ADEN, a port in the Red Sea, cap called the madige nilame, then a

tured from the Arabs by the korala, a lekam mahatmaya, and British, and now forming an entre two arachies, one bearing a gold pôt for the coals of the steamers cane, and the other a silver one, which ply between India and Suez. A each holding it with both his hands. British and a Sepoy regiment garri The duty of these persons is to keep son Aden, prepared to resist any at silence. Then go fifty or sixty men

tacks from the Arabs of the desert. with large spears, and in a peculiar ADIGAR, a title of rank among the dress, a mat-bearer, a kettle-drum

natives of Kandia, in the island of bearer, a torch-bearer, and a kangCeylon, divided into three ranks, as hanama bearing betel. These are follows:-1. The first, second, and his necessary attendants on a festival third adigars, who only are allowed occasion, at the wihara, or at a to wear gold and silver lace in their levée. In travelling the number caps; 2. the gaja nayaka nilame; of attendants is much increased. 3. the disave; 4. the mohottal ; 5. The second adigar is only entitled the bas nayaka nilame, the lay to twenty-four spearmen, and fifteen head of the wiharas; 6. lekam ma whipcrackers. The third to twentyhatmaya ; 7. kate mahatmaya; 3. four spearmen, and twelve whipkorala; 9. kanghanama ; 10. gama crackers. No other headmen are rala. Of these the adigars, gaja allowed the honour of having whipnayaka, nilame, disave, mate mahat crackers. maya, and korala, wear white caps; ADKAREE, a governor, or superin. the rest black ones. The kanghanama tendent; or any thing relating to a and gama rala are not allowed to wear superior. A term applied in India to any caps. Great numbers of these villages where an individual holds headmen are attached to the governor, the entire undivided estate. and several to the government agents ADMEE, Hindostanee for a man; in the different parts of the country. burra admée, a great man. Of the practices and privileges of AFEREEN ! Persian. An expression the adigars, a complete account will of praise and surprise: Admirable! be found in Forbes, Selkirk, and Capital! You don't say so! other writers. There is one custom, AFGHANISTAN. This kingdom lies however, peculiar to the Kandian upon the north-western frontier of adigars, which is worthy of notice, Hindostan. It is bounded on the 2. e., the custom of having a certain north by ranges of mountains sepanumber of whipcrackers whenever rating it from Tartary; east, by they appear in public. On all public Cashmeer and the Indus; south, by occasions, when they are carried on Sind and Beloochistan; and west, elephants, or in palankeens, or in by Persia. It is divided into a numcarriages, in addition to the persons ber of districts, corresponding with required to attend upon the horses, the divisions of tribes of the inhabpalankeens, or carriages, the first itants; but its main portions may be adigar has twenty-four men bearing considered as included under the immense whips, with a lash about foilowing general heads:-Herat, three yards long, and the handle Kafiristan, "Cabul, Peshawur, and about half a yard. These persons, Candahar. The principal mountains curiously dressed, clear the way for are the Hindoo Koosh, or Indian them, cracking their whips with all Caucasus, which are a continuation their might. Near the adigar go of the Himalayas, and run westward, two men bearing talpats, large tri terminating nearly north of the city angular fans, made of the talpat leaf, of Cabul; the Paropamisan, which and ornamented with talc. On each run from north to south, from about side of him is one native headman. 34 deg. to 29 deg. north latitude.

There are several other inferior, ranges of hills connected with those above mentioned, which cross the country in various directions. Numerous mountain streams flow through the country, but with the exception of the Cabul river, the Helmund, and the Urghundab, none are of any size. The Cabul river rises in the Paropamisan mountains, and flows past Cabul easterly into the Indus, a little above Attock. The Helmund also rises in the same mountains, about thirty miles to the westward of Cabul, and flows southerly and westerly into a large lake called the Zoor, on the borders of Persia. The Urghundab rises in the hills, about eighty miles north-east of Candahar, and flows south-westerly into the Helmund. This country possesses great variety of surface, as well as of climate and productions. It may be described generally as consisting of wild, bleak mountains and hills, with extensive tracts of waste land, together with fertile plains and valleys, populous and well cultivated. "The climate of different parts varies extremely, owing partly to the difference of latitude, but chiefly to the difference of elevation. About Herat the snow lies deep through the winter months, and in the Cabul district the cold is severe. At Ghuznee, especially, where the snow is often on the ground from October to March, while the rivers are frozen, the cold is quite equal to that of England. The climate of Candahar is mild, snow being rarely seen, and that of Feshawur is oppressively hot during summer, and not colder in winter than that of Hindostan. During winter, the inhabitants of the cold districts clothe themselves in woollen garments, and in some places in clothes of felt, over which they wear a large great coat, called a posteen, made of tanned sheep skin, with the wool inside. They have fires in their houses, and often sleep round stoves. Kafiristan occupies the mountainous country lying along

