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Imaginaire was written by Simon Berington, a time much discussed : it was attributed both to Catholic priest, and the member of a family resi- | Isaac Vossius and Leibnitz. It was translated dent for many years in Herefordshire. The fol- | into Dutch, German, and Italian ; and there is lowing Query will relate to another work of the an English edition, London, 1738, in 1 vol. 8vo., same class, but of an earlier date.

in which the preface from the French edition, The Histoire des Sévarambes is a fictitious ac- alluding to Plato's Republic, More's Utopia, and count of a nation in the Southern Ocean, visited Bacon's New Atlantis, not to be found in the by a supposed navigator named Siden. Its first original English edition, is introduced. This appearance was as an English work, with this volume is entitled title :

“ The History of the Sevarambians, a people of the “ The History of the Sevarites or Sevarambi, a na

south continent, in five parts, containing, &c Transtion inhabiting part of the third continent, commonly ! lated from the Memoirs of Capt. Siden, who lived called Terræ Australes Incognitæ; with an account of fifteen years amongst them.” their admirable government, religion, customs, and language. Written by one Captain Siden, a worthy The work is included in the collection of Voyages person, who, together with many others, was cast upon Imaginaires, tom. v., where the editor speaks of those coasts, and lived many years in that country. the distinguished place which it holds among the London: printed for Henry Brome, at the Gun, at the ' fictions of that class; but he says that its authorwest end of St. Paul's Churchyard, 1675. 12ino. pp. 114." | ship was unknown or uncertain. An account of No preface.

another fictitious voyage to the Terra Australis, There is a second part, “more wonderful and with a description of an imaginary people, pubdelightful than the first," published in 1679 lished in 1692, may be seen in Bayle's Dict., art. (pp. 140.). The licence by Roger Lestrange bears SADEUR, Voyages Imaginaires, tom. xxiv. date Feb. 25. 1678. There is a short preface, According to the account given by Marchand, without signature, arguing that the country of the Vairasse began life by serving in the army in Sevarites is not fabulous

Piedmont, and he afterwards studied the law. A copy of the original edition of these two parts Subsequently be went to England, where he is is in the British Museum.

stated to have attempted to penetrate the intrigues Shortly after its publication in England, this of the court, and to discover the maxims of the work appeared in France with the following English government. In 1665, he was in the ship title : —

commanded by the Duke of York against the “ Histoire des Sévarambes, peuples qui habitent une Dutch; and some years afterwarıls, having been partie du troisième continent ordinairement appellé regarded as an accomplice in the designs of a Terre Australe, contenant un compte exact du gou- public minister (apparently Lord Clarendon), he vernement, des mæurs, de la réligion et du langage de was forced to retire with him, and follow him to cette nation, jusques aujourd'hui inconnue aux peuples Paris. He re-entered the military service, and de l'Europe. Traduite de l'Anglois." First Part, was with the French army which invaded Holland Paris, 1677. 2 vols 12mo. Second Part, 1678-9. 3 vols. in 1672. Afterwards he taught English and French 12mo.

at Paris ; he likewise published a French GramBoth parts are dedicated to Monsieur Riquet, mar, and an abridgment of it in the English Baron de Bonrepos; and the dedications are both language (1683). He was of the reformed resigned with the initials D. V. D. E. L.

ligion. The British Museum contains no French elli It is possible that Vairasse's visit to England tion of this work earlier than an Amsterdam re may have been connected with his religion. He print of 1716. The above account of the early appears, during his residence here, to have acFrench edition is taken from the Dictionnaire His quired the English language; but it is difficult to Lorique of Prosper Marchand (La Haye, 1758), | understand what are the designs of Lord Clarentom. i. p. 11., art. ALLAIS. This article (which don in which he was an “accomplice." Lord may be cited as a model of bibliographical re Clarendon's exile took place in 1667; which search) attributes the authorship of the Histoire | hardly accords with the expression "some years" des Sérarambes, upon evidence, which, if not con | after 1665. No person of the name of Vairasse is clusive, is very strong, to Denis Vairasse, or Vay mentioned as having accompanied Lord Clarendon rasse. Marchand explains the initials appended in his banishment. to the dedications of the French edition to mean, The first part of the History of the SevaramDenis Vairasse d'Allais en Languedoc. He like- / bians was published in English in 1675, two wise considers Siden as the an:gram of Denis; and years before the French edition of the first part.

