because necessity or chance in forced all that could have been fought by choice, in this instance.

Win the vicinity afforded sand, clean, quartose, sharp, well fized, and resembling our mixture of the coarse and fine ; chance furnihed all that skill could aim at, in the choice and preparation of this article.

• When walls of immense thickness were constructed chiefly with small stones, in the way of boulder-work, the great confumption of mortar made every practicable saving of lime an object of great importance; and as the mortar must be made ftiff for such work, it was neither convenient nor necessary to mix much lime in it, or to use fine fand in it, or to exclude the rubble from it: and thus, by motives of economy and convenience, rather than by any others, they were led to the measures which insured, to the cement of such structures, every perfection dependent on the goodness of lime and fand, and on good, if not the best, proportions of them,

« When the stones used in building were recently dug, or collected from the beds of rivers, the artists needed no precau. tions against the bad effects of dry, bibulous, and dusty stones or bricks, and their works bad, of necesity, every good quality attainable by the practice, which I commend, of soaking thele materials. When their water was good, the cement, abounding in lime, was not much the world for their ignorance of the use of lime water.

• When the structure was intended to stand by its own ftrength, rather than to depend on timbers; and was, by the solidity of its bearings and the diameter of its stoney substance, secured from agitation; when the thickness of the walls prevented the cement from being haftily dried, and afterwards secured it from being thoroughly wetted ; and wben the enormous weight contributed to the approximation and cohesion of the parts of the cement to each other, and to the stones : every defect of cementitious buildings, of a contrary description, was obviated by the nature of the structure; which rendered it as perfect, in the hands of any artists, as the most confummate kill could make our modern, sender, tremulous, bibulous walls.'

It will naturally be expected that Dr. Higgins should take notice of the reputed improvement lately made in the preparation of mortar, by M. Loriot, and published by order of the King of France. With respect to this discovery (made public by order of his Majesty in 1774), we need say no more to the Reader who is acquainted with the rationale of the process, as above laid down, than that M. Loriot uses old flaked lime, that is, lime which has regained a part of the fixed air that had been expelled from it; and then, at the time of using the mortar,


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adds fresh powdered quicklime to the mass. In short, not being acquainted with the true principles of the art, he corrects the bad quality of the old and effete lime, which constitutes the basis of his mortar, by the addition of fresh and non-effervescent lime, haftily added to it, at the time of ufing the compofition, and which must undoubtedly improve the imperfect mars. On this subject, the Author, very properly in our opinion, observes, that when an ignorant artist makes mortar with whiting in, Itead of lime, he can mend it considerably by adding lime to it; but his mortar will still be defective, in comparison with the best that may be made, by reason of the old Naked lime og whiting. For on repeated trials I found this to be the true state of the cafe *,'

Before we conclude this article, we should add, that the Au. thor's observations and precepts do not merely reft on the small trials above mentioned, made with mortar spread on tiles, &c.; but that he has realised them in pradice, or on the great scale, particularly in incrustations, external and internal. Towards the end of this performance is given A Specification made in consequence of letters patent? granted to him; in which arc minutely delivered the most useful practical instructions, deduced from the foregoing experiments and observations. We here learn too that the Author has secured to Messrs. James and Samuel Wyatt, architects, an exclusive right in his cement: intending to confine this privilege to them, till the public convenience requires its extension to others equally well qualified and disposed to adopt his improvements in practice. With respect to his new cements employed in incrustations or fucco, exceeding Portland stone in hardness,' he refers the Reader to several houles in London and its neighbourhood, which he {pecifies; in which public trials have been made of his compofie tion, towards the end of the year 1778, and last year; and adds that Meffrs. Wyatt are engaged to stucco a great number of capital houses with it this summer.-" These,' says the Author, ' will be done in the highest perfection, because the work. men are now compliant, and experienced.'

We cannot conclude this Article without observing, that the public are much obliged to the ingenious Author for his meri, torious attempts to improve an art in which they are so much interested ; and for communicating to them the results of his numerous experiments, and the principles deducible from them. These principles, or at least a rational practice founded upon them, will soon, we hope, become known and familiar to the inferior artists, so as to constitute a part of their routine.

* For our account of M. Loriot's publication relative so this fube ject, see Rev. vol. li. p. 184.


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Art. VIII. Modern Anecdote of the ancient Family of the Kinkvervan.

kotsdarsprakengotcbderns. A Tale for Christmas. Dedicated to the Honourable Horace Walpole. 12mo.

Davenhill. HIS is the production of a sprightly mind, somewhat of

the Rabelaic cast. The story itself is rather a simple one, and required very little invention as to plot, machinery, or denouëment. It is called a Tale for Christmas, and a person with a lively fancy and a voluble tongue, might have told it extempore for the amusement of a company over a good fire, on a Christmas evening. : Cecil is the beautiful daughter of a proud German Baron, who had nothing to boaft of but a long line of distinguished anceftry. He was poor, but over full of the sentiment of familydignity, which was constantly nourished by a sight of his family-pictures. These covered every room of his castle. They were the chief objects of his contemplation in loiltude; and in company the chief subject of his conversation.

