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from 4,000,000 pounds, which is more than the whole crop of the United States for 1850, and almost one-half of the product of the State in 1860. An interest so important for the welfare of the county, demands that we take every precaution to preserve the crop from injury, and the presence of Dr. Fitch, the State Entomologist, among us at times, during the growth of the crop the coming season, might be of great benefit.
The success of cheese factories in the great dairy region of central New York, has been so marked as to lead to their establishment wherever the dairies are of suflicient size to admit of the proper concentration. This is not the case, as yet, generally throughout the county, but the continued success of the principle will doubtless lead to a considerable increase in this direction, pariicularly as the culture of hops and the manufacture of cheese has been found to be a profitable combination.
The potato crop, although not a source of revenue to the farmer beyond the demand for home consumption, is yet of too much importance to be liglıtly passed by, especially in this present season of scarcity in this region. The Trout potato, the old stand-by, almost entirely failed in 1863, and had it not been for the introduction of that valuable variety, the Garnet Chili, a few years since, the potato famine would have been the result. Should the present superiority of this variety continue, it must soon take the place of all others.
The production of wheat in a strictly agricultural county like Otsego, is not what it should be. By the census of 1860, the amount raised in the county would not supply the inhabitants with one-half of their requirements in flour, leaving a deficiency, at the present price, of about $300,000, to be paid out of the county for the "staff of life." Nearly or quite all of this amount would be saved by a juclicious cultivation of this important staple.
To return to the more immediate matter in hand, the welfare of our society, and through it to the improvement and advancement of all departments of agriculture in the county; the board of managers have to report that owing to the success of the past year, the society is very nearly freed from debt, and they have it in contemplation to further increase the facilities and adaptation of the grounds for the purposes to which they are devoted, until all the requirements are fully met; and also to extend and increase the premiums from time to time, as may excite a proper emulation in the various classes.
Since our re-organization on the present basis, but few societies in the State have been more prosperous than our own, and with continued efforts in the right direction wc may hope for successful progress with each returning fair.
G. POMEROY, President.
F. W. JOHNSON, Treasurer.
QUEENS. In the "Olden Times,” perhaps no season of the year was received with 80 much public rejoicing, as that, when the tiller of the soil celebrated his "Harvest Home" -- when the enriching products of the year's toil were safely gathered for future use—when t.se husbandman, sensible of his de
pendence on Divine Providence, poured forth his hymn of gratitude for mercies past, and future good in store.
We celebrate the same, not by rearing altars to ancient deities, or wild orgies, but by our annual festivals—by meetings for mutual congratulations, showing our yearly progress; in friendly competition for premiums in the arts connected with husbandry and mechanics; in diffusing new ideas, and guiding the youth of our country to further advancement in everything laudable connected with this noble calling, and by returning public thanks to an all wise Creator, for the blessings of the year.
When we consider that our country has been suffering for two years the burdens of a stupendous war, that the energies of the people had been fixed on warlike plans, and a large number of cur sons inured to military avocations, we are thankful that an occasion like our annual gatherings gives an opportunity to testify to the wealth-the developed prosperity and latent resources of Old Queens; and taking all circumstances into consideration, we are extremely grateful that the last exhibition, both as regards entries, attendance and receipts, will compare favorably with the best year in the history of the society.
It is also pleasing to record, that while many societies are degenerating to mere horse shows, and, although several special premiums have been donated to our society for trotting horses, the judges, with commendable decision, ruled out horses whose only qualifications were a 2.40 gait, enforcing our rules, "that mere speed, unattended with the requisites of hardiness and endurance, is of no consequence in an economical view, and should not be encouraged."
The twenty-second annual exhibition was held in the village of Hempstead, on October first and second, 1863. The arrangements were very complete, and gave general satisfaction.
The show of horses was in excess of former years, The premiums were arranged in twelve classes, in one of which forty-eight entries were made. The owners of the celebrated horses “Ethan Allen," “Honest Allen,” “ "Gen. Butler," "Columbia" and mate, and other noted horses, exhibited their valuable stock gratuitously, as a compliment to the President of the society, an act highly appreciated by the large concourse present.
The exhibition of cattle, sheep and swine was less than usual, but choice. The Alderney cattle of ex-Governor King, William P. Douglas, Benjamin L. Swan, Jun., William S. Messenger, and R. E. Thorne, elicited much remark.
The display of vegetables was finer and greater than on previous exhibitions. T. D. Cocks, of Locust Valley, showed 124 varieties, including 25 varieties of squashes. The first premium was awarded to F. E. Smith, of Glen Cove, for the best display for table use.
