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opon it, apply salt liberally "inside and out,” stretch upon a hoop or stick, hang with open side up, keep in air, but from wet until dry. (Age improves them.) I put 15 rennets, thus saved, into a 100 pound tub and fill with strong brine, let them remain five or six days, rub them thoroughly between my hands, in the brine, and put them into another tub of same size and fill this tub with brine as before. The brine of first tub is “prepared rennet,” the second tub (brine) will be equally good after two week's standing. · I use Roe's Patent Vat and Heater; skim milk in the morning, put the cream into the strainer through which the morning's milk passes and it is carried back into the vat by this process; raise temperature of milk for reception of rennet to 83° by heating water around vat by apparatus below, use thermometer, use one quart of “prepared rennet,” as above described, to 4,000 pounds of milk; her have never failed to produce a desirable curd by this treatment; required from fifty to seventy-five minutes to change to curd; cut curd with curd-knife; commence immediately to give it moderate motion by the introduction of hands, at same time raising temperature to 88°, draw off say one-third of the whey; squeeze the curd between flattened bands until I believe it has all been handled, for the purpose of breaking "white caps” to prevent porosity in cheese; this done, increase the scald to 98°, keeping curd and whey in constant motion by use of rake and hands; continue this process and temperature until the curd is sufficiently cooked; time required varying from one to five hours, to be determined only by an experienced manufacturer; usually, however, about two and one-half hours; reduce temperature to 90°; dip out curd into sink, drain off whey, then salt, use two and a-half pounds factory filled salt to 1000 pounds of milk; put curd to press cold, color with annatto by putting it in milk before rennet is used, press three hours, take out, bandage and return, then press about sixteen hours; use hand-screw press, use about 30,000 pounds pressure to 150 pounds of cheese; cheese average 140 pounds; use whey butter for oiling; use it daily for three to four days on cheese directly from press; afterwards occasionally, keep them in covers placed upon racks in curing room, standing twenty-two inches from floor, heat of room tempered to 70°, turn cheese daily, feed whey to calves and hogs; principally the latter; keep a strict dairy account; should have stated that milk is cooled at night by a constant current of spring water passing around and under the milk vat. It may be proper to state that this dairy has been manufactured with the express view of meeting the demand of a foreign market, and it has been purchased for the purpose of transportation, the amount to be made to November, being included in the last sale, at 12 5-8 cents per pound.
I certify the foregoing statement to be just and true.
STATEMENT FOR THIRD PRIZE. Commenced to make cheese May 3d. I had the milk from 49 cows up to June 1st, after that 60 up to July 1st; we had 55,148 pounds of milk; made 6,1275 pounds of green cheese; sold 5,536 pounds dry cheese; nine pounds of milk made one pound green cheese; ten pounds milk made one pound of dry cheese; as I work up the milk for my neighbors, I shall not be able to give a correct statement of the amount of pasture or meadow
on which the cows are kept; I use one of Cooper's improved vats; cool the milk by putting cold water under at night, and heating the same in the morning; heat milk for the reception of rennet from 80 to 86 degrees, according to the weather; takes from 30 to 50 minutes to bring chcese; I heat up to 98 degrees, and it usually takes two hours to cook; use quarter pound of salt to 10 pounds of curd, unless it changes in the whey, then salt according to judgment; put curd to press as soon as cool; use one of Taylor's presses; press 24 hours; bandage cheese when it comes from press the last time; turn cheese every day; color with annatto before the milk is set; feed the whey to hogs; sold cheese for 11 cents.
U. O. ANDRUS. WATERTOWN, September 19, 1863.
No. 1. Our dairy consists of 23 cows.
No. 19. We weighed our butter and salt into a measure, now we use the measure.
No. 20. We pack into hundred pound tubs.
No. 23. The butter remains through the season in the cooler part of the cellar,
No. 24. After packing, the butter is covered with salt and kept nnder brine.
No. 25. 170 pounds last year.
ABRAM BULL. August 25, 1863.
