wherever the invisible effects of it are greatest and most advanta. geous, I am sure, the visible are so in this country, by the continual and undisturbed civil peace of their government, for so long a course of years, and by so mighty an increase of their people, wherein will appear to consist chiefly the vast growth of their trade and riches, and consequently the strength und greatness of their state.

Sect. VIII. Of their way of Trade, and Manner of Increase in Wealth. It is evident to those, who have read the most, and travelled far. thest, that no country can be found either in this present age, or upon record of any story, where so vast a trade has been managed, as in the narrow compass of the four maritime provinces of this common. wealth: Nay, it is generally esteemed, that they have more shipping belongs to them, than there does to the far greater part of Europe besides. Yet they have no native commodities towards the building, or rigging of the smallest vessel; their flax, hemp, pitch, wood, and iron, coming all from abroad, as wool does for cloathing their men, and corn for feeding them. Nor do I know any thing properly of their own growth, that is considerable, either for their own necessary use, or for traffick with their neighbours, besides butter, cheese, and earthen wares. For havens, they have not any good upon their whole coast: The best are Helvoetsluys, which has no trade at all; and Flushingue, which has little, in comparison of other towns in Hol. land: But Amsterdam, that triumphs in the spoils of Lisbon and Antwerp (which before engrossed the greatest trade of Europe and the Indies) seems to be the most incommodious haven they have, being seated upon so shallow waters, that ordinary ships cannot come up to it, without the advantage of tides; nor great ones, without un. lading. The interance of the Tessel, and passages over the Zudder Sea, is now more dangerous, than a voyage from thence to Spain, lying all in blind and narrow channels; so that it easily appears, that it is not a haren that draws trade, but trade that Gills an haven, and brings it in vogue. Nor has Holland grown rich by any native commodities, but by force of industry; by improvement and manu. facture of all foreign growths; hy being the general magazine of Eu. rope, and furnishing all parts with whatever the market wants or in. vites; and by their seamen, being, as they have properly been called, the common carriers of the world,

It appears to every man's eye, who hath travelled Holland, and observed the number and vicinity of their great and populous towns and villages, with the prodigious improvement of almost every spot of ground in the country, and the great multitudes constantly employed in their shipping abroad, and their boats at home, that no other known country in the world, of the same extent, holds any proportion with this in the numbers of people; and, if that be the great foundation of trade, the best account, that can be given of theirs, will be, by consi. dering the causes and accidents that have served to force and invite so rast a conflunce of people into their country; the civil wars, calami, ties, persecutions, oppressions, or discontents, that have been fatal to most of their neighbours for some time before, as well as since their state began.

Sect. IX. of their Military Forces by Sea and Land, with their State

Revenues. The force of these provinces is to be measured, not by the number or dispositions of their subjects, but by the strength of their shipping, and standing troops, which they constantly maintain, even in time of peace; and by the numbers of both, which they have been able to draw into the field, and to sea, for support of a war: by their constant revenue to maintain the first; and by the temporary charge, they have been able to furnish for supply of the other.

The ordinary revenue of this state consists, either in what is levied in the conquered towns, and country of Brabant, Flanders, or the Rhine; which is wholly administered by the council of state: or else the ordinary funds, which the Seven Provinces provide every year, according to their several proportions, upon the petition of the coun. cil of State, and the computation of the charge of the ensuing year, given in by them to the States-General. And this revenue in times of peace, commonly amounts to about one and twenty millions of gil. ders a year.

Their standing land forces, in time of peace, consist of thirty-thou. sand horse and foot.

Their admiraities, in time of peace, maintain between thirty and forty men of war, employed in the several convoys of their merchants fleets, in a squadron of eight or ten ships, to attend the Al. gerines, and other Corsairs in the Mediterranean; and some al. ways lying ready in their havens for any sudden accidents or occa. sions of the state.



London, printed for J. Johnson, 1691. Quarto, containing eight



HE proceedings by, and against some body of late, are not alto. gether unlike a certain parable; which, though I cannot, at present, call to mind where I read it, yet, I remember very well, the substance of it was this: viz.

