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Total acres under cultivation exclusive of pasture..... 1,093,600 Being 42 per cent of the improved land. But there is still the large fraction of 17 per cent. of the improved land not yet accounted for. It will he found principally included in the orchards and nurseries which occupy, in the aggregate, a large quantity of land in this group.

$3,683,912

51,112

VEGETABLE PRODUCTS AND THEIR VALUE.
Hay, acres....

460,486
Grass seed, bushels ....

25,556 Spring wheat, bushels...

211,654 Winter wheat, do

5,054,902
do

6,028,417
Rye,
do

85,525
Barley,
do

1,965,441
Buckwheat, do

283,490
Corn,
do

6,333,144
Peas,

119,991 Beans,

97,575

Oats,

264,568 6,317,491 4,822,755

64,420 1,572,353

71,744 5,066,515

95,993 195,150

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The average annual value of the vegetable products per acre of the improved land, exclusive of pasture, is $15.50 per acre.

The aggregate annual grain product is 17 bushels of all kinds per acre for the land upon which it was grown.

Oxen.......

ANIMALS, AND VALUE OF THEIR PRODUCTS.
Neat cattle, total number .....

347,959
Under one year old ...

61,406 Over two years old, exclusive of working oxen and cows.. 118,382

18,382 Cows..

149,694 Killed for beef..

30,773 Horses.....

142,377 142,377 Mules ....

273 273 Sheep.

1,054,871 Sheep, shorn ....

916,747 Reducing sheep to an equivalent of cattle or horses, at 7 to 1, they are equal to ......

150,640 Whole number of cattle or their equivalent.....

641,249

The aggregate of improved land to cattle is one to two acres, and one eow to six acres. The disproportion of cows to horses is a marked feature in the animals of this group.

The proportion of cows to aggregate stock is 24 per cent., and of all the cows in the State is 14 per cent.; but of the neat cattle of the group it is 44 per cent. Swine under six months...

114,565 Swine over six months.

143,137

Total swine....

257,702

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ANIMAL PRODUCTS AND THEIR VALUE.
Wool, lbs

3,538,374
Butter, lbs...

13,526,935 Cheese, lbs..

2,002,660 Milk, galls..

1,237,360 Value of poultry sold.

188,907 Value of eggs sold...

259,883 Total value of poultry sold.

$1,415,339
2,039,040
200,266
98,988

448,730

Total value of animal products exclusive of animals sold.... $4,202,363 To this sum should be added for the value of swine over six months, which represent the surplus sold, viz., 143,137, at $10.....

$1,431,370
Also of tho cattlo killed, which was 30,773, at $20......

615,460
One-third of the cattle over 1 year, may be assumed as sold, ex-
clusive of those killed for beef, viz., 39,400, at $20.

789, 200
One-tenth of the horses, 14,238...

427,140 One-fourth of sheep, 263,620 head, at $2.........

527,240 Total value of annual surplus of animal products ....... $7,993,775

As this is a grain growing group, there should be added to the annual products the surplus arising from wheat, barley, rye and beans; and as it is a fruit growing region, the surplus of the orchard should also be added.

The value of surplus products, then, besides those from animals, would be: Wheat, spring and winter...

$6,582,059 Barley.....

1,965,441 Rye

64,420 Beans

195,150 Flax seed and lint.

123,521 Hops

12,143 Apples and cider

474,481 Market gardens

80,998 Grass seed....

51,112

Total vegetable surplus.....
Add animal surplus......

Total value of surplus products of agriculture.....

$9,549,224
7,993,775

$17,542,999

Which is equal to $6.75 per acre of the improved land of the group, making the annual revenue of the farm $405.00, or nearly 8 per cent upon the capital invested.

AGRICULTURE.

The agriculture of this group may be termed mixed husbandry, as nearly all the land is capable of successful cultivation in wheat, and all the other grains yield profitable returns. The surplus principally depended upon for revenue is grain; winter wheat is the staple crop, and barley is the next most important one. Rye is grown to some extent as a staple, but only in the vicinity of large towns, where the straw forms a profitable product for the market.

The system generally adopted by the best class of farmers is to manure as well as they can, a clover sod which is turned over for corn, followed by oats and winter wheat, and sceded with clover and herds-grass. Plaster is used extensively upon the clover; manure is also applied to the wheat when sown, if it be in the yard; and some farmers pile their manure, wbich is more or less of straw, in the spring, and cart it upon the wheat when sown in the fall.

The animals which are the most onerally kept are sheep, horses and hogs. The necessity of more attention to manure has compelled the adoption of a system that keeps less land under the plow and more in clover and grass, and cattle are being kept in much larger numbers than formerly; and albeit the farmers do make money from their farms, they by no means make as much as they ought with so rich a soil and so great facilities for markets. Their lands do not present the same advantages for permanent pasture as upon a soil less calcareous, more elevated, and consequently more moist.

The plan now gradually growing into favor, of abandoning the fallow system, or plowing in a crop of clover for a crop of wheat, and adopting the systein of, 1st, corn; 2d, oats; 3d, wheat and seeds, and mowing or pasturing until the clover becomes less luxuriant, is that from which most money can be taken from the land, and its fertility not only maintained but increased. But it can only be made to produce these results in the highest degree by winter stall-feeding, either of sheep or cattle.

