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Art. II. Archaeologia: or, Miscellaneous Tracts relative to Anti
quity, &c. Vol. V. Concluded. See Review for February. VHE Dune, or Tower of Dornadilla, is described by the
Rev. Mr. Pope, minister of Reay. It is situated in the parish of Duirnes, on Lord Reay's estate. The height of its present ruins is 25 feet on one side; on the other, it is only 9. The door, 3 feet square, fronts the north-east, as we are told is the case in all round buildings in the north. The walls are very thick, and within is an opening or passage, divided into galleries, which run horizontally round about the building; each gallery is 5 feet high; the floor is laid with large flat stones, which gird and bind the whole building compactly together. The common conjecture is, that these galleries were for sleeping-rooms, or barracks, in the hunting season. Beside thele, there are other openings, full of shelves, formed of large flat stones, the use of which seems to have been to give light and fresh air to those who lept in the galleries, to hold their quivers or baggage, and perhaps, the lower shelves were cup-boards, and presses for their victuals. What conveniency they had at the bottom is not known, nine feet being filled with stones. Three of the galleries are entire, and goats take shelter in them in Snowy weather. The building was at first much higher, and would make, it is said, a grand figure in a foreit. The masonry, we are told, is extremely well done, but without either lime or clay. Some maintain, that this Dune of Dornadilla was a druidical temple ; but that, Mr. Pope observes, cannot be the case, as the Druids made no use of roofed, or covered buildings, and it appears, that this building was roofed like the round Pictish houtes; befide, he adds, in that age, there were no inhabitants in these parts to worship in any temple. It does not, however, appear improbable, but that this Dupe may have been erected by the Danes, as there are two buildings, said to be exactly the same in other respects, only of larger dimensions, in Glenbeg, which are ascribed to that people. But Mr. Pope informs us, that there is a fragment of a very old poem still preserved, which mentions Dornadilla as the chieftain or prince, for whose fake this building was erected. Concerning this Dornadilla, little more has reached the present day, than that he spent his time in hunting, and was the first who enacted forest laws. Mr. Pope does not mention the age in which Dornadilla lived. The print consists of the elevation of the tower, and a section of it.
Stone coffins have been frequently found in different parts of England. Mr. Pegge, in a letter to Gustavus Brander, Esq; offers a few observations relative to some lately discovered at Chrift-Church, Twynham. The kift vaen of the Britons,
he been any
he apprehends, were of this kind, some of which rude sepulchral receptacles, he says, he has seen in Derbyshire. These at Chrift-Church are somewhat more artificial than those of the ancient Britons, but as they are formed of ten of eleven pieces (a print of which is exhibited), and there does not appear to have
stone underneath for the body interred to lie on, Mr. Pegge concludes, that they are very ancient, the production of a rude and barbarous age ( perhaps the fourth century), and affording a strong proof that Twynham was very anciently settled.
Mr. King presents the Society with two small fragments of antiquity; the one a brick of a very singular form, and ornamented with the representation of some flower, which was found with several others, in clearing away the foundation of an old malting-house, in 1776, in Mersey Isand : its texture leads him to fuppose, that it is not of so high antiquity as the times of the Romans. The oher fragment was dug up in the same year, near Colchester, by a labourer, who, at the time, discovered about thirty of the same fort, but began immediately to dath them all to pieces, with a view, as he said, “ to save himself the plague and trouble of answering the enquiries that would be made about them.” It was merely by accident that three of them were preserved. This vessel (of which, and the other, is a little print) Mr. King fupposes to be a kind of lachrymatory; made of course red earth, His article is but short, and he apologizes for descanting on what may be thought trivial, by observing, that many things which appear of little importance when seen separately, have been found very uleful means of illuftrating curious facts, when viewed with others collectively.