Secarias, the legislator of the Sevarambians, as The second parts were published at London and the anagram of Vairasse. Some of the religious Paris in the same year. Even if Vairasse did not opinions expressed in this fiction were thought leave England with Lord Clarendon, he had left bold, and the autborship of the work was at one it before the year in which the first part of this

work appeared in English: for he is stated to served in the interesting volumes published by have been with the French army in Holland in Moxon in 1836 (ii. 114.). “One day," 1672. It is therefore difficult to account for the

“when I had not a shilling to spare, I was passing publication of the English version of the History

by a cottage at Keswick where a carter was deof the Sevarambiuns before its publication in manding a shilling for a letter, which the woman France, upon the assumption that Vairasse was

of the house appeared unwilling to give, and at last the author. The writer of the lite of Vairasse

declined to take. I paid the postage, and when (art. ALLAIS) in the Biographical Dictionary of the

the man was out of sight, she told me that the Society of Useful Knowledge thinks that he may

letter was from her son, who took that means of have been only the translator : but the facts col

letting her know that he was well. The letter was lected by Marchand show that he claimed the

not to be paid for. It was then opened and found authorship; and there is no trace of its composi

to be blank.tion by any Englishman. Besides, its prior pub

Now, while so many copies of “NOTES AND lication in England is just as inexplicable upon QUERIES " pass through the Post-office, it is to be the assumption of his being the translator, as upon

| hoped one at least may remain there, and be the that of his being the author.

means of inducing Mr. Hill to inform us whether Query, Is Vairasse's residence in England men

| Miss Martineau had any authority for fathering tioned by any English writer? And can any light

this story upon him; and whether the Post-office be thrown upon the authorship of the History of Reform is really indebted to any such trivial inci. the Sevar ambians from any English source ? L. dent for its original idea.

E. VENABLES.

RED BOOK OF THE IRISH EXCHEQUER.
ORIGIN OF PRESENT PENNY POSTAGE.

On one of the vellum leaves of which the Red Many of your readers have, I doubt not, pe- | Book of the Irish Exchequer is composed, there is rused with interest the vivid sketch of the origin depicted a pen and ink sketch of that court. In of the Penny Postage System, given by Miss Mar- the centre of the picture is the table, which is tineau in her History of England during the covered (as it is at this day) with a chequered Thirty Years' Peace, vol. ii. p. 425., and have seen cloth, whereon are placed a bag upon which are in the incident of the shilling letter delivered to the words “ Baga cum rotulis," a book with a the poor cottager, somewhere in the Lake district clasp, five large pieces of money, and a strip of ---refused by her from professed inability to pay parchment, upon which is written, “ Ceo vous, the postage — paid for by Mr. Rowland Hill, who &c." The table is surrounded on its four equal bappened most opportunely to be passing that way sides by thirteen human figures, namely, six at the

— and, when opened, found to be blank (this plan top of the picture, three on the left hand, tbree on being preconcerted between the woman and her the right, and one at the bottom. Of the six correspondent, to know of each other's welfare figures at the top of the sketch, all of whom wear without the expense of postage). A remarkable robes, be who is on the right hand holds a wand, instance of “how great events from little causes bears upon his head a cap, and is in the act of · spring," and have bestowed much admiration on leaving the court, exclaiming, “ Ademayn." To the penetration of Mr. Hill's mind, which “wakened the right of this man, who is probably the crier of up at once to a significance of the fact," nor ever the court, is one of the officers carrying a piece rested till he had devised and effected his scheme of parchment, upon which is written in contracted of Post-office Reform; though all the while an law Latin, “Preceptum fuit Vicecomiti per breve uncomfortable feeling might be lurking behind as hujus Scaccarii.” To the right of the last-named to the perfect credibility of so interesting a mode figure is another officer of the court, who is in the of accounting for the initiation of this great social act of examining his pen by placing its nib at a benefit.

short distance from his eyes; and this person I confess to having had some suspicions myself carries in his left hand a piece of parchment upon as to the trustworthiness of this story; and a few which are written, in like character, the words, days since my suspicions were fully confirmed by “ Memorandum quod x die Maii, &c.” To the discovering that the real hero of the tale was not right of this officer, who is probably the Chief Rethe Post-oflice Reformer, but the poet Coleridge ; membrancer, is placed another officer, wearing a unless, indeed, wbich is surely out of the range of cap, who is in the act of writing upon a piece of ordinary probabilities, the same event, correspond- parchment bearing the words “Henricus dei ing exactly as to place and amount of postage, gratia." The two remaining figures at the top of happened to two persons at separate times.

the picture are apparently conversing together : Coleridge relates the story himself, in one of his to one of them are applied the words, “Eynt bre “conversations," of which memoranda are pre- vic.," with another word following the last which

is scarcely decypherable; and to the other the

“ Talk not of love, it gives me pain, word “ Elgyn" seems to have reference; such

