sound is variable to, and in ordinary ut. terance actually becomes, the short to sound (of but, pun, etc.).

Thus: a as in errant, republican. e as in prudent, difference. i as in charity, density. o as in valor, actor, idiot. ä as in Persia, peninsula. ē as in the book. ý as in nature, feature.

A mark (-)under the consonants t, d, s, a indicates that they in like manner are variable to ch, j, sh, zh. Thus: 4 as in nature, adventure. das in arduous, education. $

as in pressure. 3 as in seizure. у as in yet. B Spanish b (medial). ch as in German ach, Scotch loch. G as in German Abensberg, Hamburg. Spanish g before e and i; Spanish j;

g etc. (a guttural h). n French nasalizing n, as in ton, en.

final s in Portuguese (soft). th as in thin. PH as in then.


a as in fat, man, pang.
à as in fate, mane, dale.
ä as in far, father, guard.
â as in fall, talk.
á as in ask, fast, ant.
à as in fare.
e as in met, pen, bless.
ē as in mete, meet.
e as in her, fern.
į as in pin, it.
i as in pine, fight, file.
o as in not, on, frog.
7 as in note, poke, floor.
ö as in move, spoon.
ô as in nor, song, off.
u as in tub.
ū as in mute, acute.
i as in pull.
ü German ü, French u.
oi as in oil, joint, boy.
ou as in pound, proud.

A single dot under a vowel in an
unaccented syllable indicates its ab-
breviation and lightening, without ab-
solute loss of its distinctive quality.
a as in prelate, courage.
ē as in ablegate, episcopal.
i as in abrogate, eulogy, democrat.
Q as in singular, education.

D = FH

A double dot under a vowel in an unaccented syllable indicates that, even in the mouths of the best speakers, its

denotes a primary," a secondary accent. (A secondary accent is not marked if at its regular interval of two syllables from the primary, or from another seco ondary.)



Federalist (fed'ę ral ist), The.
Feltham or Felltham (feltham), Owen.
Fénelon (făn lôn'), François de Salignac

de La Mothe-
Fenn (fen), Sir John.
Fenner (fen'ěr), Cornelius George.
Ferguson (fer'gu son), Adam.
Ferguson, Sir Samuel.
Fergusson (fèr'gu son), Robert.
Ferrier (fer'ier), Susan Edmonston.
Ferreira (fer rā'ē rä), Antonio.
Feuerbach (foi'er bach), Ludwig An-

Feuillet (fe-yā), Octave.
Fichte (fich'te), Immanuel Herman.
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb.
Field (főld), Eugene.
Field, Henry Martyn.
Field, Kate.
Fielding (fēl'ding), Henry.
Fields (fēldz), James Thomas.
Figueroa (fē gā rō'ä), Francisco de.
Figuier (fő gyä'), Louis Guillaume.
Filicaja (fē lē kä'yä), Vincenzo da.
Finlay (finlā), George.
Finley (fin'li), John.
Firdusi (fēr dö'sē), Abul Kasim.
Firenzuola (fē ren zö õlä), Agnolo.
Fischer (fish'er), Ernst Kuno.
Fisher (fish'ér), George Park.
Fisher, John.
Fisk (fisk), Wilbur.
Fiske (fisk), John.
Fitzgerald (fits jer'ald), Edward.
Fitzgerald, Percy Hetherington.
Flammaton (lá mã rẽ ôt), Camile.
Flaubert (Aõ bār'), Gustave.
Fleming (flem'ing), George.

Fletcher, Julia Constance.

Fleming, Paul.
Fletcher (flech'èr), Andrew.
Fletcher, Giles.
Fletcher, John. See Beaumont and

Fletcher, John William.
Fletcher, Julia Constance.
Fletcher, Maria Jane Jewsbury).
Fletcher, Phineas.
Flint (flint), Timothy.
Florence Percy (Aor'ens pér'si). See

Mrs. Elizabeth (Chase) Allen. Florian (flő ryon), Jean Pierre Claris

de. Follen (follen), Adolf Ludwig. Follen, Charles. Follen, Eliza Lee (Cabot). Fonblanque (fon blangk'), Albany

William. Fontaine (fon tān': Fr. pron. fôñ tān'),

Jean de la. See La Fontaine. Fontenelle (fônt nel'), Bernard le Bovier

Fonvielle (fon vē el), Wilfrid de.
Foote (fút), Mary (Hallock).
Foote, Samuel.
Forbes (fôrbz), Archibald.
Forbes, Edward.
Ford (förd), John.
Ford, Richard.
Forster (fórs'ter), John.
Forsyth (fôr sith'), Joseph.
Fortescue (fôr'tes kū), Sir John.
Fortune (fôr ton), Robert.
Foscolo (fos’ko ló), Niccolo Ugo.
Foster (fos'tèr, or fôs'ter), John.
Foster, Stephen Collins.
Fouqué (fö-kā'), Albertine Tode.
Fouqué, Caroline von Rochow.


Fouqué, Friedrich, Baron de La Motte. Fourier (fö rya'), François Charles Marie.

Fowler (fou'ler), Charles Henry.
Fox (foks), Charles James.

Fox, George.

Foxe (foks), John.

France (frans), Anatole.

Francillon (franʼsil lon), Robert Edward. Francis (fran'sis), Saint, d'Assisi (dässēzē), Giovanni Francesco Bernardone.

Francis Forrester (for'es tér). See Wise, Daniel.

Francis, John Wakefield.

Francis, Sir Philip.

Franklin (frangk'lin), Benjamin.
Fraser (frä'zer), James Baillie.

Fréchette (fra shet^), Louis Honoré.

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FEDERALIST, THE, a series of eighty-five political essays published between October, 1787, and April, 1788, in two New York newspapers, The Independent Journal and The New York Packet, besides a few in The Daily Advertiser. It was doubtful whether the newly drafted Constitution for the United States would receive the ratification of the State of New York. John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison concerted to write a series of essays explaining the intent of the proposed Constitution, and urging its ratification by the State of New York. No. I, which was introductory to the series, was written by Hamilton; Jay followed with Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, issued in rapid succession, when he received an in. jury which disqualified him for mental exertion for several months. He, however, recovered in time to write No. 64, when the proposed series was drawing to a close. These papers were all addressed “To the People of the State of New York," and bore the common signature of “Publius.” They were recognized as an authoritative exposition of the principles and intent of the Con. stitution, and as the ablest advocate of its adoption. They were first put forth in a separate volume in 1788, several editions of which, with some slight corrections, appeared from time to time; up to 1852 there were in all about twenty editions issued. In 1863 Mr. Henry Dawson pub

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