suggested also by the app of Gn. 319. — 713;] ptc. pass. J recordatus est. urno Anti = 9101; prob. is reminded; but the || suggests pf., which is more prob. — 16 is gl. from Is. 407 and Jb. 710. — 1972:] Hiph. impf. with strong sf. 1723 vb. in y only Hiph. (1) recognise 1426, as Dt. 2117 339 Is. 6316, cf. 61°; (2) be acquainted with, here as Jb. 710 2417. 17. ry] is gl. as above, and ? , .

] . from Ex. 347. – 18 is a gl. of limitation from a legalistic point of view. · 1980] elsw. 199 1117 1194 + 19 t. — 19. 117,] is gl., making 1. too long. 20. nj 1933] phr. a. 1. has two beats and makes the l. too long. no is a gl. of intensification; rd. 1721. — 1927 Supa yous] is a doublet; makes the Str. too long. — 22 b. taboon] n.f. dominion, elsw. of God 1142 14518, of luminaries 1368. 9, as Gn. 116. – 22 c is doubtless a final liturgical gl.

,ועד עולם and belongs to חסד | which is ,צדקתי also before

.gl [לבני בנים

PSALM CIV., 7 STR. 89.

Ps. 104 is a praise of Yahweh, who created the light by wrapping Himself in it (v.16-2); who built up stories in the upper waters, making the clouds His chariot, and His angels into winds and lightnings (v.3ab. 4); who set the earth on immutable foundations, and with His thunder frightened the sea to the boundaries He had assigned it (v.5-7.9); who made streams to flow to give water to animals, birds, and the vegetation of earth (v.10-13); who made the vegetation to give food to man and beast (v. 14-156), the trees for the birds (v.169. 176), and mountains and crags for animals (v.18); who made sun and moon to mark the seasons (v.19); and especially to distinguish night from day, the night for the wild animals seeking their prey, the day for man's labour (v.21-23); who made the water animals in all their variety (v.25. 266), and the land animals, all dependent upon His bounty (v.24c

. 28. 28). Upon the presence of His Spirit and favour depend the life and death of the creatures (v.29ab. 30). His glory endures forever, and He rejoices in His works (v.3). His people also praise Him with song and music perpetually (v.). Numerous glosses emphasize various features of the Ps. (v.26. 8. 15as. 185. 179. 20. 21. 276. 29c. 32. 33). Moreover v.24ab is an exclamation of wonder at the number of the works of Yahweh. V.35ab is an imprecation in the Maccabean tone.

are liturgical glosses.

V. la. 35c

MY God, Thou art very great;

With majesty and splendor Thou art clothed!
Who put on light as a garment;
Who stretched out the heavens as a tent curtain;
Who laid in the waters the beams of His upper chambers;
Who made the clouds His chariot;
Who made His angels winds,

His ministers fire and flame.
WHO founded the earth upon its bases,

That it should not be moved forever and ever.
The deep like a garment was (its covering).
Above the mountains the waters stood.
At Thy rebuke they flee:
At the sound of Thy thunder they haste away;
That they may not pass the boundary Thou didst set.
May not return to cover the earth.

WHO sent forth springs into the valleys,

That they might flow between the mountains,
That they might give drink to all the wild animals of the field,
That the onagers might break their thirst,
That the birds of heaven might settle down,
From among the branches give forth song;
Who watered the mountains from His upper chambers,

That by His outbursts of water the earth might be satisfied.
WHO caused grass to spring up for cattle,

And herbage to the labour of mankind,
In order that they might bring forth bread from the earth,
In order that they might make their face to shine with oil.
The trees of Shadday have their fill.
The stork has her home in the cypresses.
The high mountains are for the wild goats.

The crags are a refuge for marmots.
WHO made the moon for seasons,

The sun to know his time of going down.
The young lions roar for prey,
And to seek their food from 'El.
When the sun rises, they gather themselves in,
And in their dens they lie down.
Man goeth forth to his work,

And to his labour until evening.
YONDER sea great and broad

There are gliding things innumerable;
Living things, small together with great;
Leviathan which Thou didst form to play with.
The earth is full of Thy creatures.
All of them on Thee wait.
Thou givest to them: they gather it.

Thou openest Thy hand: they are satisfied.
THOU hidest Thy face: they are troubled.

Thou withdrawest their spirit: they expire.
Thou sendest forth Thy Spirit: they are created;
And Thou renewest the face of the ground.
The glory of Yahweh endureth forever,
Yahweh is glad in His works.
My musing is sweet unto Him:
I am glad in Yahweh.

