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For JUN E, 1780.
POLITICAL. Art. 14. Proposals for paying great Part of the National Debt,
and reducing Taxes, immediately. By Robert Bird, Esq. 8vo.
13. Dodsley. 1780. M R . Bird begins with setting forth the great burdens which are
IVI borne by the subject in consequence of che vast accumulation of the national debt; and thews, that we are not to estimate the sam raised on the subject by the very finall one which is paid into the Treasury. He firit supposes, that the expence of collecting the leveral taxes amounts to a fourth part of the sum levied; which we make no doubt is the case, at least, in the cultoms, which Mr. B. brings as an example ; but we much doubt whether it amounts to so much in some others, as the excise, the land-tax, &c. However, granting this, and that the several dealers, through whose hands the commodities fass to the consumer, retain each a profit of 12 per ceni. he thews, that for every 15l, which is paid into the Treasury from the customs, no less a sum than 281. Is. 11 d, is raised on the subjeci. Mr. Bird, from Sir Matthew Decker, instances in the case of the Mhoe-maker, who not only lays she tax, imposed on the leather, on his thoes, but the interest of the money that he has advanced to pay that tax, and also a proportionable part of the money which every tradesman he dealt with for the necessaries of life had laid on his goods: these Sir Matthew enumerates, 10 the number of twelve dif. ferent taxes, which the thoe-maker must lay on his fhoes, that he may be able to subfilt as well as he did formerly.
Had Mr. Bird but fortunately carried this confideration a little further, and remarked that, in consequence of this cordial agreement of all parties to tax their own commodities, the gentleman raises his rents, the farmer his hay and corn, and even the day-labourer has saised his hire from 8 d. to 12 d. a day within these 20 years ; he would have found that we are, on the whole, notwithstanding the complex operation of the taxes which he speaks of, every one of us pretty much in the fame situation that we were before, and that it only requires a greater quantity of specie to circulate amongst us. We ought, perhaps, to except the poor foldier, and a few other per: fons, who fubfiit on salaries, which have been long since eliablished, and who, by their peculiar situations or employments, can neither create perquisites to their places, nor cheat iheir employers, as the excisemen, custom-house officers, and some others who are in this situation do. Perhaps among these few poor wretches who suffer on this account (for they are but comparatively few) we ought to include the poor Reviewer, who, notwithstanding he pays his quota 10 the shoe-maker, &c. (uniers indeed he goes without shoes) sells his Reviews at the same price he did thirty years ago.
But, seriously, the only thing to be apprehended in this affair is, that by every man thus increasing the price of his labour, or the profits on his goods, the prices of our exports may be so increaled
that other nations will undersell us, and by that means deprive us of a market for our manufactures. But this we well know is not the case ver. How foon it may be; God only knows; but it will be then, and then only, that we can poslibly feel the burdens which Mr. Bird speaks of-until then, they are merely imaginary. Mr. Bird does indeed say that this evil has actually overtaken us, and that we have already lost the greater part of our foreign trade. He must give us leave to doub: this, for, in most of our manufactures, men are more wanied than work at present-May it ever remain so !
Mr. Bird's scheme for paying this enormous debt depends on a cal. culation which we much fear can never be verified; or put in praca tice until men are made differently from what they now are, or, we fear, ever will be. He estimates the whole landed property of Great Britain at 1000 millions, and personal property as as much. All this may be very true, for aught that we know, and we hope it is. But, here comes the rub: every man is to give in a true eftimate of his whole property, and yield up to government a twentieth part of it; which when every one has honestly done, if there be aay truth in arithmetic, and the above estimation of property, it will amount to 100 millions. The parional debt he eslimates at 180 millions; 140' millions of this he supposes belong to ourselves, and the remaining' 40 millions to foreigners : this 140 millions he proposes to pay off at 60 per cent ; at which price he thinks the holders of Nock will have a good bargain ; and at this rate, 140 millions will be paid off with 84 millions; consequently, 16 millions will be left, at the disposal of the Fird Lord of the Treasury, to be applied to the services of the ensuing year, or to the payment of unsunded debts. We cannot help remarking, that it is very probable molt of the Stockholders will think differently from Mr. Bird, and look on themselves a's hardly dealt with, in being obliged to part with their flock for 60 per cent, which many of them bought at 99, and some ar more than par, and have to give up one-twentieth of what may remain afterwards : but we apprehend they may relt satisfied that this will not speedily be required of them. Art. 15. Strixtures on a Pamphlet entitled “ Facts to Landholda
ers, Stockholders, &c." By a Volunteer. 8vo. 1 s. 6 d. Faulder. 1780.
