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in a long dissertation, honestly endeavours to restore it to the Conqueror. He examines with care Mr. Colebrooke's arguments, and while he answers them, takes notice of other mir, takes in regard to nummulary affairs. After these animadversions, he concludes his memoir, by applauding the account Mr. Colebrooke has given of the method they formerly took in making their dyes *
The time when clocks were first made, is a curious subject of enquiry, and is here pursued by the Hon. Daines Barrington. He observes, that Dante is the first author who mentions an orologio which struck the hour. Earlier instances of horologia, mentioned in different treatises, might be produced ; but as the word is indeterminate, signifying a dial or a clock, he considers Dante as the highest authority to which striking clocks can decisively be traced. Dante died in 1321; and it is concluded, that these measurers of time could not have been very uncommon in Italy, at the latter end of the thirteenth century. But their use was not confined to Italy at this period; for we had, Mr. Barrington remarks, one of these artists in England, precisely about the same time, who furnilhed the famous clockhouse, near Westminster-Hall, with a clock to be heard by the courts of law, out of a fine imposed on the Chief Justice of thing's-Bench, in the fixteenth year of Edward I. or A. D. 1288. This gentleman farther produces a proof, that not only clocks but watches were made in the beginning of the fourteenth century. Seven or eight years ago, he tells us, some labourers were employed at Bruce-Castle, in Fife-lhire, where they found a watch, together with some coin, both of which they disposed of to a shopkeeper of St. Andrews, who sent the watch to his brother in London, considering it as a curious piece of antiquity. The outer case is of silver, raised, in rather a handsome pattern, over a ground of blue enamel, and Mr. Barrington thinks he can distinguish a cypher of R. B. at each corner of the enchaled work. On the dial-plate is written, Robertus B. Rex Scotorum, and over it is a convex transparent horn, instead of the glasses we use at present. Robert Bruce, to whom this watch may, without much doubt, be referred, began his reign in 1305, and died in 1328.
A survey of Nonsuch House and Park cum pertinentiis, A.D. 1650, is taken from the original in the Augmentation Office. It is a curiosity, as giving us a view of the state of this place at that time, which was percell of the possessions & joynture Jands of Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I.' But it will not properly admit of extracts or farther account, only we may observe, that the surveyors say that the materials of the said man.
• Vid. Rev. vol, lvii. p. 265.
fion-house, and other buildings, should they be taken down, are worth, exclusive of the charge of taking down the same, the sum of 70201.
This volume concludes by a short supplement to the Prefident's Article, giving an account of some antiquities found near the Tower of London. This supplement presents us with a pretty engraving of an elegant little crown, of the finest gold, having four strawberry leaves placed on the fillet, in each of which are set three small pearls, with an emerald in the center : round the center are placed eight small pearls, four rough rubies, and four cmeralds, a ruby under the center of each leaf, and an emerald under each intermediate point. It is supposed to have been intended to adorn the head of a small statue of the Virgin Mary, or some other saint which had been placed in an oratory, or private chapel.
We have thus laid before our Readers a brief account of the Several papers of which this volume consists. The book will afford fome agreeable entertainment, and much information, for those who have any taste for studies of this kind ;-studies which certainly merit the regard of all who do not think an acquaintance with The History of the Rise and Progress of Human Societies an useless attainment.
ART. III. Concluson of our Account of the Bishop of London's 'Isaiah.'
See Review for March, 1779.
kinds of Hebrew poetry is so curious, and, at the same time, fo new to the generality of our Readers, that we have thought ourselves amply justified in asigning three Articles to that subject. Having, however, already afforded so much room to this important publication, our account of the remainder of it must necessarily be shortened.
In the latter part of the Preliminary Dissertation, the Bishop points out the first and principal business of a translator, which is, to give the plain, literal, and grammatical sense of his author; the obvious meaning of his words, phrases, and sentonces. Whatever indulgence may be allowed him in other respects, the want of fidelity admits of no excuse, and is intitled to no indulgence. It being then a translator's indispensable duty faithfully and religiously to express the sense of his author, he ought to take great care that he proceed upon just principles of criticism, in a rational method of interpretation; and that the copy from which he translates be accurate and perfect in itself, or corrected as carefully as possible by the best authorities, and on the clearest result of critical inquiry.
Among Among other obstructions to the right interpretation of the scriptures of the Old Testament, a progress in the study of these writings hath been greatly impeded by prejudice, and an illa founded opinion of the authority of the Jews, both as interpreters
and conservators of them. Here Dr. Lowth takes occa. sion to condemn the servile regard that hath been paid to the Masoretic punctuation, which is in effect no more than an interpretation of the Hebrew text made by the Jews of late ages, probably not earlier than the eighth century; and which may be considered as their translation of the Old Testament. Another prejudice, which has stood in the way, and obstructed our progress in the true understanding of the Old Testament, is the notion that has prevailed of the great care and skill of the Jews in preserving the text, and transmitting it down to the present times, pure and intirely free from all mistakes as it came from the hands of the authors. In opposition to this opinion, the Bishop considers the sources of the variations in the ancient copies; and with regard to the real condition of the present Hebrew text, concludes it to be such, as from the nature of the thing, the antiquity of the writings themselves, and the want of due care, or critical skill, might in all reason have been expected. The mistakes are frequent, and of various kinds; of letters, words, and sentences; by variation, omifsion, tranfpofition, such as often injure the beauty and elegance, embarrass the construction, alter or obscure the sense, and sometimes render it quite unintelligible.