MANNER OF MAKING BUTTER. I have thirty-five cows in my dairy; they feed upon from seventy to eighty acres; pasture seeded with timothy and clover; it takes from thirty to thirty-five acres of meadow to winter cows; my hay is timothy and clover; I feed no grain or roots to my cows; my usual average yield is one hundred and seventy pounds per cow; I strain milk into twelve quart pans, fill a pan half; my milk room is above ground, shaded on the south and west sides; milk stands until thick, then it is skimmed, the cream put into a tin cooler, set in the cellar; usually churn every morning; if the weather is warm I chop ice fine and put in, to prevent it from getting warm while churning; use a dash churn; when the butter is churned and thoroughly gathered, it is taken out and placed in a butter-working churn, where it is rinsed until entirely free from buttermilk; it is then salted, three-quarters of an ounce of salt to one pound of butter; the butter is then packed in bundred weight tubs, prepared by soaking with brine; it is then placed in the cellar, covered with salt about one-half inch thick, where it remains during the season without any more care, only to see that the salt is well packed around the edges of the tubs. My average yield last year was one hundred and sixty-three pounds per cow. I have made one hundred and twenty pounds thus far this season. The foregoing statement I certify to be just and true.
SIMEON ROCKWELL. WATERTOWN, September 19, 1863.
1st. I have 14 cows in my dairy, with 36 acres of pasture; variety of grass, timothy, red and white clover; 20 acres of meadow; feed timothy, red and white clover; feed corn-meal in spring; usual average per cow 170 pounds; strain my milk in ten quart pans, two-thirds full; stands in milk room in fall and spring, and in cellar during warm weather; in summer 48 hours; cream churned as soon as skimmed; do not stir cream before churning; use common dash churn; buttermilk is drawn from churn; butter is washed in cold well water until water is clear; do not use a butterworker; butter not worked before packing; use Ashton salt; use one ounce to the pound; weigh butter and salt before mixing; butter packed in 100 pound ash tubs; tub soaked 24 hours, and then rubbed with salt; packed with ladle; early made butter remains in cellar during the season; butter covered with cloth and wet salt; average yield per cow last year was 170 pounds; made 110 pounds per cow thus far this season; feed sour milk to bogs and calves; the soil of my farm is black muck and loam; keep dairy account. The foregoing statement I certify to be just and true.
AB'M ARCHER. RUTLAND, August 25, 1863.
Officers 1864.—Daniel Parker, President, Watertown; A. P. Sigourney, Secretary, Watertown; J. P. Tyler, Treasurer, Watertown.
MILK AND ITS COMPOUND. Address by J. Stanton Gould, delivered before the Jefferson County Agricul
tural Society, September 30, 1863. There are few articles of food which contribute more to our comfort than those which are derived from the various products of the dairy. Especially is good butter essential to the daily comfort of our lives; even the poorest members of the community, who do not expect to indulge in luxuries, are discontented and uncomfortable if they cannot have butter to spread upon their daily bread.
We have all too much cause to testify that really good sweet butter is the exception rather than the rule in our markets; but a small proportion of that which comes upon our tables possesses the delicate aroma of the clovers, the grasses and the wild-flowers which bloom in our pastures and in our meadows, but rather seems like the concentrated essence of our barn-yards, repulsive alike to the senses of taste and smell. .
The production of good cheese and butter is no more costly or laborious than that of poorer articles; all that is needed to produce an abundant supply of the best products is knowledge, tact, and well-directed industry. · Dairy productions are of great pecuniary value in the State of New York and in the county of Jefferson. Your stake in these articles is so great, the amount of your capital and labor invested in cows and pastures and meadows is so large, that you cannot afford to be ignorant or careless with respect to anything which can augment the annual product of your dairies or improve their quality.
