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And it shall come to pass in that day, that JeHOVAH shall give thee rest from thine affliction, and from thy disquiet, and from the hard fervitude, which was laid upon thee : and thou shalt pronounce this parable upon the king of Babylon; and shalt say: How hath the oppreffor ceased! the exactress of gold

ceased ! JEHOVAH hath broken the staff of the wicked, the sceptre of

the rulers. He that smote the peoples in wrath, with a stroke unremitted ; He that ruled the nations in anger, is persecuted, and none

hinderech. The whole earth is at rest, is quiet; they burst forth into a

joyful shout:

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is added in ההוא The word .ביום ההוא [in that day- .3

two mss, and was in the copies from which the ixx and Vulg. trapflated : Ey Ty nuecer EXEDY %, in die illa, in area AVT:, MS Pachom. add. ing ). This is a matter of no great consequence : however, it reftores the text to the common form, alm ft conftantly used on such occasions ; and is one among many instances of a word lost out of the printed copies.

4. -- this parable-] Majhal. I take this to be the general name for poetic style among the Hebrews, including every sort of it, as ranging under one, or other, or all of the characters, of Sententious, Figurative, and Sublime; which are all contained in the original notion, or in the use and application of the word mashal. Parables or Proverbs, such as those of Solomon, are always expressed ia mort pointed sentences ; frequently figurative, being formed on some comparison; generally forcible and authoritative, both in the matter and the form. And such in general is the style of the Hebrew Poetry: The verb mahal signifies to rule, to exercise autho. rity ; to make equal, to compare, one thing with another ; to utter parables, or acute, weighty, and powerful speeches, in the form and manner of parables, though not properly such. Thus Balaam's first prophecy, Num. xxiii. 7-10, is called his masal; though it has hardly any thing figurative in it; but it is beautifully fententious, and, from the very form and manner of it, has great spirit, force, and energy. Thus Job's last speeches, in answer to the Three Friends, chap. xxvii, - xxxi. are called mashals; from no one parti. cular character, which discriminates them from the rest of the poem, but from the sublime, the figurative, the sententious manner, which equally prevails through the whole poem, and makes it one of the first and most eminent examples extant of the truly great and beautiful in poetic style.

The exx in this place render the word by Oppvos, a lamentation. They plainly consider the speech here introduced as a piece of poetry, and of that species of poetry, which we call the Elegiac: either from the subject, it being a poem on the fall and death of the king of Ba. bylon; or from the form of the composition, which is of the Longer fort of Hebrew verse, in which the Lamentations of Jeremiah, called by the Lxx Jerror, are written.

3 Even the fir-trees rejoice over thee, the cedars of Libanus :

Since thou art fallen, no feller hath come up against us. 9. Hades from beneath is moved because of thee, to meet

thee at thy coming : He rouseth for thee the mighty dead, all the great chiefs of

the earth ; He makech to rise up from their thrones, all the kings of the

nations, 10 All of them hall accoft thee, and shall say unto thes:

Art chou, even thou too, become weak as we? art thou made

like unto us? 11 Is then thy pride brought down to the grave; the sound of

thy sprightly inftruments ? Is the vermin become thy couch, and the earth-worm thy covering? How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the

Morning! Art cut down to the earth, thou that didst subdue the nations! 13 Yet thou didst say in thy heart: I will ascend the heavens ;

Above the stars of God I will exalt my throne;
And I will fit upon the mount of the divine presence, on the

fides of the north: 14 I will afcend above the highths of the clouds; I will be like

the most High. 15. But thou shalt be brought down to the grave, to the sides of

the pit. 16 Those that see thee Mall look attentively at thee; they

shall well consider thee : Is this the man, that made the earth to tremble; that thook

the kingdoms ? 12 That made the world like a desert; that destroyed the cities?

That never dismissed his captives to their own home?


il -thy covering-] Twenty-eight Mss, (ten Ancient) and feven Editions, with che Lxx and Vulg. read 70391, in the fingular number.

