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a..., but anys 67 +.-nvas ypsy npan] phr. a.d., but cf. Jb. 1920 La. 4o. 7. Innp] n.f. pelican, elsw. Is. 3411 Zp. 214; so 6, J. $ has app, Bar Heb. Dupy, cygnus. Bä. objects that the pelican is a water bird, and not a bird of the wilderness. — 7010] n.m , elsw. Lv. 1117 Dt. 1410, an unclean bird, a species of owl. — 8. ] Qal impf. 'n with consec., instead of jussive 1781. The text gives no predicate. Ols., Gr., Bä., Du., Kirk., Ehr., rd. Dan? as 774, but moaning leads away from the real point of comparison, solitariness. A word has been omitted by error, for the measure is defective; rd. x falcon, a bird especially appropriate to the vb. – † 1] n.m. roof of house, as 1296. – 9. map] Poal ptc., elsw. Ec. 22, of madness of folly; not suitable here. Gol étaivoûtés me, qui laudabant me, $ = 559ş, so Ehr.; but this does not suit the context. I exultantes neglects the sf., which may be interp.

those wounding me. - ] = swear by, in imprecation, cf. 1322. — 10. ] a.d. my drink, for vb. npo (369).

:מחללי It is better to read

CII. B.

.שמך יהוה 6

14. onın dip] impfs. future, emph. coördination, most prob., although the second vb. might be subordinate. —] Qal inf., unusual form, Ges.67. cc; cf. opn Is. 3018, niin Ps. 7710. For pyn v.42. — Tyin xp '?] duplicate of previous clause; the two make l. too long. This, although phr. a.d., is prob. the gl. rather than the other, as it emphasizes a promise ; cf. 758. 15. n;) Poel, elsw. Pr. 1421 direct favour to. — 16. 1179 Dv] so J, but 6 .

The divine name makes 1. too long; rd. 7ov || 77123. po 250-57]. GB has only dugbo 5,1, but GN. A. R. T

agree with W, J. V is assimilated to Is. 5919. The clause is too long for measure. So is the most prob. gl. – 17. 171232 ON] is defective. We should supply prob. zaina with Du. – 18. nyon) is improb. with onyon in the same l. It is a gl.; rd. vyhyn 58. — 7 ayyy] adj. stripped, destitute ; cf. nyiny. Je. 176. Aq., 2, 3, vacui. Bä. thinks of any adj. as Gn. 152 (JE) Je. 2230 Lv. 2020. 21 (H). 19. :] gl. anticipating v.22, phr. a.m., but cf. in Shan 1506, nisboy 1157, elsw. always in 1557.-20. d'avr) expl. gl. to bindo, making 1. too long. — 21. anion ?] phr. elsw. 7911. – 24. Derived from Is. 3810. — no] Kt., sustained by G, H; Qr. ni, by E, S, I, T, and most critics; both sfs. expl tory. - 26. I onds] adv. formerly Dt. 212. 20 Jos. 1110 +.-27. 77.] gl.; makes 1. too long. — 28. N99 Anny) is defective; add on.

. denom. the same, based on Is. 4812. - 29. 730?] but & els rdv alớva = , as v.25, cf. J ante faciem eorum.

.emph הוא ,לפניס

PSALM CIII., 7 STR. 48.

Ps. 103 is a summons to Israel to bless Yahweh for all that He had done for them (v.1-2), His pardon and redemption (v. 3-4a. 5a), His deeds of righteousness and justice (v.7), His long suffering (v.9-19), His kindness in removing sin (v. 11-12), His fatherly compassion (v. 13-14), His everlasting kindness and righteousness to frail man (v.15.16). Glosses emphasize these several things (v.40. 56. 8. 16.

8. 18). A liturgical gloss summons the angels and all creatures to unite in blessing Yahweh, the universal king (v.19-22).

BLESS Yahweh, O my soul!

And all that is within me, His holy name.
Bless Yahweh, O my soul!