the northern frontier of Cabul. It is composed of snowy mountains, covered with deep pine forests, with small but fertile valleys, producing abundance of grapes, and furnishing pasture for sheep and cattle. Cabul is also mountainous, but has extensive plains and forests, though between the city of Cabul and the Indus there is a great scarcity of wood. The part lying between Cabul and the mountains is called the Kohistan or highlands. Candahar is more open, but not so fertile, and large portions are desert. Herat is hilly towards the north and north-east, but generally open, and one of the most fertile countries in the world. Wheat, barley, and rice, are the principal grains produced in this country. Wheat is the general food, barley being given to the horses. It also yields abundance of fruits and vegetables, both European and Asiatic, besides tobacco, sugar, assafoetida, alum, rock salt, saltpetre, sulphur, lead, antimony, iron, copper, and a little gold. The wild animals are generally the same as in India, the elephant excepted, which is not an inhabitant of Afghanistan. The common Indian camel is found in all parts of the level country, and wild sheep and goats are numerous. Herat is celebrated for a fine breed of horses, and Bameean for a description of poneys called yaboos, much used for carrying burdens. Mules and asses also abound, and are used for the same purpose. The sheep, of which large flocks are pastured, are generally of the broad, fat tailed kind. There are fine dogs, especially greyhounds and pointers, and cats of the long-haired description, known in India as the Persian." Snakes and scorpions are found, but no alligators. Wolves are numerous, and during winter are fierce, sometimes attacking men. The commonest woods are oak, cedar, walnut, and a species of fir. Wind-mills and water-mills are generally used for grinding the corn. Neither palankeens nor

wheeled carriages are used, both The termination zye means son, sexes being accustomed to travel on corresponding with the Mac prefixed horses or camels. Coal is found to Scotch names. There are also in about Kohat in the Peshawur dis the towns many of mixed descent, trict, and naphtha, or petroleum, that from different parts of Asia; amongst is, earth oil. Silk worms are also whom are the Kuzzilbashes and reared in this part. The principal Tajiks of Persian origin, and the towns are Herat, Cabul, Julalabad, Hindkees, the descendants of settlers Peshawur, Ghuznee, Candahar, from Hindostan. The inhabitants Khelat-i-Ghilzee, and Dura Ismail of Kafiristan, which means the land Khan. By Europeans, this country of the infidels, are called the Syah is commonly designated by the posh, or Syah posh Rafirs, from general name of Cabul. By the their usually wearing dresses of Persians it is styled Afghanistan, black sheep skin; syah signifying meaning the land of the Afghans, black, and posh a covering. They by which name also it is usually are a fine handsome race, very fair, mentioned in Indian history. The many of them having light hair and inhabitants are known by the blue eyes, on which account it has general name of Afghans, which is been conjectured that they are the a Persian appellation. Their com descendants of the Greeks. There mon national designation, among seems reason, however, to believe themselves, is Pooshtanu or Pookh that this is not the case, and that tanu, but they more frequently use they are the descendants of the orithe names of the different tribes. In ginal inhabitants of Cabul and CanIndia, they are generally denomi dahar. They are a brave and hosnated Pathans, and in the province pitable people, though in a rude of Delhi, Rohillas. The Afghans state, and have never been conquered assert that they are descended from by the Afghans. They have no the Jews, and often style themselves king, but are divided into a number “Bun-i-Israeel,” or children of Israel, of independent tribes. Some of the though they consider the term | tribes, occupying the borders, are Yahoodee, or Jew, as one of reproach. termed Neemchu-Moosulmans, or It is certain that they have in many half Moosulmans, from their having points a strong resemblance to the partially adopted the Mahomedan Jews, and there appears reason to faith. They are generally idolaters. believe that the tradition of their The language of the Afghans is origin is not unfounded. They are di called Pushtoo. It is written in the vided into a number of distinct tribes, Persian character. Persian is also or Oolooss, each consisting of a num used by the chiefs, and the descendber of separate clans, and these last ants of the Hindoo settlers speak again subdivided into khails, which a mixed dialect, resembling Hinmeans a band or assemblage. The dostanee, called Hindkee. principal are the following:- First, AGA, Turkish and Persian. Equithe Dooranee, formerly called the valent to “ gentleman” in English, Abdallee, which includes amongst and used when the person addressed its clans the Populzye, the head! is not noble, neither khan, bey, nor Khail of which is the Suddoozye, meerza, neither in the civil nor milithe chief division of the whole of the tary service of the court. Dooranees, and containing the royal | AGHON, the eighth month in the family; the Barikzye, the Achikzye, Hindostanee year. See BYSACK. Noorzye, and others. Second, the AGNI is, according to the Hindoo Ghilzees. Third, the Berdooranees, mythology, the personification of or eastern Afghans, including the Ag', fire, and the regent of the Yoosoofzyes, Khyberees, and others. south-east division of the earth.


