A large number of gentlemengwere present also from private cheese dairies from this and other States.

On the report of the committee, the following gentlemen were elected permanent officers of the convention:

President-Jesse Williams, of Oneida county.

Vice Presidents-Lyman R. Lyons, Lewis; L. Warner, Ontario; Daniel Smith, Montgomery; A. L. Fish, Herkimer; Alonzo Peck, Madison; D. W. Maples, Cortland; M. R. Stocker, Otsego; George C. Morn, Erie; D. H. Goulding, Chautauqua; A. D. Stanley, Jefferson; Alfred Buck, Oneida; Dwight Ellis, Mass. ; A. Bartlett, Ohio.

Secretaries—B. F. Stevens, Lewis; George W. Pixley, Oneida.

Sundry propositions were made by different gentlemen as to the course that should be pursued by the convention, and finally the following committee of five were appointed to report to the convention the details of cheese making by the factory system, and matters pertaining thereto: Jesse Williams, Oneida; H. Farrington, Herkimer; Allen F. Fowler, Oneida; Isaac Schell, Herkimer, and William Johnson, Ontario.

On motion a committee of five, to report preamble and articles of association for a State organization, were appointed as follows: B. F. Stevens, Lewis; George Williams, Oneida; A. L. Fish, Herkimer; B. Stiles, Madi. son, and G. B. Weeks, Oneida.

EVENING SESSION.- Mr. Geo. Williams, of Oneida, offered a resolution that it is impracticable to establish an agency in the city of New York. It required but a few minute discussion from a few of the clear headed to decide to adopt the resolution.

The committee reported a petition to the Legislature in regard to frauds and adulteration in milk, which, after amendment, was adopted, as follows: To the Honorable the Senate and Assembly of the State of New York:

We, the undersigned, citizens of the State of New York, interested in the manufacture of cheese by the factory system, respectfully petition that your honorable body pass a law inflicting severe penalties upon all persons who sell or furnish milk to factories, who shall dilute with water, adulterate, or in any way impair the quality and value of the milk so sold or furnished.

Mr. Fish, of Herkimer, proposed several important questions relative to the manufacture of cheese by the factory system, and inade some remarks. He believed the factory system the only true one to make cheese by, owing to the greater facilities for making and curing—the producing of a better quality of cheese, and taking out of families an unhealthy and injurious business.

Mr. Bartlett, of Ohio, said that the editor of the Ohio Farmer had sent him a copy of his paper containing an article of strictures and objections to the factory system. One of the objections was that milk sent to factorics was liable to be adulterated, and that there was no instrument or means to detect the adulteration. He said adulteration could always be detected, but dilution was not so easy; yet by the use of the hydrometer, the lactometer, and a French instrument not yet introduced into this country, together, dilution could generally be detected. Another objection is the difference in the quality of milk of different dairies. This objection could only be fully met by the overbalancing advantages of the factory system, but we lack statistics on this point. He had arrived at this conclusion by testing the milk of many factories, that the difference was not over one per cent. in any case. The loss of whey was another objection. Mr. Bartlett thonght it had been a losing thing with him to feed it to hogs.

The subject of making cheese on the Sabbath was discussed somewhat. Mr. Lyons, of Lewis, stated that an experiment had been made in his county of keeping the milk at home on the seventh day, and making it into butter, &c, instead of sending it to the factory. The conclusion arrived at by the convention was that it was better for all concerned to make the cheese on the Sabbath.

Nr. Bartlett thought one cent a pound for the manufacture was not a sufficient remuneration, but that one and one-quarter cents was about right. He was anxious to hear the whey question discussed.

Mr. H. Farrington, of Herkimer, had had extensive acquaintance with cheese factories, and had come to a different conclusion with respect to the value of whey from that the gentleman from Ohio had. He said we did not get all the valuable material out of the whey. True, and for that reason it was valuable for bogs—in many cases he believed it more than doubled the weight of hogs. It should not be fed alone, but corn and grain should be added to produce healthy hogs.

Mr. Wm, Wheeler, of Trenton, had a small factory of 200 cows--had kept 50 hogs, two-thirds of them grown, the rest spring pigs. Fed the whey, sweet and warm, till the 1st of September, then commenced feeding grain. The result was $2 profit per cow.