· 13. The mount of the divine presence-] It appears plainly from Exod. xxv, 22. and xxix. 42, 43. where God appoints the place of meeting with Moses, and promises to meet with him before the ark, to commune with him, and to speak unto him ; and to meet the children of Israel at the door of the Tabernacle; that the Tabernacle, and afterward the Temple, and Mount Sion, (or Moriah, which is reckoned a part of Sion,) whereon it itood, was called the Tabernacle, and the Mount, of Convention, or of Appointment ;. not from the people's assembling there to perform the services of their religion, (which is what our Translation expresses by calling it the Tabernacle of the Congregation,) but because God appointed that for the place, where He himself would meet with Mofes, and commune with him, and would meet with the people. Therefore,

,means the place appointed by God ,אהל מועד or ,הר מועך

where he would present himself: agreeably to which I have rendered it in this place, the Mount of the Divine Presence.'

18 All 18. All the kings of the nations, all of them,

Lie down in glory, each in his own sepulchre : 19 But thou art cait out of the grave, as the tree abominated :

Cloached with the sain, with the pierced by the sword,
With them that go down to the stones of the pit; as a trod-

den carcase.
20 Thou shalt not be joined unto them in burial;

Because thou hast deltroyed thy country, thou hast sain thy

people :

The seed of evil doers shall never be renowned. 21 Prepare ye Daughter for his children, for the iniquity of

their fathers; Lest they rise, and possess the earth; and fill the face of the

world with cities. 22 For I will arise against them, faith JEHOVAH God of Hosts :

And I will cut off from Babylon the name, and the remoant ;
And the son, and the son's son, faith JEHOVAH.

19.- like the tree abominated-] That is, as an object of abomination and deteftation ; such as the tree is, on which a malefa&or has been hanged. “ It is written, saith St. Paul, Galat. ii. 13. cursed is every man that hangech on a tree :" from Deut. xxi. 23. The Jews therefore held also as accussed and polluted the tree itself on which a malefactor had been executed, or on which he had been hanged after having been put to death by stoning. “ Non suspendunt super arbore, quæ radicibus solo adhæreat ; led super ligno era. dicato, ut ne fit excisio molefta : nam lignum, super quo fuis aliquis suspensus, cum suspendioso sepelitur ; ne maneat illi malum nomen, & dicant homines, Iftud eft lignum, in quo suspensus est ille, o dervizo Sic lapis, quo aliquis fuit lapidatus ; & gladius, quo fuit occisus is qui eit occisus ; & sudarium five mantile, quo fuit aliquis ftrangulatus; omnia hæc cum iis, qui perierunt, fepeliuntur." Maimonides, apud Casaub. in Baron. Exercitat. xvi. An. 34. Num. 134. “ Cum itaque homo suspensus maximæ effet abominationi,- Judæi quoque præ cæteris abominabantur lignum quo fuerat suspensus, ita ut illud quoque terra tegerent, tanquam rem abominabilem. Unde Iaterpres Chaldæus hæc verba tranftulit 700 ON), ficut virgultum abfconditum, five sepultum." Kalinski, Vaticinia Observationibus illuftrata, p. 342. Agreeably to which, Theodoret, Hift. Ecclefiaft. i. 17, 18, in his account of the finding of the Cross by Helena, says, that the three Crosses were buried in the earth near the place of our Lord's sepulchre.

Ibid. -cioathed with the slain.] Thirty five mss (en Ancient), and three Edicions, have the word fully written, was. It is not a noun, but the participle pallive: thrown out among the common llain, and covered with the dead bodies. So ver, 11. the earth. worm is said to be his bed-covering.

20. Because thou haft deltroyed thy country ; thou hast llain thy people.] Xenophon gives an instance of this king's wanton cruelty in killing the son of Gobrias, on no other provocation than that, in hunting, he struck a boar and a lion, which the king had missed. Cyrop. iv. p. 309.

23 And I will make it an inheritance for the porcupin., and

pools of water;
And I will plunge it in the miry gulph of destruction, faith

JEHOVAH God of Hofts.
24 Jehovah God of Holts hath sworn, saying:

Surely as I have devised, ro shall it be ;

And as I have purposed, that thing Mall stand:
25 To crush the Assyrian in my land, and to trample him on my

Then Ihall his yoke depart from off them ;

And his burthen shall be removed from off their shoulder.
26 This is the decree, which is determined on the whole

earth; And this the hand, which is stretched out over all the nations : 27 For JEHOVAH God of Hofts hath decreed ; and who shall dif.

annul it? And it is his hand, that is stretched out; and who shall turn

it back?