In the 23d article, written by Mr. Brooke, of the Herald's college, we have a description of the great seal of Catherine Parr, the sixth wife of Henry VIII. It is taken from an im. pression in the collection of Mr. Guftavus Brander. Henry, says Mr. Brooke, was exceeding kind in granting arms to his wives, though he deprived them of their heads. This seal, the sculpture of which appears to have been very elegant, gives an opportunity for many observations on the family and conneccions of Catherine Parr; to which is added, a curious account of this great lady's funeral, taken from a book in the Cotton library, and never before made public.
The description of an ancient fortification near Christe Church, Hampshire, is written by Francis Grose, Esq. It is accompanied with drawings of the entrenchment on Hengiftbury-head, and the camp on St. Catherine's-hill. Mr. Grose apprehends, that these are the remains of Roman works. The name of Hengijt seems to direct us to another origin; but that name may have been given after the times of the Romans, though the works were raised by their skill and induftry.
An account of ancient monuments and fortifications in the Highlands of Scotland, forms a long article, in a letter from Mr. James Anderson to George Wilson, Esq. Mr. Anderson reduces the remains of antiquities in Scotland to fix classes. I. Mounds of earth thrown into a sort of hemispherical form, which are sometimes found in the south of Scotland, and usually distinguished by the name of mote or moat, which, he supposes, from the name, and other circumstances, to have been erected as theatres of justice by our Saxon ancestors. II. The Cairns, which are evidently fepulchral monuments, to be met with in every part of the country. III. The long stones set on end in the earth, which are known to be monuments, intended to perpetuate the memory of some signal event in war. There, he supposes, to be of later date than the cairns, as there is hardly one of them whose traditional history is not preserved by the country people in the neighbourhood; and it is not difficult to reconcile these traditional narratives with the records of history. Mr. Anderson conjectures, that this kind of monument was first introduced into Britain by the Danes. IV. Large stones placed in an erect position and circular form, which, being less known than the former, and confined to a narrower district, are more particularly described. Their situation and form are said to intimate, that they have been places destined for some kind of religious worship. Mr. Anderson has examined a great number of them, and finds, that by restoring the parts which have been demolished, they would all coincide very exactly with a plan here given, and drawn from one still very entire, at a place called Hill of Fiddess. These, without doubt, are druidical temples. V. Circular buildings, consisting of walls composed of stones, firmly bedded on one another, without any cement, and usually distinguished by the word Dun. A particular account, with a print annexed, is given of the remains of one of these buildings, called Dun- Agglefag, in Ross-lhire. Mr. Anderson concludes, that these have been places of religious worship, and observes, that though every erection of this kind has the syllable Dun prefixed to the name of the place in which it stands, yet the particular building itself is always called the Druid's house, as the Druid's house of Dun-Beath, of DunAgglesag, &c. This remark seems rather to militate against Mr. Pope's opinion, as expressed above, concerning the Dune of Dornadilla ; though it must be acknowledged, this latter Tower or Dun, seems to differ in some respects from those here mentioned. VI. The moft remarkable of all the Scottish antiquities are the vitrified walls; which consist of stones piled rudely on one another, and firmly cemented together by a matter that has been vitrified by means of fire, which forms a kind of artificial rock, that refifts the viciffitudes of the weather, perRev. April, 1780.
haps better than any other artificial cement that has ever get been discovered. In the northern parts of Scotland, a particular kind of earthy iron ore, of a vitrescible nature, much abounds. Mr. Anderson fupposes, that there walls were raised of dry stones, piled one above another, the interftices between them being filled with this vitrescible iron ore ; after which, a fire was kindled, sufficiently intense to melt the ore, and thus to cement the whole into one coherent mass, as far as the in Auence of that heat extended. A particular description, attended with a print, is given of a fortification of this kind at Knockferrel, in Ross-shire, and several ingenious remarks are added, for which we must refer the reader to the article itself, only observing, that the writer inclines to consider these walls as entirely a British invention.
