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serene, lucid, void, of any stinking mephitis, or damps arising from bogs or fens, which may occasion epidemical distempers in the blood; but, on the contrary, the whole ambient of the horizon is filled with an inexhaustible series of odoriferous and fragrant effluviums, in. cessantly exhaling from sweet-scented herbs and plants, that grow in these parts. The air, thus embodied, we perpetually inspire, which raises, and, analogically speaking, spiritualises our minds far beyond all exotick, either natural or artificial perfumes.
Moreover, at Tunbridge, you find conference with eminent and famous wits, which is the most fruitful and natural exercise of the mind; the use of which is more sweet, than any other action of our life. The study of books is a languishing and feeble motion, in respect of it; for what is delivered viva voce, with a lively voice, makes a deeper impression on the mind, and, consequently, is more advantageous than reading. Much more may be said of the various and manifold benefits and comforts you may receive at Tunbridge*, which I now supersede, hoping these, I have mentioned, are al. lurements strong enough to invite, if not a magnetism to draw men thither.
It is rare to write any thing to that perfection, as to rescind the occasion of all objections from cavillers; wherefore, what I have said of the vertues of these waters would not be sufficient, if I do not obviate also such objections, as may raise scruples in the minds of those who make use of them,
The first objection is, that many, soon after drinking of these waters, died; and that others, by the use of them, receive no be. nefit : whence they infer these waters to be improper, noxious, lethiferous, and not fit to be drank by men.
Vina bibant homines, animantia cætera fontes;
Absit ab humano pectore potus aquæ. . Let none but cattle water drink,
6 That fit for men no men can think.' As for the first objection, I confess, one may die soon after taking waters; and so he may after taking any thing else : not that the waters, duly prescribed, are the occasion of death, but, through ir. regularity, disorder, or neglect of something, that was to be done in order to the taking of them, death may ensue: nay, men may die immediately, or soon after taking things indifferent in themselves, and void of any medicinal, or alterative quality, as, for example, after eating bread and butter, or drinking a glass of wine; it doth not therefore follow, that this last thing, they eat, or drank, caused their bane, and that no man ought to eat, or drink, any more of this kind of food.
Secondly, Some of those, who drink waters, may have a malady of a cacoethes-nature, or of such a contumacy, and so far radicated,
Sic variis animum studiis Tunbrigia mulcet,
that it illudes all energy of chalybeates, or any sort of physick. * It
and hardens the clay :
Uno eodemque igni. –Virgilius.
These waters kill and expel all manner of worms, ingendered either in the stomach, intestines, matrix, or any other part of the body. Ryetius, in his observations of the Spaw-waters, makes mention of a woman, who laboured a long time with a chronick distemper under the doctor's hands, without receiving any benefit by all their prescriptions and physick that she had taken, but was, at last, advised to chalybeate waters, and, by drinking of them with method and con. tinuance, avoided several worms of divers shapes, figure, and longi. tude, and was perfectly cured.
They are a polychrest remedy, serving for many uses and inten. tions; they both loosen and bind; cool and make hot; dry and moisten : cure distempers of divers states and origins, nay, of con. trary natures and dispositions, as I said before. Certainly, a perfect knowledge of their idiosyncrasia and properties would reduce physick to a narrower compass, and to prescribe well the studium chaly. beatum, or chalybeate course, would make the studying of so many volumes of the parts of physick unnecessary; for, by the help of these waters, we prolong man's life by a more facile and easier means, than has hitherto been known, veritas ex puteo erathlanda : truth must be drawn out of a well.
Provocat hæc leniter Tunbrigia menstrua pridem,
Suppressa, & nimium sistit ubi illa fluunt.
Immodicos fluxus sic quoque sistit aqua :
• Non est in medico semper, relevetur ut æger;
Nam docta interdum plus valet arte malum.
Stringunt quippe suá vi lymphe side relaxant,
Frigore tum corpus sive calore juvant.
Adversa inter se pellere posse mala!
These waters vertue have to ope and close,
By their own vertue, strengthen and relax,
Tis strange, that, in one body, the same thing
Shou'd cross-grain’d maladies to cure bring. Ecce quam sint naturæ omnipotentis Dei, prudentia & potestate ductæ, admiranda opera que aquæ istius limpida ac puræ beneficio tot tamque inter se contrarios morbos curat, id quod ars medica sine corporis norâ præstare nequit.-Ryetius, in his Observations de Aquis Spadanis.
Behold the wonderful works of nature, guided by the prudence ! and power of the Almighty God, that, by the help of a limpid and
clear water, she cures manifold, nay, contrary and opposite ma, ? ladies, which the art of physick, without great detriment to the
body, cannot do.'
To accelerate and promote the passing of these waters by urine, Ryetius advises some drops of spirit of vitriol to be instilled into their glasses of water, for acids, being endowed with a diuretick and penetrative faculty, depose the serum, and conveigh it to the reins, to be sent forth by the ureters.