The Glen Cove Farmer's Club made a fine display of fruit and vegetables; the latter occupying more than 200 feet of table room. The Farmers' Club of Flushing made their debut on this occasion, which was extremely creditable, and carried off the first premium for the best and greatest varieties of potatoes. The show of fruit was very superior, and when we state that the exhibi[Ag. Trans.]
tors were all amateurs, the credit is still greater. Over one thousand plates were filled, and several entries had to be placed on the tables without plates. Samuel T. Taber, of Roslyn, received the first premium for native grapes, and John Brownson, of South Oyster Bay, for grapes grown under glass, who exhibited sixteen varieties; among them a bunch of Muscat Alexandria, weighing seven pounds, and other varieties weighing from two to four pounds.
The ladies of the county, and especially of the village of Hempstead, made uncommon effort in a great variety of needle and fancy work, which commanded an unusual share of commendation.
The twenty-second anniversary of the society thus closed, satisfactory to all; not a single complaint was recorded by the numerous exhibitors.
THE WINTER MEETING
Was held at the Court House, on Monday, November 230, 1863, and was viewed with great satisfaction by a large number of spectators, who seemed to be of opinion, that in the quantity and quality of the articles on exhibition, this was decidedly the best display of the series of winter exhibitions. The poultry department was of superior excellence. A pair of turkies exhibited by Joseph Curtis, of North Hempstead, and weighing 54 lbs., attracted much attention, as did several pairs of spring chickens, by B. Hendrickson, of Hempstead, weighing 14 lb. per pair; and a fine display of all kinds of poultry by Benj. Wiggins, Jr., of Flushing. The fattening and dressing indicated a thorough knowledge of the best processes.
The vegetable department was well represented, and most of the articles were of superior excellence, and elicited the highest encomiums. The fruit and grain departments presented interesting features. Winter wheat weighing 63 lbs.; spring wheat, 61 lbs; rye, 58} lbs.; barley, 50 lbs.; corn, 61 lbs.; and buckwheat 53 lbs. per bushel. The grain was all measured in a sealed half-bushel and weighed by the judges.
On the whole, the exhibition and the proceedings passed off in the most happy manner, as may be inferred from the unanimity which marked the re-election of all the old officers, and the very complimentary resolutions which were passed by an overflowing representation of the members of the Society.
ESSAY. The special committee, to whom was referred the Essay on Practical Asparagus culture, by Daniel K. Youngs, of Locust Valley, report that they have examined the same, and find it really a practical article, and recommend a special premium of ten dollars, and the essay to be published in the Transactions of the Society.
FIELD CROPS. Statement of a crop of Rye raised by David Vandergaw, of Jamaica,
on two acres, three roods, and 13 9-10 rods of land, as per survey. (No manure used.)
The farm is situated at Springfield. The soil was in good condition. The previous crop was potatoes, manured with cow-yard manure, at the rate of about twenty two-horse wagon loads to the acre. The present crop of
rye had no manure of any kind whatever. It was sown about the first of October, 1862, the quantity of secd used was about two bushels to the
Statement of a crop of Onions raised by Jacob Smith, of Center Island, town
of Oysterbay, on 1 acre, 3 roods, 5 12-100 rods, as per survey-Value of
PROCEEDINGS OF MEETING FOR AGRICULTURAL DISCUSSION, ORGANIZED AT THE
ANNUAL MEETING OF THE QUEENS COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, NOVEMBER
Mr. Youngs commenced the meeting by adducing the following statistics, compiled from the agricultural report of Queens county, for 1862, made to the State Agricultural Society.
Land under cultivation in the town of Oysterbay, 42,135 acres ; of this, 10,632 acres were manured over in 1862, or about one-quarter of the whole, as follows, viz: with
Equal to about 9 loads to each head of cattle.
Average value of manure per acre $16.90 before being carted from the yards where made, or from place of deposit where bought, $180,000; or $4.26 the first cost of manure annually given to each acre of cultivated land in the town of Oysterbay. Flushing has under cultivation...
Each of these towns from the larger proportion in market garders, use
Taking the value of manure used in the county in round numbers to be $1,000,000, as our capital, and divide it among the 5,000 owners of the soil, and we have it in 200 dollar shares, so that the proportion of every individual owner is to the amount of $200 annually. Of course it is not so divided, for all who are really farmers or gardeners are interested to a much greater extent.
Mr. Youngs made some remarks concerning the subject under discussion, relating to burying the manure deep so as to prevent its evaporation, deprecating the practice from his actual experience and observation.
R. E. Thorne, of Little Neck, said that he had been surprised at articles that bad appeared in our agricultural papers, relative to farmers keeping their manure under sheds. He said a neighbor of his was accustomed to spread his manure on, and to allow it to remain exposed to the atmosphere until he was ready to plow it under. He is an excellent farmer and very successful in his agricultural operations. Mr. Thorne believed that the idea of housing manure was all ideal to him, and more theoretical than practical.
Mr. S. T. Jackson, of Woodbury, advocated burying the manure deep and then to plow it upon the surface, thus mixing it thoroughly with the soil.