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rates, the surplus products of its agriculture, and its population and wealth are slowly increasing; but its valuations will not require a revision oftener than every other year, if as often.

MONTGOMERY COUNTY. Montgomery county is bounded on the east and southeast by the coun. ties of Saratoga and Schenectady, south by the counties of Schoharie and Schenectady, west by the county of Herkimer, and north by the county of Fulton.

It lays mostly in the Mohawk valley, and its surface is generally level or rolling, and portions hilly. The soil upon the river flats is exceedingly valuable, and the whole county in its agricultural capacity is equal to the best of the second class counties. The Central railroad and the Erie canal traverse it from west to east, and furnish ample facilities for developing its resources.

It has considerable hydraulic power now in use, but nothing that will ever make it a manufacturing center of importance.

Its situation is such, however, that it must increase annually in population and wealth, and its valuations should have an annual revision.

ORANGE County. Orange county is bounded on the east by the Hudson river, southeast by the county of Rockland, southerly by the New Jersey State line, west by Sullivan, and north by Ulster.

The surface is more or less mountainous, hilly and broken, and embraces a great variety of soil, generally well adapted to the spring grains, to grazing and fruits, and its proximity to New York city and facilities for reaching that great market by railroads and the Hudson river, has brought nearly all its desirable land into profitable cultivation. It is one of the best of the second class counties. It has an important commercial and manufacturing center at Newburgh. The population and wealth of the county is steadily increasing, not as rapidly, perhaps, as in the counties on the opposite side of the river, but still its assessments should be annually revised.

OTSEGO COUNTY. The county of Otsego is bounded on the north by the county of Herkimer, on the east by the county of Schoharie, on the south by the county of Delaware, on the west by the county of Chenango and part of the county of Madison.

In its general topography it is hilly and broken. The soil is adapted to the spring grains and to grazing, and the dairy, and its natural fertility ranks it among the best of the second class, or grazing and spring grain counties.

It has much valuable hydraulic power, portions whereof in various parts of the county are now, and have been for a long period of years, in use, but the complete isolation of the county from all facilities of a rapid and cheap transit to market, prevents the profitable use of its power, and com

pels a valuation much below that of other counties, which do not possess the same resources in soil and motive power.

Whenever a railroad shall be constructed through the county, connecting it with the other lines of public works of the State, the valuation of its real estate should be increased at least ten dollars per acre on the aggregate valuation of its farm lands. Such a public work will also develop its other resources, and rapidly increase its population and wealth, and require a revision of its valuation annually. At present, and until some such work is cor structed, the valuation will not require a new adjustment oftener than other inland counties of the second and third class. It is an important county in its agricultural capacity, and properly opened to market, must become a manufacturing center equally as important.

ROCKLAND COUNTY. Rockland county is bounded on the east by the Hudson river, northwesterla by the county of Orange, and southwesterly by the New Jersey State line. Its surface is hilly and broken along most of its river front, and rolling over the other portions. Its drainage is mainly to the south, into New Jersey. The soil is naturally fertile, and, under a better system of agriculture, it would, from its position, become a first class county. It is gradually improving in its population and wealth, and has now, in its railroad and river facilities, abundant means for developing its resources, mineral and agricultural.

It will increase in population and wealth, but at a less rapid rate than counties on the opposite side of the river. Its valuations will require revision only once in two years.

SCHENECTADY COUNTY. Schenectady county is bounded on the northeast by Saratoga county, on the south by Albany county and part of Schoharte, and on the northwest by Montgomery county.

The surface is mostly level, though a portion of it is rolling and hilly. The soil is generally alluvial, and makes the celebrated “Mohawk flats.” The Mohawk valley comprises nearly all the county.

As an agricultural county it is not exceeded in the fertility of its soil by any other in the State. The Erie canal and Central railroad traverse the entire length of its territory, and furnish ample facilities for the developing of its resources. It has already a large manufacturing establishment at the city of Schenectady, and is gradually increasing in population and wealth; and its valuations should be revised at least once in two years.

SCHOHARIE COUNTY. Schoharie county is bounded on the east by Albany county and parts of Schenectady and Greene, south by Delaware county, west by Otsego county, and north by Montgomery county.

Much of the surface is broken and hilly. Portions of it, however, are level, and embrace the intervals along the Schoharie creek. The soil is generally well adapted to the spring grains, and to grazing, and winter

wheat has been grown to a considerable extent. It is, however, in its a
agricultural capacity, only a second class county. The construction of the
railroad from Albany to Binghamton, will materially enhance the value of
the real estate of the county, and contributo much to its prosperity, for it
only lacks good and cheap transit for its products to become much more
populous and wealthy. It has some hydraulic power, but not sufficient to
warrant it$ ever becoming a manufacturing centre of any great importance.
After the railroad is completed, its present valuations will require revision.
But after that they will not require altering oftener than once in two or

three years.

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SULLIVAN COUNTY. Sullivan county is bounded on the east by Orange county, on the south by the New Jersey State line, northwesterly by the county of Delaware, and northeasterly by the county of Ulster.

