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commercial advantages are developed by the Erie and Genesee valley canals, and by various lines of railroads traversing its whole territory, furnishing easy access to good markets for the abundant products of its fertile soil, as well as the finished products of its manufactures.

The county will, therefore, increase in population and wealth annually, and to such an extent as to require an annual revision of its value.

NIAGARA County. The county of Niagara is in the northwest angle of the State, bounded on the west by the Niagara river, on the North by Lake Ontario, on the east by the county of Orleans, and on the south by the county of Erie. It lies entirely within the winter wheat region, its soil being peculiarly adapted to the successful cultivation of that cereal. It ranks in its agricultural capacity with the very best counties in the State, and is a first class county in regard to the productiveness of its soil.

The hydraulic power within its bounds is immense, especially that which is furnished by the Niagara river at the falls of Niagara, and at no distant day must add largely to its population and wealth.

The Erie canal and a branch of the Central railroad run through the whole county from west to east, and furnish ample facilities for marketing its surplus agricultural and manufactured products. Its commercial advantages are such that, with its genial soil, it must continually increase in population and value, and its valuations cannot be safely fixed for more than one or two years. They should be revised annually.

ONONDAGA County. The county of Onondaga is bounded on the North by Oswego county, on the east by the county of Madison, on the south by Cortland county, and on the west by Cayuga county.

The northern portion is comparatively level, and abounds with several large swamps. The middle is rolling and the south hilly. The soil generally is fertile and productive. The central portion from east to west is admirably calculated for the cultivation of wheat. The southern portion is well adapted to the spring grains, and to grazing and the dairy. As an agricultural county it is equal in its general productiveness to many of the first class counties of which it is a member.

Its hydraulic power is large and important, and is already being improved to considerable extent. The canals and railroads traversing its territory are ample for the developing of its resources, and it is rapidly becoming a manufacturing centre of increasing importance.

In its brine springs and salt manufacture it has a permanent source of wealth, and its population and wealth are rapidly increasing, and its valuations will require an annual revision.

The city of Syracuse has about 5,000 acres in its bounds which are taxable, aside from the lands reserved for salt manufacturing purposes.

The lands have been rated at the prices of those of Auburn, neither of the cities being classed as commercial towns, nor the lands valued at the rate adopted in those cities which combine manufacturing with commercial advantages.

ONTARIO COUNTY. The county of Ontario is bounded on the north by the county of Wayne and part of Monroe, on the east by the county of Seneca, on the south by the county of Yates and part of the county of Stenben, and on the west by the county of Livingston and part of the county of Monroe.

The surface is undulating generally, except on the southwest corner; it is more or less hilly. Nearly three-quarters of the county is within the wheat region, and the soil well adapted to the successful growth of that plant. The southwestern portion of the county is composed of second quality land, though there is but a small portion of it which does not admit of successful cultivation.

The county is traversed by railroads in vamous directions, and the proximity of the northern portions to the Erie canal gives it excellent means of transportation for its products to market. Its commercial or manufacturing advantages are not such as to create 'any large centres of either; but it is a thriving, prosperous inland county, mainly devoted to agricultural pursuits, and its population and wealth do not increase with much rapidity; still its general value is increasing to such an extent as to warrant an annual revision.

ORLEANS COUNTY. The county of Orleans is bounded on the north by Lake Ontario, east by Monroe county, soạth by the county of Genesee, and west by the county of Niagara. It lies entirely in the wheat district, and is therefore one of the first class counties. Its soil is admirably adapted to the cultivation of winter wheat, and is fertile and productive. It has considerable hydraulic power in its bounds; and the Erie canal, and a branch of the Central railroad passing across it from west to east, furnish ample facilities for marketing its surplus products. It has not the prospect of increasing its population or its wealth as rapidly as the counties of Niagara or Monroe, and its valuation will not be materially changed, or require so often to be readjusted, as many other counties which do not possess such advantages of soil. Still, it must advance, in both population and wealth, though at a slower rate. It is, however, essentially an agricultural county, and its productiveness and value will be considerably enhanced by the drainage of the Tonawanda swamp, by the State, and thus reclaiming some valuable lands now nearly unproductive, and which cannot be drained by individual enterprise.

Seneca COUNTY. The county of Seneca is bounded on the north by the county of Wayne, east by the Cayuga lake dividing it from the county of Cayuga, and a small part of Tompkins, on the south by parts of the counties of Tompkins and Schuyler, west in part by the county of Ontario and by the Seneca lake, separating it from the counties of Ontario and Yates.

Its surface is gently undulating, and it lies within the wheat region. It is a first class county, the soil being well adapted, with but few exceptions, to the successfull cultivation of that plant over the entire county.

It has extensive and valuable hydraulic privileges, furnished by the

Seneca river, and contains now manufacturing centres of importance, which must rapidly increase in population and wealth. The public works in the improvement of the Seneca river, and in the railroads which cross it near its northern end, together with an internal lake navigation, which nearly encircles it, are ample for developing its advantages, and for bringing within its bounds increasing population and wealth. Its valuations will require annual revision, in order to their proper adjustment in the general equalization with the other counties of the State.