He is variously described : some. | times with two faces, three legs, and seven arms, of a red or flame colour, and riding on a ram, his vahan, or vehicle. Before him is a swallowtailed banner, on which is also painted a ram. He is by others represented as a corpulent man, of a red complexion, with eyes, eyebrows, head, and hair of a tawny colour, riding on a goat. From his body issue seven streams of glory, and in his right hand he holds a spear. The Brahmuns, who devote themselves to the priesthood, should, like the priests of the Parsee (guebre) religion, maintain a perpetual fire; and in the numerous religious ceremonies of the Hindus, Agni, the re- | gent of that element, is commonly

invoked. AGRA. This province is bounded on

the north by Delhi; east, Oude and Allahabad; south, Mahva; west, Ajmeer. Its divisions consist of Narnool, Agra, Aligurh, Furrukhabad, Etaweh, Macheree or Alvar, Bhurtpoor, Gwalior, Gohud, Kalpee. The tract of country between the Ganges and Jumna, comprehending the districts of Aligurh, Furrukhabad, and Etaweh, is also commonly designated the Dooab, from doo two, and ab river. The rivers are the Ganges, Jumna, Chumbal, and several smaller streams. The Chumbal rises in Malwa, and flows northerly and easterly into the Jumna, running between the districts of Bhurtpoor and Gwalior. Northward of the Jumna the surface of the province is in general flat and | open, and for the greater part very bare of trees. Southward and westward it becomes hilly and jungly. Though traversed by several rivers, the province is not well watered, and depends greatly upon the periodical rains. The heat, during the prevalence of the hot winds, is intense, and the jungly districts very unhealthy, but at other seasons the climate is generally temperate, and occasionally cold. Rice is grown in

the vicinity of the rivers, but the general cultivation is of dry grains, as millet, barley, gram, &c. The staple article of product is cotton. The province also yields abundance of indigo, with tobacco, sugar, saltpetre, and salt. It has the common breeds of cattle and sheep, and horses of a good description. Firewood is scarce throughout the Dooab, and expensive. The jungly districts swarm with peacocks, which are held in great veneration by the natives. The only manufacture of note is that of coarse cotton cloths. The towns of the province of Agra are, Narnool, Nooh, Muttra, Agra, Dholpoor, Attaer, Anoopshuhr, Cowl, Moorsaum, Secundra, Hatras, Furrukhabad, Futihgurh, Kanoje, Mimpooree, Etaweh, Bela, Alwur, Macheree, Rajgurh, Deeg, Bhurtpoor, Beeana, Gualior, Antra, Pechor, Nurwur, Bhind, Jalown, Kalpee, and Koonch. The present name of this province is derived from that of its capital. The inhabitants are Hindoos, including the Mewatties and Jats, and Mahomedans, among whom are many Pathans. They are generally a handsome, robust race of men, much superior to the natives of the more