Ps. 104 has no title in W, but in 6 TĄ Aaveld as 103, which is improbable. It is first of the group of Hallels 104-107. It is a Ps. in praise of Yahweh as creator. The order of creation is the same as Gn. 1-29, on which the Ps. is based. And yet it knows of the activity of the divine Spirit in creation of animals, and of death as due to the withdrawal of the Spirit, as Gn. 24-3. The author was thus familiar with both stories of the creation and probably in their combination in the Pentateuch in its present form. The author also knew of various other conceptions of the creation, as Am. 99 v.>; Is. 4022 v.3); Jb. 386-11, cf. Pr. 829, v.5-), which he interweaves with that of Gn. 1. The Ps. therefore could not have been composed earlier than the Greek period.

Str. I. Two tetrastichs, both beginning with a single line followed by a syn. tristich synthetic thereto.-1-2. The Ps. begins and concludes (v.35), as several of the Hallels, with the liturgical phrase: Bless Yahweh, O my soul], cf. 1031. 22. — My God], emphatic in position : personal address, intensified in H by prefixing “Yahweh," still more in G by using it twice; but the measure allows neither. — Thou art very great], pf. of state ; as the context indicates, in power and glory. - With majesty and splendour Thou art clothed]. Royal attributes are here as elsewhere conceived as royal apparel, cf. 9396. - Who put on). The ptcs. characteristic of the Ps. must be given a uniform and harmonious explanation throughout. They might in some cases be explained as in present time; the creative and providential divine activities mingling in the mind of the poet, so that what God once did at the creation, He continues to do throughout all time. But many of the ptcs. cannot be thus explained, even with the exceptions made by MT. of changing original ptcs. into pfs. The Ps. is throughout a poetic description of the creation of the world, based on Gn. 1, and retaining its order of six days' work with supplementary seventh of rejoicing in a finished creation. We are compelled therefore to translate the ptcs. as referring to the past of the original creation. They serve to emphasize the divine activity in creation, rather than the result. We see it graphically in the process of creation, and not as in Gn. I in the result as an obedient servant of the divine command. — light as a garment]. Light, the first of the divine creations, appears as the garment which the Creator puts on, or wraps about Him, the expression of His attributes of majesty and glory. How different from Gn. 18 : “God said, 'Let light be !' and light was.” Who stretched out the heavens as a tent-curtain). This is supplementary to the creation of light. As light is the divine garment, heaven is the tent which God stretches out as His dwelling-place, cf. Is. 4022 Ps. 19'.—3. Who laid in the waters the beams of His upper chambers]. This, as the subsequent v., evidently refers to the second day's work of creation. The waters originally covered the earth when “God said, ' Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.' ... And God called the expanse, Heaven " Gn. 188. The metaphor of a building is used in the Ps. as in Am. 9. A series of stories are built

up in the waters, the beams of one being laid upon the beams of the other in an ascending series; and so the upper waters were divided from the lower waters. Who made the clouds His chariot]. The clouds, so characteristic of the heavens and bearing in them the heavenly waters, constituted the divine chariot in which He moved about swiftly from place to place. This reminds a glossator of the cherubic chariot of Ps. 18", and so he adds : Who goeth about on the wings of the wind. -4. Who made His angels winds, His ministers fire and flame). An ancient copyist, by omitting the conjunction, made grave difficulties of grammar. This rendering is essentially that of G, H, Heb. 1?, PBV., AV., and is most natural in itself. It is also in accord with the poet's previous thought. As God Himself is conceived as really present in nature, wrapping Himself in light, setting up His tent in the heavens, using the clouds as His chariot ; so His angels, the ministrant spirits about Him, are made to assume the form of winds and lightnings. Doubtless the author had in mind a conception similar to that of the cherubic chariot of Ez. 1. But RV., JPSV., follow most moderns in their rendering : “Who maketh winds His messengers, His ministers a flaming fire”; thinking that the winds and the lightnings were constituted the ministering servants of Yahweh.

Str. II. A synth. and three syn. couplets. – 5. Who founded the earth upon its bases]. This Str. begins the story of the third day's work of creation Gn. 10-12. The poet turns from the upper stories of the building to the foundations. The earth is conceived as created by building upon well-settled foundations, as in Jb. 3846 Pr. 825. 29. That it should not be moved forever and ever]. The earth was firmly established once for all, to be immutable forever.

-6. The deep like a garment was its covering], so G, which is more probable than the vb. of H, followed by EV., “Thou coveredst it,” which involves an awkward change of construction. The primitive Tehom, Deep," Gn. 1', covered the earth, which was buried in its depths even after the separation of the upper

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