To promote evacuation by stool, he adviseth to mix some common salt in powder with the waters, and a dram to every pint, more or less, proportioning the quantity to the bearing of the patient. This gently expels the loose matter contained in the ventricle and intesa tines, and purgeth viscous phlegm adhering to their tunicles and bilous humours from the pancreatick passages: but it is not to be taken indifferently by all persons.
Dum juga monlis aper, dum flumen piscis habebit,
Anchora fonsægris, hic sacra semper erit ;
Germanus, Scotus, Belga, Britannus, Iber.
Bellum destruxit, mox reparabit aqua.
Są tong, both sure and uncontrould,
Thus much for chalybeates, to comply with your honour's solicitations, hoping this rude essay, upon a barren subject, may be cultivated by other philosophers and physicians, better qualified, to the benefit and advantage of mankind, especially to your honour's sa. tisfaction and welfare; whom Almighty God, the everlasting fountain and source of living waters, preserve with long life and health in this: world, and grant immarcescible laurels in that which is to come; which is the earnest and unfeigned desire of, My Lord, your honour's most humble
and obedient Servant,
P. M. M. D.
THE FOUNDATION OF A ROYAL HOSPITAL,
AND RAISING A REVENUE
OF FIVE OR SIX THOUSAND POUNDS A YEAR,
By, and for the Maintenance of a Corporation of skilful Midwives and
such Foundlings, or exposed Children, as shall be admitted therein. . As it was proposed and addressed to his Majesty King James II.
By Mrs. Elisabeth Cellier, in the Month of June, 1687. Now, first published from her own MS. found among the said King's papers. Folio, containing nine pages.
To the King's Most Excellent Majesty, the humble Proposal of
Elisabeth Cellier, Sheweth, That, within the space of twenty years last past, above six thousand women have died in child-bed, more than thirteeen thousand children have been born abortive, and above five thousand chrysome infants have been buried, within the weekly bills of mortality: 'above two thirds of which, amounting to sixteen thousand souls, have in all probability perished, for want of due skill and care, in those, women who practise the art of midwifry.
Besides the great number which are overlaid, and wilfully mur. dered, by their wicked and cruel mothers, for want of fit ways to conceal their shame, and provide for their children, as also the many executions on the offenders.
To remedy wbich, it is humbly proposed, that your majesty will be graciously pleased, by your royal authority, to unite the whole
number of skilful midwives, now practising within the limits of the weekly bills of mortality, into a corporation, under the government of a certain number of the most able and matron-like women among them, subject to the visitation of such person or persons, as your majesty shall appoint; and such rules for their good government, instruction, direction, and administration, as are hereunto annexed, or may, upon more mature consideration, be thought fit to be annexed.
That such number, so to be admitted, shall not exceed a thousand at one time; that every woman so to be admitted as a skilful mid. wife, may be obliged to pay, for her admittance, the sum of five pounds, and the like sum annually, by quarterly payments, for, and towards, the pious and charitable uses hereafter mentioned.
That all women, so admitted into the thousand, shall be capable of being chosen matrons, or assistants, to the government.
That such midwives as are found capable of the employment, and cannot be admitted into the first thousand, shall be of the second thousand, paying, for their admittance, the sum of fifty shillings, and fifty shilling a year by quarterly payments, towards the pious and charitable uses hereafter mentioned, and out of these the first thousand are to be supplied, as they die out.
That, out of the first sum arising from the admittance-money, one good, large, and convenient house, or hospital, may be erected, for the receiving and taking in of exposed children, to be subject to the care, conduct, and management of one governess, one female secré. tary, and twelve matron-assistants, subject to the visitation of such persons, as to your majesty's wisdom shall be thought ne. cessary.
That such hospital be for ever deemed, of your majesty's royal foundation, and from time to time, subject to the rules and directions of your majesty, your heirs and successors. That the annual five or six thousand pounds, which may
arise from the thousand licensed midwives, and second thousand, may be em. ployed towards the maintenance of such exposed children, as may from time to time be brought into the hospital, and for the gover. ness, her secretary, and the twelve assistant-matrons, and for the necessary nurses, and their assistants, and others, fit to be employed for the nourishment and education of such exposed children in proper learning, arts, and mysteries according to their several capacities.
That for the better maintenance and encouragement of so necessa. ry and royal a foundation of charity, it is humbly proposed that by your majesty's royal authority, one fifth part of the voluntary cha. rity, collected or bestowed in any of the parishes within the limits of the weekly bills of mortality, may be annexed for cver to the same, other than such money taxed for the maintenance of the parish poor, collected on briefs by the royal authority, for any particular charitable use.
That likewise, by your majesty's royal authority, the said hospi. tal may have leave to set up in every church, chapel, or publick place