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about to arm themselves, because that would stop the great Lewis in the full career of his conquests, and make his designs to prove abortive. I say again, that it is the great concern of Holland, not to suffer the Spanish Netherlands to be lost, except they desire, at the same time, to become a prey to the usurper. For, how easily will he find an occasion of quarrel with them? and, if all else fail, he will make out his pretensions and right to those provinces, for that they formerly belonged to Mary of Burgundy, Philip the First, Charles the Fifth, and afterwards to Philip the Second, who were, without contest, the lawful possessors thereof, and that, afterwards rebelling, they obtained, by force, an acknowledgment of their being a free state. He will proffer to maintain them in all their liberties and privileges, and the free exercise of their religion, in case they willingly submit to him ; which, if they should hearken to, he will by little and little clip their franchises, and remove all protestants from places of trust, as he has done at home; and, if they yield not willingly, he will attack them with an armed hand, as he did in 1672, being sure the Roman Catholick Princes will not oppose him, because he has blinded their eyes with the false pretence of religion, But, if the house of Austria be not aware betimes of the snares he lays for them under these specious pretexts, they will find them. selves deceived, when it is too late to recall their inadvertency.

To return to the United Provinces, I say, they ought, next to God, not to rely upon any thing so much as their own forces; and having nothing so much to fear as France, they ought to provide and strengthen themselves against his power chiefly, who has, for this great while, been plotting and contriving their final overthrow, or, at least, the bringing of them so low, as to be forced to depend solely upon, and truckle under him. It has some time since been ob. served, that France has had a strong desire to make Holland listen to the proposal and treaty, which the wolf in the fable made with the sheep: away

from you (said the wolf to those harmless crea. tures) your shepherd and dog, and we will make an alliance, and

live in love and amity together. In like manner, says Lewis the Great, Dismiss your general, and disband your old troops; for, ' to what purpose those unnecessary charges in a time of peace; es“pecially being so well assured of our friendship, by the truce. I am • engaged in, and the word of a king, which you may safely rely on,

that we will live in all amity and good correspondence with you?' But what says the Italian: Trust not, if thou would'st not be ! cheated.' So that it is still safest for Holland to rely wholly on its own strength, and to have always a good fleet at sea, to serve for convoy and cruising, besides a reserve in readiness to join them, in case of need. A good navy may well be called the right hand of that

government, being of great use in dispelling many clouds and ill de. signs which France hatcheth against his neighbours. And, if ever the States should come to a resolution, continually to keep in pay. a certain number of seamen, to be ready to be put a-board their men of war, at any time, this would produce a double effect.


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upon occasion (without the expence of trouble and time in raising of them) who, by their continual employment, would be trained up, and well used to the sea, and naval conflicts.

The second is, that by this means they would not fail to draw a great number of seamen from the neighbouring coasts, continual pay being no small encouragement to mariners, to betake themselves to the service of those that offer it, but more especially the States subjects, in foreign service, would not fail to return to their own country, to enjoy the benefit of being maintained all the year

round. To effect which, the States need only to publish a placart, strictly enjoining all seamen, their subjects, in foreign service, to return home. True, indeed, it is, that the navy of France will but be little the better for it; for I dare affirm, they can fit out very few men of war, without putting some Dutch mariners, especially pilots, a-board them, as trusting more to their knowledge and experience than their own, who are often at a loss in long voyages. Which good and whole. some resolution, whenever the States shall be pleased to take, you will presently see the spirit of France strangely exasperated and disturbed, and his ambassador running from one city to another, to represent his master's just reasons against it. But it is hoped, that, as Count D'Avaux has much laid open himself to an obvious discovery, by the small effects his promises have had hitherto, as not being seasoned with the salt of truth and honesty (the main thing that keeps up the credit and reputation of a minister in foreign countries) so he will do nothing but catch cold. However, I cannot deny, but the French king is beholden to that great minister, for his having inspired a fondness for France into the minds of several of the States subjects, which their lordships have no reason to thank him for. Besides this, France receives no small service from the Jesuits, and other foreign priests, residing in the United Provinces, who have pensions allowed them, to pry into, and engage the inclinations of many there. These spies are in the prince's court, where they have friends, by whose means they make a shift to pry into the very secrets of the cabinet. How many of this sort of cattle are there in the States troops and garisons, who have their correspondents at the Hague, where the general office of intelligence is kept, as being the center of that government. This is a thing that ought to be more narrowly looked to, these spies being no other but the emissaries of France, who is always restless, and spares nothing that may further his designs. I remember, that not long since four ducatoons a week were proffered a servant of a deputy of the States, only to report what he heard from his master, at table, or in conversation with others; but the servant, with sharp words, rejected the proffer, as became an honest man.

