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acquainted with, and its effect upon the growing crop was apparent to the eye before we had reached the locality of the plot.
This plot was manured with 14 tons every year of farm yard dung, costing, at our assumed valuation of $1 per ton, $14 per acre each year. The produce of this plot was an average of 341 bus. of wheat each year, showing the quantity to be increased by the use of the dung, at the average rate of 19 bus. per acre over the average product of the unmanured plotsthis at $1.50 per bus, is $28.50, from which deduct $14 for the dung, and you have $14.50 to the score of profit, and this sum may be regarded wholly as profit, for we have an item of 1,201 lbs. of straw, which is also due to the manure, worth enough, at least, to pay for the difference in labor between the manured and unmanured plots.
We shall find but three better results than this, as to quantity in the whole series of experiments, and those three are only greater in quantity, produced at a rate of outlay for manure which shows a balance against the crop.
. Plot No. 4—Was dressed with superphosphate of lime, $8, and ammonia salts, $25, each of the first eight years of the experiments, since which or during the last ten years it has been unmanured continually.
The product has been 10% bus, of wheat per acre, averaging each year. We find here only one bushel per acre increase over plot No. 20, to compensate for an outlay of $33 per acre for mạnure, the first 8 years of the experiments. Or the 18 years increase being less than the one year's increase on plot No. 2, with farm yard mannre.
We now reach a series of experiments, showing the utility of combination of artificial manures.
Plot No. 5 (a, b)-Was dressed with 200 lbs. of sulphate of potass, $16; 100 lbs. of sulphate of soda, $2; and 100 lbs. of sulphate of magnesia, $3.50, and superphosphate of lime, $8, making in all $29.50, producing an average of 184 bus. of wheat per annum, or an increase of 2; bus., worth $4.13, leaving a loss of $25.37 per annum for manure.
Plot No. 6, (a, b)-Here we have added to the mixed alkalies and superphosphates of the last plot, costing $29.50 the amount of 200 lbs. of ammonia salts, at $25, making a total of $54.50, giving us a product of 271 bushels of wheat, or 114 bushels to the credit of the manure, worth at our assumed price of $1.50 per bushel $17.62, showing a loss in manures of $36.88. It will be observed by comparing the result of this experiment with the last that we get 9 bushels of wheat per acre by the addition of 200 lbs. of ammonia salts, when used in combination with mixed alkalies and superphosphates of lime, whereas in experiment No. 4, when the same amount of ammonia salts was used in combination with superphosphates of lime, for eight years, ard the remainder of the time no manure was used, the increase was only one bushel per acre.
Plot No. 7-On this plot mixed alkalies and superphosphates of lime are used as on 5 and 6, with the addition of 400 lbs, of ammonia salts, all costing $79.50 per acre, and giving a result of 343 bushels of wheat per acre, we have an increase of 74 bushels wheat per acre for the addition of 200 lbs. of ammonia salts, but we have still a nett loss of $27.75 per acre, charged to the manure,
Plot No. 8~Was treated to still another addition of 200 lbs. of ammonia salts, tothe manures of plot No. 7, carrying the salts up to 600 lbs., and the cost up to $104.50 per acre.
The wheat on this plot stood shoulder high to me, perfectly even in all parts of the plot and very thick on the ground. The quantity was 36 bushels wheat per acre, increasing the quantity only 14 bushels per acre by the addition of 200 lbs. of ammonia salts, or raising wheat at a cost of $20 per bushel.
I will now pass on to plot No. 16, where the experiment of adding 200 lbs. more ammonia salts is continued, and 800 lbs per acre applied, producing an increase over plot No. 8, of one bushel of wheat. Here we get an average of 37 bushels wheat per acre, which is the maximum average product; but it must be recollected that this last bushel of wheat has cost us $25 per bushel, for each of the last 18 years, a luxury that could not be indulged in among practical farmers. This plot was manured with the same kind and quantity of manure as produced the maximum crop of hay.
Plot No. 9, (a)-We have the mixed alkalies and superphosphates of lime as above, costing $29.50, and 550 lbs. nitrate of soda costing $60.50, making a total of $90.00 per acre. The product of wheat falls off to 311 bushels, or less than is produced by the 400 lbs. of ammonia salts, and leaving a loss of $42.75 per acre chargeable to the manure.