The derivation of the word Romance, formed an article in the last volume of Archaeologia *. Mr. Warton, in his history of English poetry, had supposed it of French extraction. Mr. Drake derives it from the Spanish : Mr. Bowles again, in this volume, defends Mr. Warton's opinion. But it appears a very immaterial dispute, since all agree, that the word has its derivation from the language which the Romans introduced among the French and Spaniards, which was styled Romansh.
Mr. Pegge, in a dissertation of seven pages, employs himself to amend and explain an historical paffage of Gildas. His criticisms are learned and ingenious, and appear to be judicious and satisfactory; but we cannot give our readers any just idea concerning it, without extracting a greater part of the article than our limits will allow. The paflage is to be found, Gildas, cap. 15. and begins, Itaque illis ad sua revertentibus, &c. Mr. Pegge's translation is, On the departure of the Romans to their own home, a horrid crew of Scots and Picts. disembarked, with the utmost haste and eagerness, from on board the corraghs in which they had crossed the Irise sea, and being sensible that our allies were withdrawn, with a declaration never to return, they, with more boldness than ever, seized the north-eastern, and remote part of the country, even up to the wall, expelling thence all the natives, or former inhabitants.”
The seal of Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry IV. of France, and wife to our Charles I., affords a good plate. On the reverse is the queen, at full length, under a canopy, crowned, and in royal robes, with the scepter in her right hand, and the globe in her left. It is of brass, and appears to be finely cut. Mr. Brereton observes, that the portion this queen brought with her was only 60,oco French crowns, which Charles soon disposed of, and made grants of lands to her in lieu of it, for
. Vid. Rev, vol. Ivii. p. 265.
lives and years, at Chertsey, and in several counties in England, which accounts for her having such a seal. Several Teases granted by her, with this seal annexed, are still extant, and I have heard, says this gentleman, of one which appears to have been executed sometime after her death, the seal being always kept in England.
Within the space of a few years back, fome persons, curious in antiquities, have observed a peculiar kind of red earthen ware among the cottage furniture of the fishermen, on the Kentish coast, within the mouth of the river Thames. The current tradition, concerning the great quantity of earthen ware of this kind, which has been found, is that some Roman veslel, freighted with these wares, must have been many ages ago caft away, since which, from time to time, parts of its lading have been dragged up by the fishermen's nets. The place of the wreck has been supposed to be somewhere about Whitstable. Bay. Thomas Pownal, Esq; has employed much attention and care to enquire into this fact. His brother, a commissioner of excise, at length prevailed with an old fisherman, who had two or three of these Roman pans in his possession for domestic use, to attend him to the spot, known by the name of Puddingpan-sand, or rock. On the first hale of the net, along one side of this shoal, they brought up a large fragment of brick-work cemented together, which might be about half a hundred weight, and with it pieces of broken pans. On farther trials they brought up three entire pans. Mr. Pownal observes, that this spot has been long known not only to our filhermen, but also to our geographers, for the long sand in the middle of the mouth of the Thames, but particularly what has been called the speck of it (perhaps from having been just there visible) the Pan-fand. It is so marked in all our oldest maps and charts. From the rocky feel of this speck, and from the mass of brick-work which was brought up, he concludes, that here are the ruins of build. ings; at Te same time, the quantities of earthen ware which have been discovered, indicate that there has been some store or manufactory of this kind at this place. Under this idea, Mr. Pownal has examined the ancient geography, and finds, in Prolemy's second book of geography, iwo islands in the mouth of the, Thames, Τολιαπις and Κωνος Νησος, the former is known to be the ille of Shepey, the second cannot be the isle of Thanet, on account of the latitude, which agrees with the spot under examination. After other confiderations in support of this supposition, he confiders the ware here discovered, which is of two forts, the one red, the Ionian, or particularly the Samian, and this is most commonly found; the other of the dark Tuscan brown, or black. The first is of a coarser kind; the latter is thin, light, and of a finer texture. The vefsels of T 2