For love hath been my foe; word being placed upon the ample sleeve of his He bound me with an iron chain, gown. The three figures on the left of the picture

And plunged me deep in woe. are probably the three Barons. The head-dress of the judge who is sitting at the extreme right of “ But friendship's pure and lasting joys the bench, varies in its form from that which is

My soul was form'd to prove, worn by the baron who is seated in the centre; Then welcome, win, and wear the prize, and the third baron, who is sitting at the left, has

But never talk of love." his head uncovered. The first-named baron seems

A. M. in the act of counting or reckoning the pieces of Lucy and Colin. Can you tell me who was coin which are placed before him upon the table, the author of " Lucy and Colin," so beautifully and says “xxd.;" the baron in the centre, who translated by Vincent Bourne, and by him enwears a cap similar in form to the night-cap now titled “Lucia et Corydon"? commonly used, says “ Voyr dire;" and the third In Southey's Common-place Book, 3d series, I baron says “ Soient forfez." Opposite to the found the following in p. 712.:judges, and to the right of the picture, are three

“ Of the wretched poem Colin and Lucy (Tickel?) persons wearing gowns, and standing at the bar of

published as a fragment of Elizabeth's age, the reviewer the court. One of these points towards his face

says, “Is this the language of R. Elizabeth's time, or with the first finger of his right hand, and says, something better? But to whatever age, or to what. “ Oy de brie;" the figure to his left extends his ever author we are indebted for this beautiful piece, it right arın towards the bench, and exclaims, “Soit must be allowed an honour to both, and therefore worth oughte;" and the third figure says, “Chalange." contending for on behalf of our own time.'" This man, the bandle of whose sword is distinctly

I wonder whether this be the “Colin and Lucy” visible on his right side, whose outer sleeves are that V. Bourne translated. wide and flowing, whose under garment is buttoned

I have not Tickel's works, and therefore cannot tightly at the wrist, and whose boots are in shape

discover whether he be the author of that beausimilar to ladies' boots of modern times, closely

tiful (whatever Southey may say) ballad beginning laced to the leg, has placed the thumb of his left hand between the thumb and first finger of his right.

with — And, lastly, at the bottom of the picture is seated “ In Leinster famed for maidens fair,” &c. the sheriff, bearing upon his head a hood or cap,

A. B. upon which the words “ Vic. tot & unit" are

Chapel, Printing-office. — Is there any other written. Query, Are the persons here repre

authority than Creery's Press for the statement sented the barons and officers of the Exchequer ? and, more especially, who are the persons who

that printing-offices are called chapels ? Whatexclaim “ Oy de brie," “ Soit oughte," and

ever may have been the case, at present the word

| " chapel" is applied to the persons, or companion* Chalange"?

J. F. F.
ship, employed in the office, not to the office itself.

GOMER.
Mozon, in his Mechanick Exercises, vol. ii. p. 356.
Minor Queries.

4to. 1683, says: “ Every printing-house is by the

custom of time out of mind called a chappel; and all Abbey of Shapp, or Hepp.— I shall be much the workmen that belong to it are meinbers of the obliged to any of your readers who can informchappel: and the oldest freeman is father of the chappel. me whether the Chartulary of the Abbey of Shapp, I suppose the style was originally conferred upon it or Hepp, in Westmoreland, is now in exista | by the courtesie of some great Churchman, or men, ence; and if so, where it is. In the Monasticon,

(doubtless, when chappels were in more veneration vol. vi. p. 869., it is stated that in 1638 it was

| than of late years they have been here in England), in the possession of Lord William Howard, of

who, for the books of divinity that proceeded from a Naworth; but though a search has been made

printing-house, gave it the reverend title of chappel."] among Lord William's papers and MSS. in the Cockade is a ribband worn in the hat, as possession of his descendant, the Earl of Carlisle, defined by Dr. Johnson. Query, What is the at Castle Howard, the Chartulary is not now to origin of its use by officers of the army and navy; be found among them.

J. C.

who are privileged to wear it; when was it first Talk not of Love." — Do any of your musical

introduced; and by what authority, if any, is it correspondents know the author of the following

sanctioned or confined to the army and navy ?

'A. E. song, and whether it has ever appeared in print ? I have it in manuscript, set to a very fine tune, Suem, (Ferling, Grasson — In a copy of Court but have never seen or heard it elsewbere. Roll, dated the 40th year of Elizabeth, and relating to the manor of Rotherfield, co. Sussex, these furnish me with the rest of a Scotch song of which words occur :

I have heard these two couplets ? “R. K. cepit extra manus domini unam suem trê : « The Deil sat girning in a nook, nat' de ferling," &c.