Plot No. 9, (6)—Leaves out the superphosphates of lime and the mixed alkalies, and retains the 550 lbs. of nitrate of soda, reducing the cost of manure to $60.50 per acre, and reducing the crop from 31į bushels down to 244 bushels per acre, and still showing a loss chargeable to manure of $24.12.
Plot No. 10, (a)-No alkalies and no superphosphates of lime since 1844, dressed since that time with 400 lbs. of ammonia salts, costing $50 per acre, Result, 21 bushels wheat per acre.
Plot No. 10, (b)-Mixed alkalies and superphosphates of lime in 1844, 48 and 50, and 400 lbs. ammonia salts each year, gave a product of 254 bushels per acre. Here is an average increase of 4 bushels per acre for each year as the result of the alkalies and superphosphates applied in three of the 18 years of experiment. The 3 years cost of alkalies and superphosphates would be $118.50, and the 18 years increase of wheat of 4 bushels per acre is worth $108, showing still a balance on the wrong side.
Plot No. 11-On this plot the mixed alkalies were omitted. The superphosphate of lime and 400 lbs. of ammonia salts was used, costing $58, producing 28 bushels 'of wheat. By comparing this result with that of. No. 7, it will be seen that we lose 64 bushels of wheat per acre by dropping the use of the mixed alkalies in the combination of inanures; whereas plot No. 1 shows that, with twice the quantity of mixed alkalies that we have here omitted, an increase of only one-half of a bushel of wheat per acre was produced. Such comparisons demonstrate the utility of the combination between the alkalies and mineral manures.
Plot No. 12-Substitutes 55 lbs. of sulphate of soda in the place of 562 lbs. of mixed alkalies. Applying the superphosphate of lime and ammonia salts, as in No. 11, the result was 33} bushels per acre, showing a loss of
only one quarter and a bushel by the change in alkalies. It is, however, a nett gain, as we have lessened the cost of manure $20 per acre.
Plot No. 13–Substitutes 300 lbs. sulphate of potass for the 562 lbs. mixed alkalies, using other manures as above. The result is 33 bushels wheat per acre.
Plot No. 14-Substitutes 420 lbs. of sulphate of magnesia for the 562 lbs. of mixed alkalies, using the other manures as above, and produces 33į bus. wheat per acre.
The three last experiments seem to prove that the plain alkalies are as useful as the mixed alkalies; also that the cheaper sorts may be used, thereby saving cost without diminishing quantity of crop.
14.70 Each of the above quantities possessing equal value to the others as fertilizers, and either possessing within 14 bushels wheat per acre of as much value as the 562 lbs. of mixed alkalies, which cost $31.
Plot No. 15 a—Is dressed with mixed alkalies, superphosphate of lime, and 400 lbs. of ammonia salts, the same as No. 7, with the exception that in preparing the superphosphate of lime, hydrochloric acid is substituted instead of the sulphuric acid; and this change scems to result in a loss of 24 bushels of wheat per acre, the product being 32 bushels per acre, while that of 7 was 34 bushels per acre.
Plot No. 15 b—Is dressed with alkalies and superphosphates, the same as 15 a, with 300 lbs. of ammonia salts and 500 lbs. of rape cake, and produces 333 bushels wheat per acre.
Plot No. 19—Is dressed the same as 15 b, excepting the mixed alkalies, which are omitted. The result of the omission was the loss of 24 bushels of wheat; the product being 31 bushels wheat per acre.
Plots No. 17 and 18 were dressed with the mixed alkalies and superphosplates, in alternation with the ammonia salts; that is: where No. 17 gets the alkalies and super-phosphates, No. 18 gets the 400 lbs. of ammonia salts, and vice versa.
The result is an average of thirty-one and three-quarter bushels of wheat per acre for the ammonia salts, and an average of eighteen and three-quarter bushels per acre for the alkalies and superphosphates.
It must be observed that the ammonia salts has been aided by its alternation with the alkalies and phosphates, to the amount of an average of ten and three-quarter bushels per acre, as will be seen by referring to plot No 10, (a). where the same quantity of ammonia salts, used alone, produced only twenty-one bushels per acre; whereas, the alkalies and superphosphates seem to have borrowed only a half bushel per acre from the alternation with the ammonia salts, as is proved by reference to plot No. 5 (a, b.)