Rejoice not, o Phililia, with one confent; .
Because the rod, that smote chce, is broken :
For from the root of the serpent shall come forth a basilik;
Aod his fruit thall be a flying fiery serpent.
For the poor shall feed on my choice first-fruits ;
And the needy Mall lie down in security :
But he will kill chy root with drought;


23. I will plunge it-] I have here very nearly followed the ver. fion of the Lxx: the reasons for which see in the lait Note on De Poesi Hebr. Prælect. xxviii.

25. To crush the Assyrian-on my mountains] The Assyrians and Babylonians are the same people: Herod, i. 199, 200. Babylon is reckoned the principal city in Aflyria: ibid. 178. Scrabo says the same thing; lib, xvi. sub, inic. The circumstance of this judgment's being to be executed on God's mountains is of importance : it may mean the destruction of Senacherib's army near Jerusalem ; and have ftill a further view : compare Ezek. xxxix, 4. and fee Lowth on chis place of Isaiah.

28. Uzziah had subdued the Philistines, 2 Chron. xxvi. 6, 7; bot taking advantage of the weak reign of Ahaz, they invaded Judea, and took and held in poßeflion some cities in the southern part of the kingdom. On the death of Ahaz, Isaiah delivers this prophecy, threatening them with the destruction that Hezekiah, his son, aod great grandson of Uzziah, hould bring upon them: which he effeated; for " he smore the Philistines, even unto Gaza, and the borders thereof.” 2 Kings xviii. 8. Uzziah therefore muit be meant by the rod that ímoie them, and by the serpent, from whom hould (pring the flying fiery ferpent; that is, Hezekiah, a much Inre : prihle enerny, than even Uzziah had been. m. pr. 1780.



And thy remnant he will say.

Howl, O gate ; cry out, О city!
O Philiftia, thou art altogether funk in consternation!
For from the north cometh a smoke ;

And there shall not be a Itraggler among his levies. 32 And what answer thall be given to the ambassadors of the

nations ?
That JEHOVAH hath laid the foundation of Sion ;

And the poor of his people hall take refuge in her. Any person who shall hereafter be disposed to enter more deeply into the theological explanation of the prophecies of Ifaiah, will now be enabled to purfue his design with fingular advantage,

30. —He will Nay) The 1xx read 0977, in the third perfon, areas; and ro Chald. The Vulgate remedies the confusion of persons in the present text, by reading both the verbs in the first perfon.

31. Prom the North cometh a smoke] That is, a cloud of dust, railed by the march of Hezekiah's army against Philiftia, which lay to the south-west from Jerusalem. A great del raised has, at a distance, the appearance of smoke : " fumantes pulvere campi." Virg. Æn, xi. 908.

32. .- to the ambassadors of the nations] The Lxx read in eOvwv, plural; and so the Chaldee. The ambassadors of the neighbouring nations, that send to congratulate Hezekiah on his success ; which in his answer he will afcribe to the protection of God. See 2 Chron. xxxii. 23. Or, if yy, singular, the reading of the Text, be preferred, the ambassadors sent by the Philistines to demand peace. Art. IV. The British Fruit-Gardener; and Art of Pruning; com

prising, the most approved Methods of Planting and Railing every useful Fruit-Tree and Fruit-bearing-Shrub, whether for Walls, E spaliers, Standards, Half-Szandards, or Dwarfs: The true suce ceisful Pra&ice of Pruning, Training, Grafting, Budding, &c. fo as to render them abundantly fruitful: And full Directions concerning Soils, Situacions, and Exposures, By John Abercrombie, of Tottenham-Court, Gardener; Author of Every Man his own Gardener, First published under the Name of Thomas Mawe. 4 s. bound. Davis. 1779. THOUGH the experienced Gardener may, perhaps, find

1 little in the present publication that is altogether new, yet it is not without its use. Whatever, has been hitherto written on this subject was rarely to be met with, except in voluminous works t, intermixed with other matter in which the mere fruit-gardener had no concern; or in compendiums of gardening, in which the subject was very imperfectly treated.

+ We most except Mr. Hitt's valuable tratile on Fruit-Trees, in one delavo volume; an account of which was given in the 13th vol. of our Review.

• With

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