And forget not His benefits.
WHO pardoneth all thine iniquity:

Who healeth all thy diseases;
Who redeemeth from the Pit thy life;

Who satisfieth (thee) with good things (so long as thou livest).
A DOER of acts of righteousness is Yahweh,

And of acts of judgment for all the oppressed.
He used to make known His ways to Moses,

To the sons of Israel His deeds.
WHILE He strives not alway,

And restrains not His anger forever;
Not according to our sins doth He do to us,

Not according to our iniquities doth He deal to us.
AS high as heaven is above the earth,

His kindness is mighty upon (us).
As far as the East is removed from the West,

He doth remove our transgressions from us.
AS a father hath compassion upon sons,

Yahweh hath compassion upon (us) ;
For He knoweth our frame;

Remembereth that we are dust.
MAN, as grass are his days;

As a blossom of the field, so he blossometh;
But the kindness of Yahweh is from everlasting,
And unto everlasting is His righteousness.

Ps. 103 has in the title 4175, so 6 ; but probably because of resemblance to Pss, of D. It is impossible that it could ever have been in D ; for it cannot be earlier than the late Greek period. It uses familiarly earlier literature: v.94 Is. 5716, v.or Je. 312, v.lla Is. 55°, v.148 Gn. 319 (J), v.16 Is. 406 Ps. 905-6. It uses the Aramaic sf. 199- v.34; and several words in late meanings: Sopa v.?, ovisno v.s. It is composed of seven trimeter tetrastichs : v.1-4a. 3a, 6–7. 9–15. 17. It has a late liturgical addition of two trimeter tetrastichs v.

19–22. There are also several glosses: v. 50 based on Is. 4031, v.8 on Ex. 34o, v.16 on Is. 407 Jb. 710, v.18 on Ex. 206.

Str. I. Three syn. lines with a synth, conclusion. — 1-2. Bless Yahweh, O my soul], also v.24. ” ; adore in gratitude and praise. The soul stands for the entire personality, || all that is within me], the entire being," with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might,” Dt. 66. The object of blessing is Yahweh Himself, especially as manifested in His holy name], majestically sacred and so to be hallowed, cf. 332 1058 10647 1459. - forget not] a Deuteronomic warning, Dt. 612 8", taken by Israel to himself, lest he should neglect grateful recognition of His benefits], literally dealings, which in their enumeration as the theme of the Ps. are all benefits.

Str. II. Synth. tetrastich. — 3–5. The ptcs. express the continuous characteristic activities of Yahweh in dealing with His people. All through their past history He has been pardoning all their iniquity, cf. Ex. 34', healing all their diseases, cf. Ex. 1528, redeeming the life of the nation from the Pit of Sheol into which they had gone, in exile, and to which they had been so often exposed through their cruel and all-powerful enemies, cf. Ho. 1314 Ps. 94. The whole is summed up in : Who satisfieth thee with good things so long as thou livest], for thus this difficult sentence may be translated. Yahweh had not only preserved His people alive, but had bestowed upon them good things continuously during the entire life of the nation. The translation of EVR., “who satisfieth thy mouth with good things," is based on the interpretation of some ancient Jewish scholars; and, though followed by many, is now generally abandoned. Thy desire" of , H, whether based on a different Heb. word or a different interpretation of the same word, has its advocates. T,“ days of thine old age," followed by JPSV., is nearer to the true interpretation. The previous line, who crowneth thee with kindness and compassion] is a gloss of interpretation, cf. 89, for the figure of speech. Kindness and compassion are the characteristic attributes of the Ps. An additional gloss is taken from Is. 4031: so that thy youth reneweth itself like an eagle]. It is doubtful whether there is an allusion to the fable of the eagle's renewing its youth in old age ; but at all events it is the fulness of life and vigour of the eagle that is thought of.

Str. III. Two syn. couplets. – 6-7. A doer of acts of righteousness || acts of judgment for all the oppressed). These were His ways || His deeds, which He used to make known to Moses || to the sons of Israel, when He delivered His oppressed people from Egypt, and subsequently from all their enemies.