WAYNE COUNTY. The County of Wayne is bounded north by Lake Ontario, east by the county of Cayuga, south by parts of the counties of Seneca and Ontario, and West by the county of Monroe.

The surface is generally broken, undulating, and in some portions hilly. It is situated within the wheat region, its soil being admirably calculated for the successful cultivation of that plant.

Its public improvements are the Esie canal and New York Central railroad, running through the southern portions of the county from west to east. There is no very extensive hydraulic power in the county, whereby there can be made a large manufacturing centre, nor has it any superior commercial advantages that will be very rapidly improved.

It is a flourishing inland agricultural county, and its population and wealth will gradually increase, so that its valuations will require at least annual revision.

Yates COUNTY. Yates county is bounded on the east by the Seneca lake, on the south by parts of the counties of Schuyler and Steuben, on the west by part of the county of Ontario and Canandaigua lake, and on the north by the county of Ontario. Its surface is slightly hilly, and gently undulating, and the greater portion of the county is situated within the winter-wheat region. Its soil is admirably adapted to the profitable cultivation of that plant, and to the other grains; and it is, therefore, in the first class. It is a thriving agricultural inland county, which has in its railroad, canal and lake, facilities for marketing its surplus products, abundant means for developing its resources, and must gradually increase in population and wealth, but not as rapidly as some of the more northern wheat-growing counties. It has no important manufacturing centre, nor any peculiar advantages for building one up at present. Its valuations will require revision once in two years. AREA, POPULATION, AGRICULTURAL VALUATIONS AND COMMERCIAL

ROUTES OF TRAFFIC.

AREA.

This group is 14 per cent. of the whole State, and embraces an area of 5,644 square miles, whereof there are: Improved, square miles....

4,063 Unimproved, do

1,581

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The improved is 72 per cent of the whole area, or the improved to the unimproved is as 72 to 28.

The proportion of the improved land in the group to that of the aggregate improved land of the State, is 19 per cent.

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The proportion of urban and suburban population to rural, is 51 per cent.

The density of population is, total population to total area, 94 persons to the square mile, or one inhabitant to every seven aeres of land.

The aggregate population to the aggregate of the improved land is, 133 persons to the square mile.

of the rural population, there are 45 inhabitants to the square mile, or 14 acres of the total area to each person.

But the aggregate rural population to the square mile of improved land is 63, or ten acres to each person; which gives 60 acres as the average number of improved acres in each farm.

VALUATION OF FARMS AND REAL ESTATE.

The cash value of farms, stock, implements and tools, by the State census of 1855 was: Farms

$201,289,020 Stock...

22,185,009 Tools and implements.

6,012,887 Total capital invested in agriculture......

$229,486,916

The average value of farms, stock, tools and implements, per acre of improved land, is: Farms, per acre........

$77 00 Stock, per acre....

8 57 Tools and implements, per acre

2 30 Total......

$87 87 [AG. TRANS]

23

The whole average capital invested in a farm is :

Farm
Stock
Tools and implements...

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Total invested.....

$5,272 00

The aggregate value of all the real estate of the group is :
Farm lands.....

$205,239,020
Village and corporation ....

29,000,000 City.

20,927,000

Total.....

$255,216,020

The incorporated cities are Rochester, Auburn and Syracuse. The larger and more important villages are Lockport, Geneva, Seneca Falls, Lyons, Brockport, Medina. Each of which have elements of progressive increase, both in population and wealth. The total miles of route for commercial traffic are:

Railroads, miles
Canal,
Lakes,

do
do

590 313 90

Total

993

The proportion of square miles of area to one mile of traffic route is, one mile of route to six square miles of surface.

The valuations of real estate by the State Assessors, and of personal estate by the town assessors, whereon the report of the Board of Equalization was based, for the years 1862 and 1863, are as follows: Farm lands

$161,954,455 Village and corporation real estate..

29,000,000 City.

20,927,000 Total real estate......

$211,881,455 Personal estate.....

25,653,391

Total real and personal estate .......

$237,534,846

The details are tabulated in table B, in the appendix to this group.
The banking capital employed in 1861, was $6.782,890.

The details are tabulated and shewn in table C, in the appendix to this group.

DISTRIBUTION OF FARM LANDS.
Pasture, acres

648,477
Meadow, do

424,254

Total acres in grass..

1,072,731

The proportion of acres in grass to the whole area of cultivated or improved land is : Pasture, percont...

25 Meadow, do

16

41 Therefore, only 41 acres of every 100 of the improved land is in grass. Spring wheat, acres.

Total percentage of grass...

20,573 Winter wheat, do

386,446 do

238,670 Rye, do

7,933 Barley, do

107,975 Total acres in white straw crops...

761,597

Oats,

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