Plot No. 21—Is dressed with mixed alkalies and superphosphates, as above, with 100 lbs. muriate of ammonia instead of 400 lbs. of ammonia salts. Result, twenty-one and three-quarter bushels wheat per acre.
Plot No. 22—Is dressed with the mixed alkalies and superphosphates, with 100 lbs. sulphate of ammonia, instead of the 400 lbs. of ammonia salts, with a result of twenty-one bushels wheat per acre.
We have now got through with the several wheat experiments, and it will be noticed that if we are anywhere near correct in our assumed prices of the chemical or mineral manures used, they all result in losses, and the farm yard alone furnishes a manure which yields a profit to the farmer.
This important fact, so clearly demonstrated by the most careful and longest continued series of experiments that we have any record of, should impress upon the minds of our farmers the value of stock as an auxiliary in the production of grain.
In passing from the wheat to the barley experiments, we find the same general results as we have noted above, and I shall therefore not trouble you with a detailed examination of the barley experiments. They were commenced in 1852, and had been continued ten years on the same · land when we examined the growing crop. The average product of the unmanured plots, was twenty-three and a half bushels of barley per acre each year.
The plot dressed with the ashes of burnt soil, turf and weeds, produced twenty-four bushels per acre. Superphosphate of lime produced twentyeight bushels per aére. Mixed alkalies produced twenty-four and threequarter bushels per acrc. Ammonia salts produced thirty-three and a half bushels per acre. Farm yard manure produced forty-five bushels per acre; and a combination of salts, alkalies and superphosphates produced fifty bushels per acre—the maximum crop. The same degree of neatness and careful culture was observed in the barley field, that characterised the wheat experiments, and the exactness in all the details connected with this series of experiments, renders them more reliable and of greater value to the farmer than any which we have previously known of; and we shall watch the future experiments of Messrs. Lawes & Gilbert with great interest and entire confidence in the results which they may announce.
Returning from the fields to the mansion, the party were seated at table, where an ample and substantial repast had been prepared, and to which full justice was done.
The dinner closed with congratulatory remarks from several gentlemen to Messrs. Lawes & Gilbert, for their marked success in the Rothamsted experiments, which was followed by responses from those gentlemen, after which the party took leave of their kind hosts, and departed for the railway station, highly gratified with the pleasures and profits of the day's excursion.
PROPAGATION OF NATIVE GRAPES.
BY 8. J. PARKER, M. D., ITHACA, TOMPKINS COUNTY, N. Y.
[Copy-right secured to the Author.] Grapes are multiplied by various methods. A piece of a vine, sțnck in the ground, in certain parts of the country, is almost sure to grow. Dividing of roots makes two or three vines out of one. Seedlings are more apt to produce vines bearing fruit than barren vines; but they are not the same, usually, as the seed sown. Seeds of the grape at the north start well, but most of them die during the first season, unless kept for a year under glass. Foreign vines grow under glass easily, from one bud or “eye,” as it is called. Native grapes require a much higher heat than foreign vines, in the single eye propagation. Foreign buds may be weeks on the propagation table, and then, by suitable heat at the bottom, or under them, grow well. Native buds must grow soon on the table, or they will usually die.
What is wanted for our natives is a good well-understood system, which we hope, to secure by this article. In most sections of the country vineyards cannot be set with cuttings with success. One and two year old roots must be used. We fear that beyond a few indefinite ideas, the mass of the public have few, if any, opinions on multiplying or propagating grapes. It ought to be added that it is well known that if a branch of a vine is laid down and covered at a given point, cr a number of them, it will take root where covered. And the public appreciate the value of “layers" by the prices paid for them. But improved methods of layering are not practiced by very many.
For the multiplication of vines rapidly and easily, on the large scale, nothing compares with the propagation house, for ultimate success. These structures, unlike graperies and hot houses, or conservatories, are necessarily humble structures, admitting of taste and ornament, it is true, yet as well, or better, without them. Their principal utility is in the cooler months of the year; and hence they need so much protection from frost and cold as to require them to be placed very much in the earth, with but little height above ground. Practically, they may be dismissed from the list of ornamental structures, and be put on that of the useful ones only, save when wealthy individuals shall choose to make thenı otherwise, or the State or National Departments of agriculture shall, wi h the wealth and taste due to a vast territory, to be stocked with the best products, combine utility and adornment in becoming architectural proportions. A grapery on the other hand is usually for use in the warmer months of the year,