If the coarse grains be consumed upon the farm, and by their consumption with oil meal, the straw and offal of the farm be converted into manure, the clover consumed by the stock in the yard rather than upon the ground, or plowed in as grain manure, a system will be perfected that must add largely to the profits of the farmer, especially if the land be well drained when it is too wet for early cultivation. Much of the land in this group requires draining, and in no other portion of the State can farmers better afford to completely under-drain their clay lands.

There are certain facts operating upon their system of farming, as heretofore followed, which it would be well for them to heed. Their vegetable products fetch but a trifle more tvan they did twenty years ago--perhaps many articles not so much, whereas animals or animal products have nearly or quite doubled in the same time, and many nearly or quite quadrupled. Any system, therefore, which does not recognize this great fact, becomes more or less defective in its proper or desired results.

The remarks heretofore made in regard to the effect of markets upon agriculture apply to this group with peculiar force, and properly pondered will add largely to the wealth of the considerate farmer.

By an examination of the tables it will be seen that sheep are the pre. vailing stock of this group, there being a trifle over two acres of cultivated land to a sheep, while in none of the others does it fall below four, and in some exceeds six acres to one. But it will also be noticed that the dairy is not successful here, for while in the adjoining group only eleven acres are required for a cow, here it is seventeen to one. Nor is the proportion of land in tillage to that in grass less remarkable, the grass being only forty-one per cent of the improved land, the pasture being twenty-four per oent, and the meadow only seventeen per cent..

Comparing sheep and cows with this and the adjoining, or Vth Group, we find in this group 260 sheep and 37 cows to the square mile of improved land, and in the other 59 cows and 144 sheep to the same surface.

GROUP VI. TABLE A.-- Agricultural Statistics from Stite Census of 1855.

$22,185,009

$6,012,887

648,477

RYE.

BARLEY.

2,746
1,766
1,657
1,886
2,678
3,493
2,133
1,524
5,098
2,126

449

2,485

850
1,922

182

352
7,197
3,177

192
1,229

263
2,624

27,327
11,154
18,025
2,620
5,386
85,148
27,659

2,206
11,379

2,687
18,063

21,940 193,729
41,194 760,461
63,662 1,094,779
59,138

810,363
45,788 589,911
19,601 97,058
38,680 528,483
31,830 376,949
14,912 151,721
29,214 282,474
17,587 168,964

37,059 956,6.36
10,972 300,809
11,909 261,990
26,025 792,370
12,483 353,798
41,509 1,015, 227
22,049 525,937
14,656

229, 731
21,429 556, 238
29,100 875,624
11,479 160, 457

1,594

100
397
652

61
440
1,149

150
670

574
2,146

6,331 1,149 4,118 9,166 1,014 5,340 16,002 2,777 7,862 7,259 24,507

16,275 3,049 6,977 7,576 3,781 20,755 18,640 1,659 6,280 10,498 12,485

308,303

59,819
123,255
179,755

79,593
371,785
320,375

36,071
104,856
229,495
152,134

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ACRES.

Cash VALUE.

COUNTIES.

Acres in pasturo.

Improved.

Unimproved.

of farms.

Of stocks.

Tools and imple'ts.

Cayuga .......
Genesee.......
Livingston
Monroe
Niagara....
Onondaga
Ontario
Orleans
Seneca ..
Wayno.
Yates.

315,795
219,012
262,463
216,840
207,043
344,528
290,639
181,948
151,949
254,451
155,542

187,297
75,732
96,378
78,182
101,110
114,701
97,108
62,326
45,936
103,062
51,134

$20,700,003

16,091,998
22,406,233
29,633,614
16,321,349
25,353,290
20,882,806
12,672,552
10,498,372
17,037,413
9,691,390

$2,523,234
1,675,630
2,177,384
2,824,916
1,900,789
2,903,509
2,272,115
1,531,017
1,039,547
2,238,425
1,098,443

$637,303
442,702
539,435
818,703
562,389
770,065
591,755
425,866
339,647
581,096
305,926

95,149
43,342
51,233
62,159
35,259
104,997
79,494
41,164
20,454
64,313
40,913

Total

2,600,209

1,011,964

$201,289,020

A.-Continued.

MEADOW.

SPRING WHEAT.

WINTER WHEAT.

Oats.

COUNTIES.

Acres.

Bushels of

Acres.

Bushels.

Acres.

Bushels.

Acres.

Busbels.

Acros.

Bushels.

Tons of
bay.

Acres.

Bushels.

grass seed.

Cayoga.
Genesee
Livingston
Monroe
Niagara...
Onondaga
Ontario
Orleans
Seneca
Wayne
Yates..

59,604
31,135
34,680
45,681
32,520
63,193
45,094
25, 150
24,660
39,165
23,372

57,732
41,398
39,187
58,738
41,117
63,246
42,448
34,620
20,879
45,271
15,850

Total

424,254

460,486

25,556

20,573

211,654

386,146 15,054,902

238,670

6,028,417

7,933

85,525

107,975 / 1,965,441

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