Mr. Jacob Ellison, of Herkimer, said the factories had greatly increased the value of American cheese in the English market; they alone had done it. Their cheese had sold during the past season for one and two cents per pound more than the cheese of single dairies. This in itself was a sufficient answer to all objections to the factory system.

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THURSDAY MORNING, Jan. Tth, 1864. Convention called to order by the chair. Mr. Simmons, of Oneida, offered the following resolution: That the convention approve, for the size of cheese, 20 inches in diameter and 10 inches deep, weighing, when cured, about 100 pounds.

Mr. Comstock moved the resolution be laid on the table, in order to receive the report of the Committee on State organization. The committee then presented their report. Mr. Comstock moved that the convention receive the report, and that they proceed to adopt or reject the same by separate articles. The report was, with but little discussion, adopted as follows:

Whereas, it is deemed expedient to organize an association through which, as a medium, results of the practical experience of dairymen may be gathered and disseminated to the dairying community, therefore,

Resolved, That we, the undersigned, do hereby associate ourselves together for mutual improvement in the science of cheese making, and more efficient action in promoting the general interests of the dairying community.

Article I. The name of the organization. shall be the New York State Cheese Manufacturers' Association.

Article II. The officers of the Association shall consist of a president, five vice-presidents, secretary and treasurer.

Article III. The president, vice-presidents, secretary and treasurer shall constitute the executive board of the Association.

Article IV. The officers of the Association shall be elected at the regular annual meeting, and shall retain their offices until their successors are chosen.

Article V. The regular annual meeting shall occur on the second Wednesday in January of each year, and at such place as the executive board shall designate.

Article VI. Any person may become a member of the Association, and be entitled to all its benefits, by the annual payment of one dollar.

Mr. Fish, of Herkimer, suggested as a plan for the Association, that all who chose should propose questions relative to the business of cheese-making, which should be circulated among the members of the executive board, and that from time to time premiums should be offered for the best answers to specified questions.

Mr. Comstock, of Utica, wanted to have the whey question talked of more -said that he had proved by years of experience, that whey was worth as much to feed to cows as to hogs—he considered it worth $5 per cow when fed to them.

Mr. Stevens, of Lewis, thought the business of perfecting the organization of a State Association should first be attended to.

On motion, a committee was appointed to report officers for the Association; on whose report the following officers were unanimously elected:

President, George Williams, Oneida; Vice-Presidents, Seth Miller, Lewis; David Hamlin, Jefferson; A. L. Fish, Herkimer; George E. Morse, Madison; Moses Kinney, Cortland; Secretary, Wm. H. Comstock, Utica; Treasurer, Lyman R. Lyon, Lewis.

Gentlemen now complied with the conditions necessary to become members of the association, and within the next two or three hours over one hundred paid in their fees and became members of the association, thus taking another step in the history and advancement of the dairying interests of the State, and we might say of the world. The first name on the list, as it appropriately should be, was Mr. Jesse Williams, of Rome, the originator of the factory system.

A few minutes after the election of officers, the convention adjourned sine die, and immediate y President Geo. Williams took the chair, and called the association to order. Soon after, a recess until 2 o'clock, p.m. was taken.

Afternoon Session.-Several verbal and written reports were given by manufacturers respecting their operatii ns the past year, some items of which were number of pounds of milk received-pounds green cheer'e made -pounds dry cheese made-pounds shrinkage per hundred-pounds of milk to one pound of dry cheese, &c.

One or two facts we state, as being demonstrated by these reports-that it takes some 10.20 pounds of milk to make a pound of cured cheese; also that the shrinkage is about five per cent. There are other nice points and facts that can be demonstrated to almost a certainty by a systematic and similar report from each one of the factories now in operation and those to go into operation this coming season. This desideratum can be reached by complying with the following resolution, adopted on motion of Mr. Fish, of Herkimer:

Resolved, That every member of the association be desired to forward to Wm. H. Comstock, the Secretary, a written report in detail of his cheese making operations, as full as may be, to be published in the transactions of this association, to be distributed to each member thereof. Mr. Comstock offered the following, which was also adopted:

Resolved, That the executive board shall make out and print, as soon as possible, a full set of statistical and other questions, in every way relating to cheese making, curing and selling, and send such report to each member of this association, and that each member answer all questions therein proposed, and make such other report as he may think proper, and send to the secretary before the next annual meeting.