This volunteer in the service of Administration has confidered the celebrated pamphler entitled Facts, &c. (See Review for January lait] .with great attention, and offers many remarks on that performance, which appear to merit the regard of the Public: we thould always hear the other fide. Art. 16.' A Letter from a Gentleman in the English House of
Commons, in Vindication of his Conduct, with regard to the Atfairs of Ireland. Addressed to a Member of the Irish Parliament. 8vo. 1 s. 6d. Bew. 1780.
By "a Gentleman in the English House of Commons,' we are to understand - Mr. Edmund Burke-whose parliamentary conduct, with regard to the late national advantages lo successfully coniended for by Ireland, is the subject of this very masterly apology. We have no doubs that this letter is the genuine production of Mr. Burke's
clegant elegant pen : the style alone, as the Editor observes, is sufficient to prove its authenticity. Art, 17. Two Letters from D. Hartley, Esq; M. P. addressed
to the Committee of the County of York. 8vo. 6 d. Almon, 1-80.
In the firft of these letters, Mr. Hartley points out, what every one faw before, the disorders of the State, proceeding from minifterial influence, by means of places, pensions, beneficial contra&s, &c.' and he recommends, as the only specific cure for a disease so alarmingly danger us to the body politic, "a F EE and INDEPENDENT PAR. LIAMENT.' Mr. H. is certainly right in his prescription ; but where is che apothecary who can make it up?
In his second letter, he earneltly recommends conciliatory mea. fures with regard to America. Here, too, Mr. H. is no less obvioully in the right; and we believe he can hardly meet with an Englishman who will diffent from his opinion ; but here also we are afraid the difficulty lies in gerring the prescription made up. Art. 18. Copies of the Proceedings of the General Meetings of the
County of Wilts; and likewise Copies of the Proceedings and Cor. respondence of the Committee appointed at the General Meeting of the County, held 26th January, 1780. Published by Order of the Committee, 8vo. Is. Baldwin
The letters of the Lords Shelburne and Radnor, and the Com. MONERS Fox, Burke, Barré, T. Pitt, and Dunning, will render this pamphler acceptable to the Public in general. The other peti. tioning counties would do well to follow the example of Wiltshire, in printing cheir correspondence ; which will, at least, be attended with this advantage,- it wilt point out to the people of this country, those noble and worthy persons who were friends to a design which migbt have produced the happiest consequences to the British nation, in respect of that most important article, PUBLIC OECONOMY!
MEDICAL. Art. 19. An Enquiry into the Origin of the Gout; wherein its
various Symptoms and Appearances are traced to their Cause; and a safe and certain Mode of remedying it proposed. By John Scoft, M. D. 8vo. gs. sewed. Becket. 1780.