Once upon a time, there was a bear baiting appointed; a great orer-grown French bear, the greatest in the world, to be baited by English and Dutch mastiffs, the best mastiffs in the universe. Tho

he immediately took all possible care, to stand at a distance enough, out of harm's way; and out of the way of doing harm to any, but the forward mastifis.

But had the first, second, and third-rate mastiffs been then let loose, when they were fresh and untired; and when they had a strong direct gale to carry them, to the bear's very nose; they would cer. tainly have torn him to pieces in a trice. For he was so hemmed in, on every side, that he could not stir one way or other; neither could any of the mastiff's have been there lost or sunk, they being then, at the mouth of the best kennel, or port, in Europe: When, at the same time, the bear was above a hundred leagues from his den. And be. sides, there was another strong party, or two, of stout third, fourth, and fifth-rate mastiffs, out at the same time, to have intercepted the bear in his way, if, after the first mastiffs tearing him, he should have endeavoured to make his escape home. Here were all the advan. tages, that heaven and earth could grant, at once; and all the favour. able opportunities, that man could ask, or that God need grant: and nothing wanting but courage, conduct, skill, and honesty, to accom. plish the utter destruction of the bear for evermore,

Never had spaniel such an opportunity of losing his own name, and gaining the re. putation of a mastiff; and never had whelps and lap-dogs such an op. portunity, to ingratiate themselves with, and gain the applause and esteem of all mankind, as well as of womankind and children. But I find the poet is in the right on it, who says:

Naturam expellas furca licet, usque recurret.
Nature recoils, and, though you hang the dog,

Yet he will die, just as he liv'd, a rogue. For, as soon as old Grisle, his whelps, and his lap-dogs, espied the vast bulk of the bear's body, the wideness of his jaws, the largeness of his paws, and the length of his claws, as if they had seen raw.head and bloody-bones, they turned all as white presently, as my lady's night-trail.

But by the thundering noise of the mastiffs, and by the powerful help of brandy, being somewhat roused out of their fainting fit, they began at last, though it was long first, to recover a little out of their clammy sweat: and then they called a council, as they called it. And there, you might have seen all the whelps and lap-dogs lying panting round old Grisle, and looking up to him, in this time of need, and he looking down upon them again, with most pitiful countenances, on both sides; and, all the while, making a most intolerable stink, for fear of the bear: Nay, such a strange stink, that I am forced to hold my rose, even now, whilst I am speaking of it; and to cry,“ Out, ye stinking curs! Faw! out, and be hanged! Faw! out, for shame, and make room for the mastiffs !'

However, at long-run, old Grisle made a shift to open his jaws, and held them open, a long while, without speaking ever a word, for he well knew, they understood his meaning by his gaping: Yet, at last, with much ado, and with as much hesitation, trembling, and shaking, as if he had been in the house of commons, he broke silence,


However, out they went, under this wise conduct; but, before they went out, old Grisle, his whelps, and his lap-dogs (for I call

I them his, because, as I told you but now, they were most of his own getting) thought it convenient, for their better security, to muzzle all the mastiffs, and tie them fast in a strong line of passive obedience and non-resistance; and, as soon as that was effectually done, then but they went all together.

And, all the way they went, old Grisle, bis whelps, and his lap. dogs, did frisk, and skip, and leap, and bounce, and yelp, being all over-joyed, that they should see some sport anon (for most of them had never seen a bear before in their lives) and oh! how they whipped the bear about, and swinged him off, all the way, in their own fancies !

Says old, proud, impotent, self-conceited, empty Grisle: Gentle men whelps, and gentlemen lap-dogs, courage! here is confusion to the bear. Huzza! shew yourselves to be but what you are,

viz. true whelps, and right lap-dogs, and I desire no more: for, by your • assistance, I have power enough to beat all the bears in France. I

have been a whelp and a lap-dog myself in my time, as well as the best of you all: And, to my certain knowledge, an English whelp, or lap-dog, is able to grapple with a French bear at any time; wherefore, we need no scouts to go before, to bring us notice of the bear's approach ; for, as soon as he comes within hearing of your terrible yelping, he will be glad to retire fast enough of his own accord, I warrant you: Therefore, courage my beloved whelps and

lap-dogs! here's confusion once more to the bear !-huzza! yelp! yelp! yelp!

