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racter of its strata, marks the characteristics of its agricultural capacity. Along the indentations in its dividing ridge of hills, the calcareous nature of the drift has imparted to the soil the elements for growing winter wheat profitably. But these locations are small in extent and generally require thorough under-drainage before the soil can be made available.

The condition of its surface, however, is that which makes it admirably calculated for a great dairy district, and as such, it is mainly employed. There is probably not in the northern States of the Union, so large a continuous tract of country that presents in the aggregate so much prime dairying lands as this, and there is none that can rival it in the quality and quantity of its dairy products. It is the great central dairying, region of the Union.

Of its area which is now unimproved, viz.: 6,670 square miles or over 4,000,000 of acres, there is not over 1,000,000 of acres that is not capable, when cleared of its present forests, of being converted into profitable pasture or meadow. The time is rapidly approaching when every tree that ought to be cut down will have disappeared, and the whole region will become one vast dairy region, and literally its thousand hills will be covered with cattle.

The dairy is the true wealth of this district, and to that the farmers should bend all their energies. The hilly nature of the land renders its cultivation difficult, and points out the true method whereby the land shall be made profitable. Grass is here pre-eminently the best crop for the farmer, and it should be his constant study to make two blades of grass grow where only one grows now.

To this end, grain should be grown only as an exceptional crop, secondary to the increased productiveness of meadow and pasture. The farmers of this region are favored beyond those of the 3d and 4th groups, by having a more genial soil and climate, and greater command of manurial resources, and a wider field for its useful application. There are few farms where roots may not be grown profitably, fewer where flax cannot be grown to advantage; and with flax seed and roots, the mamure may be enriched indefinitely; and in no portion of the State will its application produce so marked results; for here is a soil already moderately fertile, and the farmer has only to conserve those latent qualities by adding to them constantly, to possess a soil of great fertility, and capable of producing rich rewards for his care. In this district, more than in any other, a systematic course of under-draining must be established; for there is little land that does not require it, and is not of sufficient value to warrant the expense. On tens of thousands of acres, a judicious use of the plow in making open drains, will render valuable the land now waste in swamps or stagnant pools. The tops of nearly all the ridges or hills are elevated plateaux, often of some hundreds of acres, so level that the water is only slowly discharged by evaporation or soaking into the adjoining soil, and rendering wet and productive of only wild grass and rushes; yet a small outlay of time and labor, by making ditches to the slope of the hills would render these very waste and worse than waste places, the most fertile of the district. But when open ditches cannot be made to accomplish the object, the usual mode of tile or pipe-draining must be (Ag. Teans.)

22

adopted, and open ditches should be tolerated only where, from the nature of the land, they are the best.

By a system of pipe or underdraining judiciously executed, the product of the soil in this whole district may be nearly or quite doubled.

Let us see what would then be the condition of the country in the produce of animals. It now produces 38,396, 343 pounds of butter, and 20,728,651 pounds of cheese, and 932,781 gallons of milk. The cows are 448,623.

Allowing three and a half gallons of milk to a pound of butter, or one gallon to a pound of cheese, and the aggregate of milk produced averages only 332 gallons per cow, not half the quantity that a well kept cow is capable of producing. The soil, with proper management, can be made to produce the necessary food for doubling this product. Forty-two per cent. of all the cows in the State are in this group, and 42 per cent. of the butter, and 61 per cent. of the cheese is also produced here. These facts indicate the tendency of the agriculture of the district, and further examinations will show, by the increased production of the cheese and butter, that the farmers are steadily pursuing the course indicated by their locality.

The city and village population will rapidly increase in this group, but the rural will only remain stationary for a few years, and then decrease.

TABLE A.--Agricultural Statistics.

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GROUP V.

ACRES.

COUNTIES.

Improved.

Unimproved.

Allegany.
Broome
Cattaraugus
Chautauqua
Chemung
Chenango
Cortland.
Erie
Jefferson.
Lewis..
Madison
Oneida
Oswego
Schuyler.
Steuben
Tioga...
Tompkins
Wyoming

280,863
198,839
266,435
360,110
120,219
347,828
194,736
340,307
465,222
184,540
277,393
435,800
244,126
134,336
361,450
154,894
205,616
241,654

354,269
205, 208
432,620
294,145
110,385
182,936
113,662
253,344
251, 291
497,145
111,505
286,594
328,047

63,000
438,250
138,423

84,963
122,764

Total

4,814,368

4,268,555 MEADOW.

$247,237,660

35,594,370

8,238,551

1,776,000

A.--Continued.

WINTER WHEAT.

Oats.

RYE.

BARLEY.

Busbols
harvested.

Acres
BOWD.

Bushels
harvested.

Acres
Sown.

Bushels
harvested.

Acres
SOWD.

Bushels
harvested.