This instance shews, that France sets upon people every way, and that, therefore, one had need always to stand upon his guard to avoid the blow. I have also observed, that there are another sort of petty spies, that run up and down the chief towns, especially the Hague, daily shifting their ordinaries, except they find occasion to stay longer, and are in prospect of some advantage to be reaped there, of whom those, who are obliged to frequent such houses,

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ought to beware. Others intrude themselves into companies, or resort to the court, and go to see the prince and princess at dinner and supper, to hear and see what is said or done there; and, as soon as they have heard or seen any thing of concern, you see them run like foot. boys to the French ambassador, who, for a reward, invites them to stay and eat with him, he now entertaining scarce any but such at his table. I could name a dozen of them who, to my knowledge, are employed in this way, besides those that do it more secretly, and go to the offering only at night, and through the stable-door.

Count de Caravas, one of these spies of great note, though, in my judgment, of as little use, was not so cautious, who, coming from court, would go into the ambassador's at the fore-door, in_the middle of the day, to communicate to him his collections. Two persons, whom I know to be Jesuits, though in the garb of officers, resort every day to the prince's rising, dinner, and supper, and cons tinually attend the court, where they have so many friends, or at least so much cunning, as to be able to procure their Catholick friends some employment, who are all emissaries of France, and wholly devoted to the service of that king. Others have put themselves to serve even in the kitchen, where such sort of cattle are very dangerous. Therefore, I conclude, that both the States and Prince of Orange ought even in all respects, and at all times, to be very cautious of the wicked and unchristian maxims and designs of France, the king himself being a false and perjured person, who, under pretence of establishing the Roman Catholick religion every where (though by his wicked life and breach of faith he denies all religion) has no other aim, but to extend his dominion to the uttermost bounds of Europe, and to that end to destroy first all the protestant princes, and then the Roman Catholick too, that so he may cause himself to be pro. claimed not the Emperor of the Romans only, but of all Europe; and certain it is, that nothing can serve him as a bridge to the uni. versal monarchy, but Holland, which, from his Versailles, he looks upon with a most envious eye. So that the States and people of those provinces have great reason to mind the advice of our Saviour to the Jews : “Watch, for you know not what hour the thief will come.' To which I add : ' Be ready, therefore, to oppose him when he shall come to break into the house, and usurp his neighbour's territories; and be sure to look upon France as a sworn enemy to republicks, and the plague and scourge of all that will not yield their liberties up to him.'

True it is, he fears the States, more than he loves them; care, therefore, must be taken, to be always in such a condition as may still keep him so, and to make him know himself, whenever he shall so far forget himself, as to meddle with what he has nothing to do. All the remonstrances made by Count d'Avaux, as soon as he sees the States putting themselves in a posture of defence, must not be minded, as being merely upon design ; for we may be sure that minister would not make them, were it not for the promoting of his PHILOSOPHICAL AND MEDICINAL ESSAY




By Pat. Madan, M. D.
Temporibus medicina juvat; data tempore prodest,

Et data non apto tempore Lympha nocet. [From a quarto, containing 26 pages, printed at London, for the

Author, in 1687.)


T was your honour's pleasure to ask my judgment, concerning Tunbridge waters, because I often recommend my patients to them; which, in my opinion, are not inferior in medicinal vertues to any spaw of that kind; for by their effects, which is an * after-demon. stration, they are impregnated with a chalcanthous or vitriolate juice; which, with its sulphureous particles, irritates and moves the belly to a blackish excretion, and, by frequent drinking thereof, black. eneth the tongue, because this member, being of a spongy substance, imbibes some sooty sulphureous minims into its porosity, occasioning this tincture.