12 92

“Morse's FACTORY,” Eaton, Madison Co., N. Y. Average number of cows....

640 Quantity of milk, in pounds..

2,406,294 Number of pounds dry cheese, as sold...

242,588 Number of pounds of milk to one of cheese.

Gross proceeds..

$31,339 03
Total expenses, less cartage, and including insurance
and making...

3,418 84
Nett proceeds .....

$27,920 19
Average sale per cwt. on gross receipts.
Total expense,

less cartage, and including insurance and making, (per
100 lbs.).......

1 45 Whole number of cheese made..

1,757 Average weight (in lbs.)..


GEORGE E. MORSE. Madison County, Town of Eaton, 88:On this 13th day January, 1864, personally appeared before me George E. Morse, who, being duly sworn, deposeth that the above statement is, in all respects, correct and true to the best of his knowledge and belief.

GARDNER E. MORSE, Justice of the Peace. Process of Making Cheese in Morse's Factory. We put the evening's and morning's milk together, evening's being strained into a double vat and cold spring water running under through the night; kept stirred till animal heat all out; morning's milk added, and the whole raised to a temperature from 82° to 84°; coloring matter put in and rennet sufficient to bring it in 35 minutes; curd when formed is cut with a gang of thirteen steel blade knives. It is first crossed and allowed to stand till whey begins to rise to the surface, then cut the other way and left till curd settles. A portion of the whey is then drawn off with syphon curd, then carefully stirred with wire fork made for this special purpose, and the whole cut in the most thorough manner until very fine; a gradual heat is then applied, still keeping the fork in motion until the temperature is raised to 86o. The heat is then withdrawn, but the wire fork is not suffered to stand still, and indeed we never give the curd rest till it is put into the hoop; but our aim is to keep it fine and loose through all its different stages, and thereby we think we effect a more even scald than we otherwise could. After some thirty minutes heat is again applied, and the whole raised slowly till it reaches 98°; steam then cut off. It remains in this state till the curd will separate when pressed in the hand like so much wheat; whey then drawn off and curd dipped into sink to drain and work. It is salted while warm and put into press when cool, and if the system has been faithfully followed it will be found in this state like so much rice. Salt, three pounds to the 1,000 pounds of milk, most of the season; less in the fore part and more in the after part of the season. Our aim is to keep our rooms for curing at as even a temperature as may be--say about 70°-deeming it a very important feature in giving our cheese a nice flavor. All of which is submitted.

GEORGE E. MORSE, Proprietor.

B. F. Stevens' CHEESE Factory, LowvILLE, LEWIS Co., N. Y.

Lowville, N. Y. Jan. 13, 1864. WM. H. COMSTOCK, Esq., Secretary, Ulica, N. Y.:

Dear Sir-Herewith please find statement or report of operations in my factory the last season.

Respectfully yours,

· B. F. STEVENS. Whole number pounds of milk received during the season of 163 days was......

1,763,934 Whole number pounds of green cheese made from said

milk, (weighed when taken from the press) was...... 180,916 Whole number pounds of dry cheese made from said

inilk, as per sales, (average age about 80 days,) was.. 172,162 Whole number pounds of shrinkage in said cheese from green weight, was....

8,754 Expense of manufacturing said cheese, (that is amount paid the manufacturer,) was.....

$1,721 62 Expense aside from making was......

749 72 Total expense....

$2,471 34 Gross proceeds from sales of chcese during the season, (three sales) were 23,586 80 Less total expense of manufacturing, &c..

2,471 34 Nott proceeds..

$21,115 46





Expense of making said cheese per pound was...
Expense other than making per pound was.......
Total expense per pound.....

or about $1.43.54 per hundred pounds.
Average sale per pound on the gross receipts was........
Average sale per pound on the nett receipts was...
Whole number cheese made was (pressed in 23 in, hoop,)

Average green weight of each was...
Average dry weight of each was..
Shrinkage per 100 pounds was
Average number pounds of milk for one pound of cheese

(green) was....




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