Franzel, the son of a Farmer-general, a handsome young fellow, who bore a commission in the army, accompanying his mother on a visit to the Baron, and conceived a strong passion for his lovely daughter, The pafsion was returned with equal warmth by Cecil. On a proposal of marriage by Madame Franzel, the Baron's pride disdained the connection of his daughter with a person not nobly defcended, however superior to himself in fortune. Cecil did not enter so readily into her father's prejudices. She loved Franzel; and at all adventures was determined to marry the man whom her heart had chosen. Her father pointed to the family-pictures; but they could not convince her that her love was ill placed : there was an argument that pressed with greater force, and spoke with an eloquence infinitely more af. fecting

Hogresten, a relation of the Baron, and resident at the castle, had conceived an affection for Cecil. This gentleman was alarmed with jealousy at Franzel's visit; and was afterwards confirmed in his suspicions of an amour, by an intercepted letter from Franzel to the young lady. This discovery enraged the Baron, and mortified Hogreften. From a passage in the letter, they concluded that Franzel would carry off the prize by stratagem, or some other means : to prevent which, poor Cecil was doomed to imprisonment in a large room that had only two windows, which were so near the ceiling, that it was impoffible for any one to reach them, even by getting on the chairs or tables.

In this confinement she was entrusted to the pious charge of the curate, who was instructed to use his utmost endeavours to reduce her to the will of her father. She outwitted the curate,


and interested him in her views of escaping from her prison, by assuring him that she was married to young Franzel. Through his hands the conveyed a letter to her lover, who, after reading it, answered in his usual impetuous manner, that after such a night, he should pass every succeeding one in waiting round the castle, or under the windows of the room she was locked up in, and receive her in his arms, the only place (added he) where you can be safe from perfecution !' That is very true, thought she; but how to get there is the dilemma!

The fair prisoner first tried by the help of chairs and tables, and bed-clothes, heaped on one another, to scale the wall and get to the window. But in vain. 'They would not reach half way up the horrid room.' At last, by the lucky help of a dream, which represented to her fancy the whole fuite of pictures in the room fallen down on the floor, a thought ftruck her head, when The awoke, that she could make a good use of this dream, and turn the pictures to some better account than her proud father had done. Cecil was cunning: and having outwitted the parson, thought it no difficult matter to over-reach her father.

She arose (the Tale says), sent for the Baron, and told him that she could not bear to see her honoured parents fo neglected. • Observe, Sir, said she, how the dust hides the respectable faces of those that hang uppermost. Might I be permitted a ladder to take them down, and have a little soap and water to clean them with ?'--He hesitated some time, and then consented. He brought the ladder himself in, and took down about fifty portraits, armed and not armed, of all ages and titles: and as he took them down he ranged them according to their descent upon the floor, against the wall, all round the room. Delightful oca cupation ! He grew an inch taller at every great action he recited; for he told the history of each of their lives to Cecil, who listened with complacency: only the Baron observed that her eyes were often turned towards the windows, which, as there was no view out of them, made him strongly suspect she had the ladder in view too.

The evening surprised them in their occupations. Hogreften came to partake of the amusement, and inform the Baron that dinner had waited a long time. The Baron, after having or. dered the ladder out of the room, quitted it, saying, I shall return to see the progress of your work, Cecil : and may your occupation remind you of your exalted birth, and may those respectable personages teach you your duty! I intend they Thall be my aid and support in future, indeed,' replied the.

As soon as the Baron was gone, Cecil still locked in, washed several more of her ancestor's faces. “Ah! cried she every now and then-ah! grim gentry, who have been the cause of so Rev. May, 1780



many a tear, you shall once in my life make up to me for all the sorrow you have occafioned.'

Soon after dinner the Baron returned with the ladder, which he took great care to have conveyed out at night again; though on purpose to confirm his suspicions, the desired it might remain.

• She could not refuse herself the malicious pleasure that evening of encouraging Hogreften's awkward addrefies. She promised her father to marry him.-_When night came, she permitted Hogreften to kiss her hand, and said, as her father went out, that she was not at all afraid of sceping in so large, a room with so much good company,' pointing to the pictures, Locked in, the waited till she thought every one asleep : then few to her honoured ancestors, and without regard to precedency or decency, Ine heaped grandfathers on grandmothers; knights on old maiden aunts; he coulins bearing armour on the-coulins bearing distaffs. In her hurry indeed, now and then, she made by turns the ladies support the gentlemen, and the gentlemen the ladies : here a father's head refted on a daughter's feet: there a mother's face met a son's buikins: Marp-pointed Aippers rubbed against flowing perukes: coifs and pinners were joined to longnecked spurs. In short, heads and tails were jumbled together, and parts never intended by nature or good manners to meet, kiffed each other. Thus, one by one, the noble family, as fast as she could heap them on each other, made a pile which reached to the windows : Adieu, Meffieurs et Mesdames!

said the, as the Sprung out of the window into her handsome Frederic's arms : -where we will leave her. Can we dispose of her better?

There is a pleasantry and vivacity in the manner in which this Christmas Tale is related : there is an elegance too in some of the descriptions. The reflections are not deftitute of humour and acuteness. As to the moral of the story, we muft leave the fagacious Reader to make that important discovery for himself. The grave and the gay will pass sentence according to their different feelings. The former will call the fair Cecil a giddy, obstinate creature, who deserved to have had her neck brokery when the took the lover's leap. The latter will commend her fpirit and address. The inference we fagely draw from this genuine anecdote of the ancient house of Kink is this : that love opposed, produces both craft and fortitude : and that when a young Franzel enters a girl's heart, castles will be no defence ;-he will fly to his arms in spite of fathers, families, and family-pictures.



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