6,964
2,852
1,923
5,366
8,781

897

579
16,907
6,303

317
4,459
3,177
1,544
11,803
33,768

82,920 34,845
11,927 18,901
21,721 | 31,778
66,219, 25,782
63,754 17,280
4,560 26,704

4,696 17,498
238,812 35,983
70,509 38,375

3,845 14,037
29,320 25,977
20,439 39,169
12,596 22,674
80,431 17,122
219,590 51,169
19,355 19,493
84,395 34,142
382,498 24,377

665,490
466,870
697,670
539,765
473,469
564,212
382,786
724,747
456,230
295,415
571,637
975.800
535,432
354,247
711,307
452.978
812,983
496,837

338
3,690

226
200

731
1,187

351
1,822
7,775
1,151

81
2,021
3,733

694
1,130
2,668
1,719

211

2,834
20,516
2,373
2,808
3,558
14,329

4,172
24,979
99,391
11,383

1,477
24,121
45,557

6,168
10,212
25,884
17,521
2,777

2,102

214

942
1,224
1,100
1,138
2,402
3,661
28,202

1,992
10,456
7,185
1,504
5,063
8,429

377
3,753
4,289

28.454

2,337
14,095
19,656
23, 86%
22,229
45,665
57, 256
392,684

37,513
197,231
137,430
28,054
60,507
78,873

5,925
65, 295
68,267

SPRING WHEAT.

COUNTIES.

Acres.

Bush. of

Tons of
hay.

Acres
SOwn.

Acres

Bushels
harvested.

grass seed

80WD

Allegany
Broome...
Cattaraugus
Chautauqua
Chemung
Chenango..
Cortland.
Erio
Jefferson
Lewis
Madison.
Oneida
Oswego
Schuyler
Steuben
Tioga .
Tompkins.
Wyoming

76,173
58,078
75,208
103,180

24,840
113,840
59,172
93,053
122,491
57,238
70,545
119,745
63,501
25,141
76,401
38,036
39,493
59,184

54,637
53,685
62,546
105,672

24,941
117,370
56,769
98,011
98,575
51,802
68,263
124,933
58,138
17,996
58,749
38,401
31,813
58,421

2,117
1,676
1,812
2,286

866
2,038

958
3, 720
13,601
1,746
1,155
8,700
1,454
1,392
1,925
2,452
2,091
1.536

6,594
2,153
5,395
7,011
2,140
1,814
2,102
4,505
29,687
4,603
4,344
3,396
3,914
5,612
10,821
1,339
3,182
3,300

56,422

8,121
57,278
78,636
18,624
20,283
24,361
46,913
428,672
59,940
52,777
41,883
44,300
33,139
82,014
11,938
32,642
37,497

4,351
11,040
19,200

Total.

1,275,419 1,180,752 A.-Continued.

51,505 101,912 1,175,440 140,231 1,417,626 495,306 10,178,935

29,731

320,090

84,093

985,333 BEANS.

Bushels Acres Bushels
harvested. planted. harvested:

182

96
349
389

72
270
472
280
176
245
127
184
429

3,174

949
4,496
4,038
1,859
2,763
1,726
6,124
4,281
1,030
4,836
7,770
4,326
1,931
2,686
2,495
2,100
8,232

BUCKWHEAT.

CORx.

POTATOES.

PEAS.

COUNTIES.

Acres
SOwn.

Bushels Acres Bushels Aeres Bushels
harvested. planted. harvested. planted. harvested.

Acres
Sown.

Allegrzy
Broomo......
Cattaraugus
Chautauqua
Chomudg.
Chenango.
Cortland..
Erie..
Jefferson.
Lewis
Madison
Oneida
Oswego
Schuyler.
Steuben
Tioga
Tompkins
Wyoming

4,956
6,932
2,320
1,055
5,902
44238
2,623
2,445

965
1,007
1,396
4,355
3,783
7,242
13,054
7,006
9,296
2,150

39,298
73,214
26,183

9,664
69,046
50,304
28,115
24,558

5,909
10,443
13,853
54,767
31,605
67,523
89,990
91,402
74,305
20,277

6,800
8,101
10,271
19,761

7,200
10,745

7,501
18,627
18,486

4,616
14,920
26,573
20,919

6,775
12,796

7,839
14,737
8,681

189,588
214,998
309,762
558.507
239,285
354,480
240, 203
483,228
321,779

92,398
449,583
732,294
503,812
160,780
292,689
260,174
373,202
231,006

3,057
2,388
3,597
3,723
1,190
3,179
1,857
7,452
5,154
3,295
2,943
7,678
5,584
1,259
4,007
1,843
1,554
3,086

206,058
160,420
300,245
282,451
131,291
270,542
155,389
445,350
289,031
243,841
224,278
624,648
391,912

81,106
255,938
150,518
111,106
203,932

1,687

57
938
536

89
236
505

929
4,536

856
1,147

812
719

129
2,646

314
312
933

22,844

932
14,442
7,693
1,360
4,018
9,527
15,321
63,338
12,978
20,973
12,912
11,116

1,710
25,006
3,992
4,659
13,326

92
242
218

56
102

Total...

80,735

780,456

225,348

6,009,768

62,846 4,528,056

17,281

246,147

3,977

64,816

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