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134, 1. 26. 10° for 104.
in 119 usually derived from ; but Mas. pointing is
artificial ; v. BDB. 174, 1. 16. Before 11 insert : Elsw.y  Qal be justified by ac
quittal 143Is. 432 ; be just, of God 51°, Hiph., do justice 823.
, . . 276, 1. 23. Maskilim for Maskelim. 333,
.פנח for פנה .37
.טבה for טבח .38 .שָׁחָה for שָׁחַח .5
A COMMENTARY ON THE BOOK OF
PSALM LI., 4 STR. 10°.
Ps. 51 is a penitential prayer of the congregation in the time of Nehemiah : (1) Petition that Yahweh in His kindness will cleanse His people from sin (v.3-4), who confess it in vindication of His just judgment (v.56). (2) The sin goes back to the origin of the nation, in antithesis with the faithfulness in which Yahweh delights (v.7-8); cleansing alone will give joy (v.9-11). (3) Petition for renewal of heart, the continued presence of the Holy Spirit, and the joy of salvation (v.12-14) ; with a vow to teach the divine ways and praise His righteousness (v.15-16). (4) The sacrifices of Yahweh are the praises of a contrite spirit (v.17-19). The final petition is that He will rebuild the walls of Jerusalem and accept the sacrifices there (v.20-2).
BE gracious to me (Yahweh), according to Thy kindness;
According to Thy compassion blot out my transgressions.
(That) Thou mightest be clear when Thou judgest.
And in sin did my mother conceive me.
THE heart into a pure one transform for me,
The spirit into a steadfast one renew.
My tongue will ring out Thy righteousness.
And my mouth will declare Thy praise;
Ps. 51 was in D and M, then in E and DR (v. Intr. $$ 27, 32, 33). The historical allusion was already attached to the Ps, in D as a conjectural illustrative situation, but without historical value. It is impossible to adjust the Ps. to the situation. The language is related chiefly to Literature of the Exile or early Restoration. (1) Is.1. 2 seem to have been chiefly in mind : (a) in the conception of the purification of the nation's sins v.3. 4. 9; cf. Is. 118, the use of and Is. 4325 4422, 037 for the person Je. 222 424, 113 Je. 338 Ez. 3633 3723 Mal. 33. The vb. kun for purification from sin is elsw. only in P when applied to the person, but is in Ez. when applied to the altar. It does not therefore necessarily imply P. 2n is used in J as well as P, and was doubtless ancient. (6) For the personal experience of v.", cf. Is. 5912. (c) Dvi pirmo v.10, cf. Is. 2218 3510 513.11. (d) nn v.13, elsw, only Is. 6310. 11. (e) For the bruised spirit v.19, cf. Is. 662. (f) For the son of the mother v.?, cf, the sin of the first father Is. 4327 and of Zion the mother 541-8. (2) Other linguistic traces are: bobo v.21, an early syn. of 757, cf. Dt. 3310 i S. 7o; oni v.?, for conception, cf. Gn. 3041 3110 (E). (3) Evidences of later date are: 12/13 nn v.14, cf. Ex. 355. 22 (P); but see Ps. 110%, also 1153 117 v. 12 578.8 1082; v.6 is prob. earlier than 1910, which agrees with it in use of Qal of p73. (4) The only substantial evidences of very late date are: nga v., cf. Jh. 3836, but prob. txt. err., explained by o-o, prob. gl. The Ps. in its theology depends on the postexilic sections of Is.?, and in its deep penitence represents the spirit of the people of the Restoration in the time of Nehemiah. The prayer for rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem was probably real and not ideal, and indicates that the author was one of the companions of Nehemiah in the great effort to give the city walls.