Breaking sticks to burn the duke. I shall be obliged to any of your correspondents

A' the Whigs sal gae to hell! who will explain the words suem and ferling.

Geordie sal gae there hissel.” What is the etymology of grasson, a word used | And who was the writer ?

MEZZOTINTO. in some north-country manors for a fine paid on Rodolph Gualter. – I think I have somewbere alienation of copyhold lands?

C. W.G. | seen it stated that Rodolph Gualtor (m

seen it stated that Rodolph Gualter (minister at Cranmer's Descendants. — Being much inte

Zurich, and well known as a correspondent of our rested in everything that concerns the martyrs of

divines in the age of the Reformation) was a the Reformation, and not the less so from being

Scotchman. Will any, of your correspondents descended (in the female line) from the father of oblige me by supplying either a reference for this Archbishop Cranmer, I should be very glad if any

statement, or a disproof of it — or both ?

J. C. R. of your correspondents could inform me whether there are any of his male descendants still in ex Passage in St. Mark. -- What Fathers of the istence. Gilpin, in his Lives of the Reformers, early Christian Church have annotated that resays that the Archbishop's wife and children lived markable text, Mark xiii. 32., oudė dvios," in great obscurity. This was probably on account “Neither the Son ?” of the prejudice, which had hardly passed away, ' As this subject has certainly engaged the attenagainst the marriage of the clergy; but surely the | tion of many of your readers, it will be a great descendants of so great a man, if there be such, | favour conferred on the present writer, if their have not lost the records or pedigree by which replies should indicate the authors' names, the their descent can be verified.

Ć. D. F. date and place of the edition, the page, and such Collections of Pasquinades.-Can any of your

other distinctive marks as shall lead to a prompt

investigation of the subject : among them, whether correspondents inform me whether a collection has the au

the authors quoted are in the library of the British ever been published of the satirical verses affixed

Museum.

CALMET. to the torso of Menelaus, at the corner of the Palazzo Braschi at Rome, and commonly known

" Fronte Capillatâ,"&c.-On the Grammar School as Pasquinades, from the name of a tailor whose

at Guilsbro, in Northamptonshire, is inscribed the shop stood near the place of its discovery? (See

following hexameter :Nibby, Itinerario di Roma, ii. 409.) I send you a “ Fronte capillatâ post est Occasio calva.” specimen which I do not remember to have seen

I suppose it alludes to some allegorical reprein print. It was occasioned by the Pope Pius VI.

sentation of Occasio ; and is intended to convey (Braschi) having placed his own coat of arms in

the same meaning as our English proverb, “ Seize various parts of St. Peter's. They consisted of the time by the forelocks." From what author is this double-headed eagle, two stars, a lily, and the head | inscription taken?

E. H. A. of a boy, puffing at it. “ Redde aquilam imperio; Gallorum lilia regi; Sidera redde polo; cætera Brasche tibi."

Keplies.
The eagle being restored to the Holy Roman
Empire, the lily to the Most Christian King, and

“ GOD SPEED THE PLOUGH." the stars to the firmament, there remained for the

(Vol. i., p. 230.) Pope himself -- an empty puff. MARFORIO. L. S. asks, in what rebellion was the banner Portraits of Bishops. — Can any of your corre

carried with the motto “God speed the plough ?" spondents inform me of portraits of John Williams,

- (Homily against Wilful Rebellion.) archbishop of York (previously bishop of Lincoln); -||

Probably in the rebellion of the Earls of NorJohn Owen, bishop of St. Asaph; George Griffith,

thumberland and Westmoreland in the north of bishop of St. Asaph ; Lewis Bayley, bishop of Ban

England, during the autumn of A.D. 1569. In the gor; Humphrey Henchman, bishop of London

passage of the homily which immediately follows (previously bishop of Salisbury); Lord Chief Jus

the one quoted by L. S., occur these words : tice Glynne; and Sir Thomas Milward, chief justice

“ And though some rebels bear the picture of the of Chester.

five wounds painted, against those who put their only Cassan, in his Bishops of Salisbury, mentions one

hope of salvation in the wounas of Christ ..... and of Henchman; but I mean exclusively of this.

though tney do bear the image of the cross painted in Y. Y.

a rag .... yet let no good and godly subject. ...