But old Grisle had scarce ended these words, nor was the yelping quite ceased, when lo! all on a sudden, the unexpected roaring of the bear quite surprised, dashed, astonished, and stunned the whole pack of mongrels; which made old Grisle shrink in his tail between his legs, and hang down his head (and if it had been hung up, not a halfe penny damage) and made all the whelps and lap-dogs begin to whine and whimper about him, and fawn upon him, with wagging tails, clapped in behind, lank ears before, couchant heads, and tears in their eyes. But, on the other side, it made the brave mastiffs prick up their ears, and drew

rage and foam from their mouths, and fire from their very eyes, to be at the bear. Bless me! what a difference there is, between right true-bred mastiffs, and whilling curs !

(For you must know, the great bear was, by an unexpected hurri. cane, driven to a bay, fresh-water bay, or else he had seized, and hugged old Grisle, and all his whelps and lap-dogs, just as the devil hugs a witch, before they had been aware of it, and was there con. fined in Lob's pound, and tied as fast, as a bear to a stake; which made him suck his paws, and fret in his grease, and roar after that hideous manner.)

However, old Grisle was forced, by the rage and importunity of the mastiffs, to go and shew them the bear: And, to give the devil his due, he did shew them the bear, and that was all: For, when lie green curs, in such an unreasonable line, a line of five or six leagues distance, at least, from the bear, the grand enemy of mankind, and from their duty of attacking him.

Therefore, to be thus unjustly restrained in spight of their cou. rage, nay, in spight of their teeth, by a company of whifflers, made the mastiffs rave, and grow almost stark-staring mad, for want of sleep and rest; but especially for want of fighting; for fighting is their meat and drink. A true tarpaulin fights only to eat, and eats only to fight again. And there were enough with them to eat up the bear; and sharpers enough in every thing else, but fighting; and more by a great many (though not by a good many) than those that devoured the great Spanish bear in 1588.

Whereupon the lioness, hearing the loud-mouthed voice of her mastiffs, both English and Dutch, speaking the same thing, and, which is strange, the same language, and both countries agreeing in the same verdict, viz. That the mastiffs were abused, curbed, and muzzled by a parcel of mongrels; therefore she roused up her royal wrath, and sent positive orders to the curs, either to permit the mastiffs to fight, or else to come presently themselves to her den in the Tower.

This royal eccho startled the spaniel, the whelps, and the lap. dogs worse, if possible, than the roaring of the bear had done before: For now, being almost nine days old in their iniquity, the whelps began to see, that there was another settled power, besides the bears.

Thus old Grisle, his whelps, and his lap-dogs, being reduced to a great streight, for fear of the lioness on one side, and of the bear on the other; and, yet, being willing to curry favour with both sides, and to keep to the convocation-rules of non-resistance of the settled power of the lioness, and of passive.obedience to the fixed power of the bear: Therefore, they craftily and cunningly resolved (as if they had been so many schoolmen, or doctors of metaphysical notions and distinctions) that they would sacredly, or, rather cur. sedly, observe a strict neutrality on both sides.

In pursuance whereof, old Grisle, in the first place, making his honours, his bows, and his profound congees to the bear; and, ihen, making his obeisance to the lioness, and, withal, making a shew of praying, but not fighting, for King William and Queen Mary: he hung out the bloody flag, as they use to do at the bear-garden, and proclaimed free liberty for all to fight, that had a mind to it. Fight dog, fight bear, for him, and his.

Whereupon the brave Tyrrell, the undaunted Dorrell, and several other English, and above twenty Dutch mastiffs, all as good as ever run, at a bear (and, oh! that the courageous and victorious Shovel had been amongst them !) though they were before almost quite throttled, spent, and strangled by being held back so long from their sport, in such an unreasonable line, yet now took fresh courage, and broke the line, and left the mongrels behind to their due, the line ; and ran full speed forwards, and made directly at the bear with open mouths; and stared fire, and gaped smoke, and spoke thunder, and dlated thunderbolts, and hurled whirlwinds at the bear; and so



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