Str. IV. Two syn. couplets. — 8–9. He strives not alway || He maintains not forever] not always expressing His anger, as Is. 5776 ; not forever maintaining it, as Je. 3". This double statement of the divine long-suffering suggests the fundamental revelation of it to Moses Ex. 34%, which was then prefixed by a glossator : compassionate and gracious is Yahweh, slow to anger and abundant in mercy. - 10. Not according to our sins || our iniquities], those of the nation in its history, past as well as present, — doth He do to us || deal to us], taking up the theme stated in v.?, the divine dealings or benefits. He doth not give us our deserts, in letting loose His anger against us for sins.

Str. V. Two similes. — 11. As high as heaven is above the earth], cf. Is. 558-9, the greatest height conceivable. mighty], in reach from the height of heaven, is His kindness], in the pardon of sin, upon us], descending and resting upon us. A glossator, thinking that the statement was too sweeping, substitutes for “upon us" of the original, the more limited statement,“ upon those that fear Him "; so also in v.136. 176, against the measure. — 12. As far as the East is removed from the West], the utmost conceivable distance in breadth,- He doth remove our transgressions from us]. The removal of sin to the utmost possible distance away from the sinner and away from the divine presence is a syn. idea to pardon and forgiveness, which in Hebrew is properly the taking it up and bearing it away as a burden from the sacred places where God and His people meet in communion, cf. Is. 381 Mi. 719.

Str. VI. A couplet of simile, and a syn. couplet, giving its reason. — 13. As a father hath compassion upon sons]. Compassion is the paternal form of mercy, implying a sympathetic fellow feeling with the sufferer. Yahweh is here compared to a father in His attitude toward Israel, cf. Ex. 422-23 Ho. 1114. – 14. For He knoweth our frame]. He knoweth it because He framed it, referring to Gn. 2', the forming of the frame of Adam out of the dust of the ground, as is evident from the || Remembereth that we are dust, made of dust and doomed to return to dust, Gn. 319.

Str. VII. A syn. couplet of simile, with an antithetical syn. couplet. — 15. Man], emphatic in position, because a characteristic of humanity is to be mentioned, -as grass are his days], so brief, so transient, cf. 9056 || as a blossom of the field, so he blossometh], cf. Jb. 14. This statement is enlarged upon by a glossator, who introduces from Is. 40%7:— 16. When the wind passeth over it, then it is no more], the scorching, withering south wind; and from Jb. 70: and the place thereof knoweth it no more. 17. In antithesis, from everlasting and unto everlasting, and so through the entire interval are existing and acting the kindness of Yahweh | His righteousness, which latter, here, as usual, must be His vindicatory, redemptive righteousness. The glossator who limited v. 118-136 by adding, " them that fear Him," did the same here; and to this a still further limitation in a legalistic direction based on Ex. 20°, and using the late legal term of Pss. 19° 111? 119*+21 t. : 18. To them that keep His covenant, and to them that remember His precepts to do them]. The Maccabean editor made the following addition to the Ps. to make it more suitable for public worship:

IN heaven He hath established His throne;

And His kingdom ruleth over all.
Bless ye Yahweh, His angels,

His mighty ones that do His word.
BLESS Yahweh, all ye His host,

His ministers that do His pleasure.
Bless Yahweh, all ye His works,

In all places of His dominion. This liturgical addition has two Strs. of the same measure and formation as the Ps. itself, all synth. couplets, but the last three syn. with each other. — 19-22. In heaven], emphatic in position, - He hath established His throne], set it up, and made it firm and permanent, and therefore, - His kingdom ruleth over all], beneath the heavens and within the heavens. Accordingly the summons goes forth to all to unite in adoration, - His angels || His mighty ones that do His word), enlarged by a glossator who inserted, “in power," and by an additional line, “hearkening to the voice of His word,” the one at the expense of the measure, the other a duplicate making the Str. too long, — || His host], the angels, conceived as an organised army, cf. 148? Is. 24%, – || His ministers that do His pleasure], the angels, conceived as faithful ministerial servants, prompt to do the sovereign will. To these are added :

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