follow such standard-bearers of rebellion.” The Butcher Duke.— Can any of your readers | Again: just before the quotation cited by L. S. is an allusion to the “defacing or deformation" | What I meant to say in my last Note was simply which the rebels have made, “ where though they this— that two persons, viz. Messrs. Christopher tarry but a little while they make such reforma Wren and Chamberlayne, have asserted that the tion, that they destroy all places, and undo all title “Defender of the Faith" had been used by men where they come.”

our monarchs anterior to 1521 ; and in support of Collier, in his Eccles. History, vol. vi. p. 469. / their assertions, cite the Black Book of the order edit. Straker, 1840, part ii. b. vi., says, –

¡ of the garter, and several charters granted to the * However, the insurrection went on, and the rebels University of Oxford: that is, each gives a distinct made their first march to Durham. And here going proof of his allegation. into the churches they tore the English Bible and the Had Mr. GIBSON understood my Note, as I Common Prayer. They officiated in the service of the trust he now will, he will see at once that the mass, had the five wounds of Christ represented in some expression “ untrue" is totally inapplicable to their of their colours, and a chalice in others. One Richard

statements, at least upon any showing upon his Norton, an ancient gentleman, carried the standard part; for he does not appear to me to have conwith a cross in it."

suited either the Black Book or the charters, on In this passage we have three out of four facts which alone their assertions are based, to which enumerated: 1st. The defacing of places; 20. alone we must in common honesty refer, and by The banner with the five wounds; 3d. The which alone their vera .ity must be judged. standard with the cross. It does not, therefore, l That their “startling” statements do not apseem unreasonable to infer, that the other fact pear in Selden, nor in Luder's brief paper in the alluded to, viz. the banner with the motto, is to 19th vol. of the Archeologia, is conceded; but I be referred to the same rebellion.

think it might have occurred to the mind of one It is not, however, impossible that the rebellion, of less acumen than Mr. Gibson, that it was prewhich broke out A.D. 1549, first in the western cisely because the allegations do not appear in counties, and then in Oxfordshire. Bucks, Nor- these or any other writers or authorities that I folk, Suffolk, and Yorkshire, may be also alluded considered them not unworthy of the attention of to in the homily. For Cranmer, in his answer to the readers of the “NOTES AND QUERIES." I am the Devonshire and Cornish rebels, urges this at a loss to reconcile Mr. Gibson's expression amongst other reasons :

"startling," as applied to the assertions of Messrs. · Fourthly, for that they let the harvest, which is Wren and Chamberlayne (and I need not add, the chief sustentation of our life; and God of his good that had they not been startling to myself as to ness hath sent it abundantly. And they by their folly him, they would never have found their way to do cause it to be lost and abandoned." - Strype's Mem, your paper), with the following paragraph : of C., ed. Oxf. 1840, vol. ii. p. 841.

“ In this sense, the sovereign and every knight be. An argument similar to the one used in the homily. | came a sworn defender of the faith. Can this duty

The insurrection, in fact, in the midland and have come to be popularly aitributed as part of the north-eastern counties, began with an attempt to

royal style and title?" redress an agricultural grievance; according to ! I do not allude to this statement in a critical Fox (E. H. vol. ii. p. 665. edit. 1641); “about point of view, but simply, as, from the general plucking down of enclosures and enlarging of tenor of his communication, Mr. Gibson appears commons." The date of the homily itself offers to labour under an impression, that, from ignono objection ; for though it is said (Oxf. ed. Pref. rance of historical authorities, I have merely given p. v.) not to occur in any collected edition printed utterance to a popular fallacy, unheard of by him before 1571, yet there exists a separate edition and other learned men; and, like the “curfew,” of it printed in 4to. by Juyge and Cawood, pro- to be found in no contemporaneous writer. I beg, bably earlier than A.D. 1563. Collier does not however, to assure him, that before forwarding the quote his authority for the statement about the note and question to your paper, I had examined banners, but probably it was either Camden or not only the Bulls, and our best historians, but Holinshed; and a reference to these authors, which also the works of such writers as Prynne, Lord I regret I have no means of making, might esta- 1 Herbert, Spelman, Camden, and others, who have blish the particular point in question. E. A. D. in any way treated of regal titles and prerogatives.

I have only to add, that beyond the investiga

tion of the truth of the assertions of Messrs. Wren “ DEFENDER OF THE FAITH.”.

and Chamberlayne, I am not in any way inte(Vol. ii., pp. 442. 481.)

rested. I care not for the result. I only seek for

the elucidation of that which is at once “ startling” I regret that my Note, inserted in your paper

and a “popular fallacy." Robert ANSTRUTHER. of Noy. 30th, was so ambiguously written as to elicit such a reply as it has been favoured with by

Bayswater. Ms. Gibsox of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

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