That the Gout still continues the opprobrium medicorum, is certainly not owing to a want of attention to it in the faculty, since scarce a month passes which does not bring with it some new treatise on this disease. Of the number of these which have passed before us in their quiet course to the pacific ocean of oblivion, we have not met with any, whose progress will probably be more unnoticed than the present. Its doctrines are so refined and subrilized, and its precepts are fo trite and general, that it hardly offers a single temptation to readers, either learned'or unlearned, to give it a perusal. We are sorry to be obliged to assert, that scarcely any thing ever came before u's in the shape of a scientific treatise, fo utterly void of precise and accurate ideas from one end to the other. Here is a great deal about nervous fuid, æthereal spirit, electric principle and phlogiston ; with their ebullicións, impetuses, periodical tides, deflagrations, &c. by ringing the changes on which terms, every phænomemon of the gout
is accounted for without the least difficulty or hesitation. Though there
a Certainty of Gain : as practised by judicious Farmers in the
part of his various publications in which he has an exclusive pro• periy, it would be unpardonable not to beltow some pains to make
it as finished and captivating as possible. The present work is a meagre compilation from Young and Mortimer. So far from containing, as this Reverend Plagiary asserts, a variety of useful remarks not to be met with in any books of agriculture, we will venture to say, there is scarcely a plough-driver in the kingdom but knows as much of farming as can possibly be learned from this catch.penny performance. MISCELLANEOUS
c.t.it, Art. 25. Rhyme and Reason: or, a fresh Stating of the Arge· ments againit an Opening through the Wall of Queen's Square, · Westmintter. By a Knight. With the original Arguments at the Bottom of the Page, for the Information of the Inquifitive, soc.
4t0. 1 s. 6d. Paulder, &c. 1780. . A defire having been expressed, and a scheme formed, to promote a neighbourly intercourse among the inhabitants of Queen's Square, Park-ftreet, &c. by opening a convenient passage through the wall
which at present stands as a barrier between them, this social pura po'e has, it seems, been particularly opposed by Sir J-a H-k-s,
whose printed Reafons againit the wished for opening, are made the basis of these burlelque verses,
“ Personal satire, like ocber corrosives, may, as a correspondent, on this subje&t, remarks, have its use : and it can never be more properly applied than in the way of recrimination and self defence. The Authors of this ironical composicion (for, it seems, more than one pen has been employed on this occafion) are candid enough to accom. pany it with the original performances which gave rise to it, in order that the Public may judge of the one as well as the other : and it is not to be wondered at, that so rude and ungentlemanlike an attack as che-original appears to be, upon a number of families in a neigh. bourhood, thould produce a reply of this fort; for whoever takes upon him to print and disperse invectives against ochers, becomes a Drawcanfir ; and throws down the gauntlet for any that will, to take up. , If he is foiled in the consequence, he has nothing to complain of.but his own folly. Those who have a relish for sarcastical humour and pointed racire, we may venture to say, will meet with as much entertainment as the nature of such a subject would admit of." Art. 22. Minutes of the Proceedings at a Court-Martial, assem
bled to inquire into the Cause of the Loss of his Majesty's late Ship Ardent. Taken by George Jackson, Elg; Judge Advocate of bis Majesty's Fleet. Published by Order of the Right Honourable che Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 4to. 2 s. 6 d. Cadell, 1780.
Military discipline, having for its ohjeet the good of the service, overlocks all personal considerations in the attainment of this great end. Among the rigors of the Pruffian discipline, we are told that a foldier was caned for sneezing, which seems to be an effort of nature little dependent on the will; yet an old Pruflian officer remarked, that the men did not cough so often as they used to do formerly.
From the circumstances thared, Captain Boceler will, in all probability, be consoled wich milder verdicts, in private judgment, than that which was pronounced by the Court before whom he was ar. raigned.
N Art. 23. Thoughts on the dangerous Tendency of employing For
reigners. Addressed to the People of England. 8vo. 1 s. 6 d.. Faulder.
Whatever may be thought of this pamphlet as a literary compofie tion, the Author appears to be an honeit, well-meaning patrioti zhough he says nothing about petitions or asiociations.
N. Art. 24. Memoirs of the Town and County of Leicester. Containe
ing the Ahtiquities of each, and the historical and biographical Relations at large. To which is added, a brief supplementary Account of the prefent State of Leicestershire. By Joha Throlby. 12mo. 6 Vol. 12 s. sewed. Leicester, printed for the Author. Sold by Crowder in London. i
We hall not detain our Readers long with an account of this publication. The history of a county may be rendered an inftruclive, entertaining, and useful performance; but it is requisice for this pur. pole that the Editor should have taste, judgment, and an acquaint