The surface is mountainous, hilly and broken, and its general elevation is such that its agriculture is modified thereby. Its soil is best adapted to grazing, and it is a third class or dairy county. It has mineral resources, but to what extent is not yet definitely determined, but supposed to be important. The New York and Erie Railroad, and the Canal to the Hudson river, furnish all necessary facilities for developing its agricultural resources. From the nature of its soil, and its position with regard to markets, its population and wealth will slowly increase, though it possesses much hydraulic power, that might be used for extensive manufacturing purposes. Its valuations will require a revision only once in three or four years.

ULSTER COUNTY. Ulster county is bounded on the east by the Hudson river, on the south by Orange county, on the southwest by Sullivan, on the northwest by Delaware, and on the north by Greene county.' Its surface is mouutainous, broken and rocky. As an agricultural county it is only third rate, and adapted principally to grazing and the dairy.

It has large mineral resources, and they are being rapidly developed by
the facilities of transportation furnished by the Hudson river. The Dela-
ware and Hudson canal, which has its terminus at Rondout, in this county,
and connects the navigable waters of the Hudson river with the great coal
fields of Pennsylvania, is building up villages that are increasing annually
in wealth and population. Taken as a whole, in all its interests, the gene-
ral increase of population and wealth will be such as to require a revision
of its valuations at least once in two years.
Area, POPULATION, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND THEIR VALUA-
TION, ROUTES OF TRAFFIC, BANKING CAPITAL.

AREA.
This group is seventeen per cent. of the area of the State, and embraces
an area of 7,284 square miles, whereof there are :
Improved...

3,380 square miles
Unin proved

3,904 do Total square miles ......

7,284 The proportion is :

.......

46 per ct.
54 do

Improved...

Unimproved
Reduced to acres, at 640 per square mile, and there are :

Improved acres
Unimproved acres

2,485,309
2,163,339

Total acres.

4,648,648

36 do

The improved is 46 per cent. of the lands of the whole group, or the improved to the unimproved is as 46 to 54.

The proportion of the improved land to the aggregate improved land of the State, is 18 per cent., and the unimproved is 12 per cent. of the aggregate unimproved land of the State.

Of the unimproved land, there will be cleared up and added to the improved, principally for pasturage, about 500,000 acres. The largest portion will be in Delaware and Ulster counties, but small additions will be made in the counties of Sullivan, Schoharie and Greene. Beyond that number of acres, the balance must ever remain waste and unimproved, owing to the mountainous nature of the land.

POPULATION.
The aggregate population is :
Village ....

261,055
Rural

185,874 City...

71,946 Total population......

529,875
The proportion of each is :
Village.

42 per ct.
Rural..
City ...

22 do The aggregate population is 13 per cent of the State.

The incorporated cities are Albany and Schenectady. Among the large towns are Newburgh, Kingston, Rondout, Nyack and Catskill.

Each have advantages in their position that will insure increasing population and wealth.

There is a tendency in this group to concentrate population, for already the city and village population is 64 per cent.

The rural population has reached its maximum, and hereafter will decrease rather than increase.

THE DENSITY OF POPULATION.
Total population to total area is 70 inhabitants to the square mile.

But to the improved it is 134 to the square mile. While the rural population to the whole area is only 25.5 to the square mile. There are howover 48 rural inhabitants to the square mile of improved land.

The average size of farms is 80 acres of improved land, or 13.5 acres to each rural inhabitant.

VALUATIONS. The cash value of farms, stock and implements by the State census of 1855, was : Farins,

$125,814,773 Stock

17,720,784 Implements and tools....

5,436,771 Total.capital invested in agriculture....

$148,972,328

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The average value of farms, stock, and tools and implements, per acre is:
Farms, per acre

$51 00
Stock, do

7 00 Implements, per acre.

1 70

Total

$59 70

The whole average capital invested in the farm is :

Farm.....
Stock
Implements

$4,080

560 113

Total invested

$4,753

The aggregate value of all the real estate in the group is :
Farm lands

$125,814,773
Village and corporation...

20,500,000 City...

24,500,000

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The proportion square miles of area to 1 mile of traffic routes is as 12 to
1, or 12 square miles to one mile of route.

The valuations of real estate by the State Assessors, and of personal
estate by the town assessors, whereon the report of the board of equaliza-
tion for the years 1862 and 1863, was based are as follows:
Farm lands.......

$108,826,284
Village and corporation real estate ......

20,200,000 City real estate

24,500,000

2

Total value of real estate
Personal estate. ...
Total value of real and personal estate....

$153,526,284

24,362,577

$177,888,861

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The details of the above are tabulated in table B of the appendix to this group.

The banking capital employed in 1861, was $8,655,917.

The details of the above valuations are tabulated and shown in table C
of the appendix to this group.

DISTRIBUTION OF FARM LANDS.
Pasture, acres.....

$1,028,643
Meadow, acres....

693,603
Total in grass, acres.....

$1,721,246
The proportion of acres in grass to the whole cultivated or improved
land is
Pasturo

41 per ct.
Meadow

do Total grass .....

do

28

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