eastern provinces. AGRA, the capital of the province of

Agra, stands on the southern side of the Jumna, in Lat. 27 deg. 11 min. N., Long. 77 deg. 53 min. E. During the reign of the Emperor Akbar, by whom it was greatly enlarged and embellished, Agra was made the capital of the Mogul empire, and became one of the most splendid cities in India. The seat of government having been subsequently reestablished at Delhi, Agra greatly declined, and is now much decayed. Amongst the still remaining edifices which bear witness of its former grandeur, the most remarkable is the Taj Mahal (q. v.), erected by the Emperor Shah Jehan, for the celebrated Noor Jehan, and which is considered the most beautiful and perfect specimen of oriental archi- 1 tecture in existence, unequalled by

any thing in India. AGRAHARAH, who takes first, an

epithet given to Brahmuns. Rent

free villages held by Brahmuns. AHMEDABAD, a zillah station in Guzerat, Western India, under the government of Bombay, distant from the presidency 300 miles. Long. 72 deg. 37 min. E., Lat. 22 deg. 58 min. N. It was originally a well fortified town, but, nevertheless, fell to the

British arms late in the last century. AHMEDNUGGER is situated in Lat.

19 deg. 5 min. N., Long. 74 deg. 55 min. E. It was built in 1493, by Ahmed Nizam Shah, who made it his capital. At present it is one of the principal civil stations of the British Government. It contains about twenty thousand inhabitants, and has a strongly-built fort. See Nug

GUR. AHMEDNUGGUR, a fortified city of

the Deccan, under the government of Bombay, from which presidency it is distant, viâ Poonah, 180 miles. It was founded by the Emperor Aurungzebe, who made it his head-quarters during the progress of his conquest of the Deccan and Carnatic. It is now garrisoned by one or two native infantry regiments. Long. 150 deg. E., Lat. 19 deg. 10 min. N. See

NUGGUR. AHON, Persian, a moollah (q. v.). AIGRETTE, or EGRET, a tuft of

feathers worn in the turban of the Sultan of Turkey and other persons

of great distinction, AITEMAD-U-DOWLUT, a Persian

term, signifying “the hope (or dependence) of the state," a title bestowed on officers in the Shah's confidence, generally on the prime

minister or vizier. AJMEER, or RAJPOOTANA, is bounded on the north by Mooltan and Delhi; east, Delhi and Agra; south, Malwa, Guzerat, and Cutch; west, Sind. The Bhattee country, Bikaneer, Jussulmeer, Marwar or Joudpoor, Jeypoor, including Skikawut-|

tee, Ajmeer, Meywar or Odeypoor, Boondee, and Kota, form the boundaries of the province, which is destitute of rivers, except in the southern and eastern parts. The only streams of any note are the Banasz, which rises in the district of Odeypoor, and flows south-westerly, until it is lost in the Run of Cutch; and the Chumbul, which enters the district of Kota from Malwa, and flows northerly into the province of Agra, to the Jumna. In its south-eastern district this province is fertile, well watered, and hilly; but westward and northward, with a few exceptions, it is absolutely desert, the whole surface of the country being either covered with loose sand, which in some places is driven by the wind into mounds and hillocks, some of them 100 feet in height; or else composed of hard flat salt loam, wholly destitute of vegetation. In the midst of these burning plains, the watermelon, the most juicy of all fruits, is found in astonishing perfection and of large size. Water is procured, but in small quantity, and brackish, from wells, which are frequently 300 feet deep, though not more than three or four feet in diameter. During the hot season, the passage of the desert cannot be attempted without great risk of suffocation from whirlwinds of driving sand. The productions of the cultivated parts of this province are wheat, barley, rice, sugar, cotton, indigo, and tobacco. Camels are numerous, and bullocks of a superior description. Salt is abundant, and the Odey poor districts yield copper, lead, sulphur, and iron. The chief towns in the province of Ajmeer are Bhatneer, Bikaneer, Jussulmeer, Nagore, Joudpoor, Jeypoor, Ajmcer, Chitore, Odeypoor, Neemuch, Boondee, Kota. This province derives its name of Ajmeer from that of the city of Ajmeer, which was its Mahomedan capital; but it is more commonly designated as Rajpootana, or the country of the Rajpoots, from its being the

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