The State of New York produces annually 90,293,373 pounds of butter, which, at 20 cents a pound, is worth $18,058,654. It produces 38,944,249 pounds of cheese, which, at 8 cents a pound, is worth $3,115,389. It sells 20,963,861 gallons of milk in our large cities, which, at 8 cents a gallon, is worth $1,677,268. The amount of milk not sold, but consumed in the families of producers, cannot be less than $800,000. The total value, therefore, of milk, butter, and cheese in the State of New York is $23,651,261, a sum exceeding by ten millions of dollars the total expenditure of the Government of the United States during the Presidency of John Quincy Adams.
Of this great aggregate, Jefferson county furnishes 3,949,608 pounds of butter, worth $789,921; 2,819,459 pounds of cheese, worth $225,536; and she sells 192,192 gallons of milk, worth $15,375 without taking into account the value of the pork which she makes from her whey and buttermilk, or the amount of milk consumed by her farmers and their families. The annual receipts from the dairies of Jefferson county is $1,030,852, which far exceeds the whole revenue of the State of New York under the Governship of George Clinton.
Jefferson stands in the fourth rank of butter-producing counties. Chenango exceeds her by 40,956 pounds. Delaware by 76,967 pounds, and St. Lawrence by 319,201 pounds.
She stands third in rank among her sister counties in the production of cheese. Oneida exceeds her production of this article 491,655 pounds, and Herkimer 6,249,161 pounds.
Fifteen counties in the State surpass ber number of gallons of milk sold in the market.
She owns more cows than any county in the State except St. Lawrence, which exceeds her by 2,689 head; but Jefferson has one cow to six acres of grass land, while St. Lawrence has but one cow to seven acres of grass land. In proportion to the land, you are therefore more deeply interested in milk and its products than she is, or than any other county in the State.
If we assume that five gallons of milk yield one pound of butter, and that one gallon of milk gives one pound of cheese, the amount of milk produced annually is 22,760,091 gallons, or 460 gallons as the average yield of milk from each cow in the county. It is very important for you to observe that this is 90 gallons less than the average production of cows in England and Scotland, and 136 gallons less than the average flow from 50 cows kept on the farm of Zadoc Pratt, in Greene county, for five consecutive years.
It is believed that the average yield of butter in the county of Jefferson does not exceed 115 pounds per cow, and the cheese from each cow is about
450 pounds. It may be that I am mistaken in these estimates; if so, you · are well able to correct me; but from the best information I can obtain, the production is quite as likely to be overrated as it is to be underrated.
From what has been said, it is very clear that you are not obtaining anything like the amount of revenue from your own cows that many others are. The great practical object before you is to increase the number of pounds of butter and cheese from your cows; if you can succeed in increasing this amount to the extent of 50 per cent., you will add something over half a million dollars to the revenue of your county, which is a prize well worth striving for.
Is it beyond your power to accomplish this result? Is the task altogether a hopeless one? By no means. Well proved facts demonstrate that it is quite within the compass of your ability.
I have myself seen a dairy of six cows which yielded on an average 250 lbs. of butter per annum, which is more than 100 per cent. in advance of your production. Zadoc Pratt's cows, 50 in number, gave 130 lbs, of butter each, in 1857, and 161 lbs. in 1858. In 1859 they averaged 166 lbs. In 1860 the average rose to 182 lbs., and 1861, it amounted to 207 lbs.
I beg you to observe that in each succeeding year there was a largely increased production over its predecessor--that the average production for the fifth year exceeded that of the first by 61 per cent., and that it exceeded your average production in Jefferson county by 89 per cent. These facts ought to incite you to a great deal of thought, and to a most earnest inquiry whether you cannot, by the adoption of similar means, secure equivalent results.
Many of you have heard of the wonderful Cramp cow, so called from her owner, a Mr. Cramp, of Lewes, England. She is of the Sussex breed, and was calved in 1799. During the four years from 1805 to the end of the year 1808, she yielded the astonishing amount of 23,559 quarts of milk, from which 2,132 pounds of butter were obtained. During the five years from 1805 to 1810, she yielded from 450 to 675 pounds of butter per year; the largest quantity was afforded in 51 weeks and 4 days, from April 6th, 1807, to April, 1808. The greatest quantity of butter she afforded in any