Thro' its more subtle piercing chalcanthous spirits, it provokes urine in a plentiful manner.

To these is admixed some ferrugineous juice, that contains a great deal of the volatile salt, which is it that is dissolved in the chalybeate wine, now so much in vogue amongst physicians.

His aquis ferrum inesse videtur in principiis solutis unde eurum vis chalybeuta intimius sanguine permiscetur, & potentius morbos expugnat, quam ferrum quocunque demum artificio nobilitatum.

« These waters seem to contain iron in its unconcrete and seminal principles, whereupon their chalybeate vertue is more intirely mixed with the blood, and more powerfully attacks diseases, than iron prepared to the best advantage can.' Dr. SYDENHAM

Mars in itself consists chiefly of salt, sulphur, and earth. It 'has very little of spirit and water, and particles of the former ele.

ments, especially the sulphureous and saline in the mixt are com.

bined together with earth, remain wholly fixed; but being loosed rand divided from each other (as in these waters) have a very effica. cious energy.

Dr. Willis de Chalybeatis, • Demonstratiro a posteriori.

In them galls shaven, or oak-leaves added ; or, by pouring to them some infusion of tea made in water, they will become of an atro-purpureous colour; to which, instilling some drops of spirit of vitriol, or pouring thereunto some sherry, they become clear again and redintegrate their pristine colour. On the surface of these wa. ters there is a grey film in the morning ; they have a roughness in the mouth ; with them no arsenical vapours are intermixed, but, void of all noxious quality, are limpid and salutiferous; many do daily re. ceive benefit by the use of them, wherefore, by * the concurrence of these appearances, they have the characteristick of a good and whole. some spaw.

As for their vertues and properties in physick, I believe, if there. be any such remedy in being as a panpharmacon, or universal reme. dy, it is here; for even as soap, put to foul linnen with water, purgeth and cleanseth all filth, and maketh them to become white again ; so these waters with their saponary and detersive quality clean all the whole microcosm or body of man from all feculency and impurities. Vid. the first region, hy stool; the second, by urine; the third, by transpiration, sending forth from the center to the circumference many sooty and fetid effluviums, which, in some, colour their shirts blackish; + an observable quantity of this liquid substance, gliding through the inner passages of the bowels, brushes off the peccant humours that stagnate in their proper

chan. nels, and roots out the cause and origin of diseases. The acidulce also dissolve tartarous and viscous matter, and correct the hot indis. position of the liver and kidnies. See the author Fridericus Los. sius in Conciliis Medicis.

Wherefore the use of these waters have deservedly gained a great esteem and reputation in curing many chronick and rebellious dise eases, which are accounted the shame of physicians; for they cure, even to a miracle, such as are quite given over by doctors; they may well be called aquæ vitæ, or waters of life, because they restore men to life, and make them live twice; † to enjoy their former health is to live again, for sickness, and neutrality of health, as the Greeks say, is but Bios ábíclos, to live without life;' wherefore § life is not only to live and breathe, but also to have perfect health; and that is got here by drinking.

# Physicians, when they have tired their miserable amicted pa. tients with tedious and chargeable courses of physick (finding all ways else unsuccessful) at last send them to these waters, which they lay hold of, as a sacred anchor, for they are the most efficacious and powerful remedy against the greatest and most inveterate diseases, by

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• Syndrome phainomenon.

+ Haruin enim substantia liquida notanda quantitas, per intimos viscerum recessus præter Auens, peccantes et in propriis cuniculis stagnantes succos egregie everrit morborumque cau. sain averruncat, materiam iarlaream et viscosam dissolvit : hepatis quoque et renum calidam intemperiem corrigit. • Quia vita priori posse frui est bis vivere.

Non est vivere, sed bene valere, Vita. Mariial.

Ad has aquas medici, prostquain ægros magno et sumptuoso medicamentorum apparatų longo tempore defatigarunt, cum vident res sibi ex voto non succedere, miseros relegant, lan quam ad sacram anchoram; sunt enim efficacissimum et potentissimum remedium ad profii. ganuos gravissimos morbos a Deo concessum, si dextra manu porrigantur, quod poeta ex primit liis versibus,

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