If it be objected that so large a concession tends to invalidate the authority of scripture, our ingenious Writer thinks that this is a vain and groundless apprehension.
! Casual errors, says he, may blemish parts, but do not destroy, or much alter the whole. If the lliad or the Eneid had come down to us with more errors in all the copies than are to be found in the worft Manuscript now extant of either; without doubt many particular passages would have lost much of their beauty, in many the sense would have been greatly injured, in some rendered wholly unintelligible ; but the plan of the Poem in the whole and in its parts the Fable, the Mythology, the Machinery, the Characters, the great constituent parts, would ttill have been visible and apparent, without having fuffered any essential diminution of their greatness. Of all the precious remains of antiquity, perhaps Ariftotle's Treatise on Poetry is come down to us as much injured by time as any: as it has been greatly mutilated in the whole, fome considerable members of it being loit; so the parts remaining have suffered in proportion, and many passages are rendered very obscure, probably by the imperfection and frequent mistakes of the copies now extant. Yet, notwithstanding these disadvantages, this creatise, so much injured by time and so mutilated, still continues to be the great Code of Cri. ricism ; the fundamental principles of which are plainly deducible from it: we ftill have recourse to it for the rules and laws of Epic
and and Dramatic Poetry, and the imperfection of the Copy does not at all impeach the authority of the Legillator. Important and fundamental doctrines do not wholly depend on single passages; an uni. versal harmony runs through the Holy Scriptures; the parts mutually support each other, and supply one another's deficiencies and obscusities. Superficial damages and partial defects may greatly diminish the beauty of the edifice, without injuring its ftrength, and bringing on utter ruin and destruction.'
The copies of the Holy Scriptures of the Old Testament being then subject, like all other ancient writings, to mistakes arising from the unskilfulness or inattention of transcribers, it is to be confidered what remedy can be applied in this case ; how such mistakes can be corrected upon certain or highly probable grounds. Now the cafe being the same, the method, which has been used with good effect in correcting ancient Greek and Latin authors, ought, in all reason, to be applied to the Hebrew writings. This and the other methods pursued by Dr. Lowth, in the present work, are here fully explained; and he is very particular in acknowledging his obligations to his learned friends, especially to Dr. Kennicott.
Though the Bishop hath ventured to call this a new translation, he observes, that much of our vulgar tranflation is retained in it, and he affigns unanswerable reasons to thew, that taking too great liberties in varying either the expression or the compofition, in order to give a new air to the whole, would be apt to have a very bad effect. Accordingly, our Author is of cpinion, that, whenever it shall be thought proper to set forth the Holy Scriptures, for the public use of the Church, to better advantage than as they appear in the present English tranNation (the expediency of which grows every day more and more evident), a revision or correction of that translation may perhaps be more advisable, than to attempt an entirely new one. For as to the style, it admits but of little improvement; but, in respect of the sense, and the accuracy of the interpretation, the improvements of which it is capable are great and numberless.In these remarks, we entirely agree with our worthy Prelate.
The design of the Notes is to give the reasons and authorities on which this translation is founded; to rectify or to ex• plain the words of the text; to illustrate the ideas, the images and the allusions of the prophet, by referring to objects, no. tions, and customs, which peculiarly belong to his age and country; and to point out the beauties of particular passages. Somctimes, indeed, our Right Reverend Author tells us that he endeavours to open the design of the prophecy, to Thew the connection between its parts, and to point out the event which it foretels. But, in general, all that he undertakes, is faithfully to express the literal sense. If the Reader would go deeper into the mystical sense, into theological, historical, and chronolo
gical gical disquisitions, there are many learned expositors to whom he may have recourse, who have written full commentaries on this prophet; to which title, says his Lordship, the present work has no pretensions. " The sublime and spiritual uses to be made of this peculiarly evangelical prophet, must be all founded on a faithful representation of the literal sense which his words contain. This is what I have endeavoured closely and exactly to express. And within the limits of this humble, but necessary, province, my endeavours must be confined.'
We cannot, however, avoid expreffing our sincere regret that the Bishop did not extend his views much farther; and we must acknowledge that in this respect we have been disappointed. It is, no doubt, of great consequence to have an accurate and elegant translation of Isaiah, accompanied with such notes as are described above. But it is of much greater import to have the design of the prophecies in the Book of Isaiah fully opened, and the events they predict precisely and clearly ascertained ; and especially that this lhould be done, with regard to those prophecies which relate, or are supposed to relate to the Mer. fiah, and the times of the gospel. Notwithstanding the labours of former commentators, there is still room for much useful and important criticism upon these heads; and from whom was it to be expected, if not from the Bihop of London?
As a specimen of this excellent work, we shall insert the translation, with the notes, of the fourteenth chapter of Ilaiah, being part of the prophet's sublime oracle concerning Babylon:
For Jehovah will have compassion on Jacob,
And shall cleave onto the house of Jacob.
1. And will yet choose Israel.] That is, will still regard Israel as his chosen people; however he may seem to defert thein, by giving them up to their enemies, and scattering them among the nations. Judah is sometimes called Israel : see Ezek. xiii. 16. Malach. i. 1. ii. 11, but the name of Jacob, and of Israel, used apparently with design in this place ; each of which names includes the twelve Tribes; and the other circumsiances mentioned in this and the next verse, which did not in any complete sense accompany the return from the captivity of Babylon; seem to intimare, chat this whole prophecy extends its views beyond that event.