order. The Author explains each word in such a manner, that the Reader may perceive, at first fight, what is its original meaning, and in what signification it is employed by the abovementioned interpreters and writers. He points out its different fignifications, the Hebrew and Chaldaic terms, that bear the same sense, and the use that the writers of the New Teftament have made of it. All this is accompanied with philological and critical remarks, drawn from profane authors, concord. alices, glossaries, and the best critics and commentators, an. cient and modern, which are adapted to illustrate each word, and to ascertain its various significations, according to the occasions and subjects on which it is employed.

We shall insert here a single article of this volume (which carries the work to the leiter E inclusive), that the Reader may judge of the manner in which the learned Author has executed his extensive plan. ' 'Apern, virtus, decus, gloria, honor, laus, 7177 decus, gloria, Hab. iii. 2. insinutev spar's Ý SETY QUTX, operuit cxtos gloria ejus, i. e. gloriosa potentia ejus, fapientia et bonitas e coelo undequaque ita apparent, ac fi illud opertum quafi divinis illis perfectionibus efet. Quod hic apetri vocatur, Pr, xix. I. dicitur dóba. Apud Hesychium opetu exponitur Jeix durauss, divina potentia. Quæ tamen explicatio, fi ad prophetæ 1. c. ibi refpicitur, uti videtur, rem non fatis exhaufit. Zach. vi. 1?. xai autos anteTaE opstav, et ille aflumet gloriam. Idem hic Letn notat, quod Pf. viii. 5, et Heb. ii. 7. Doxa xai topeni, gloria et bonor. Sic et apud poëtas Græcos apetú gloriam, honorem denotat; Homerus Il. ú. v. 242.

Ζευς δ' αρετήν άνδρεσσιν οφέλλει τε μινύθει τε

Yupiter autem viris honorem et auget et minuit. Hefiodus“Epy v. 311.

- πλατω δ αρετή και κύδος οπησει

divitias autem honos et gloria comitatur. Confer quæ ex Plutarche de Audiend. Poet. p. 24, notat Lamh. Bos Observ. Critic, p. 112, 777777 laudes, El. xlii. 8. Am Sóxv ux frépw s dcow ide roos apenas por Tots gaurlos. Gloriam mcam alteri non dabo, neque virtutes meas fculptilibus. Es. xlii. 12. duryo TW W Eur, id's petas a'UT8 év Tois vocis QTZYAxos, dabunt Deo gloriam, virtutes ejus in infulis annunciabunt. El. xliii. 21. To Yevos fue tÒ EXAEXTÖv, nado pes, Óv TTEPIETTOINO Qunu, τας αρετας με διηγείσθαι, genus meum eleftum, populum meum, quem acquisivi, ut virtutes meas enarret. Quorsum respexit Peirus, 1 Ep. ii. 9. vueñs de yévos érhextov-ins trepitos noiv, ows Tous dpeta's Earysianti, &c. Vos autem eftis genus ele&tum,--acquifitum, ut virtutes annuncictis ejus, qui ex tenebris, &c. Es. Ixiii. η. τον έλεον κυρία εμνήσθην, τας αρετάς κυριε εν πάσιν, οίς ήμιν ártatodidwone mifericordia domini recordar et virtutum Domini in

omnibus, ómnibus, quæ nobis retribuit. ' Sicuti autem LXX. 915,77 vertentes per operas, virtutes, procul dubio intelligunt laudabiles perfeétiones et proprietates Dei, ita nullus dubito, quin Petrus etiam, 1. c. eo sensu vocem acceperit. Imo nullus dubito, quin idem . Apostolus in verbis 2 Epift. i. 3. ti xodbo avtis vuäs dia doeng

και αρετής, per δοξαν και αρεταν, gloriofas et laudibiles perfectiones Dei, amorem, misericordiam, gratiam, veritatem intellexerit, et præpofitione doce caufam impulsivam, ut Paulus in verbis Gal. i. 15, xonérals doce ons xcépites d'urg, indigitaverit. Efth. xiv. 10. QVOIE Q CTouc Tucs E15 opstes p.otaiwv, ut aperiant os gentium in laudes vanorum. Sap. viii. 7. 61 Tóvel TOUTNE sont operos, labores ejus sunt virtutes. Hesychius : 'Apetn'n twy xonwy Home Sou EVWV U Treipia. 'Apeth, eorum, quæ bona habentur exercitiam. Lex. Cyrilli MS. Brem. 'Apeti, mapa Eus ogabn 'Apern, allio bona.

We doubt not but this fpecimen will give such of our Readers, as are competent judges of a work of this kind, a favourable opinion of this excellent Lexicon. Those who have a taste for Grecian literature, and sacred erudition, will applaud the zeal of the learned Profeffor Barkey of the Hague (who appears, by the preface prefixed to this work, to have contributed much to its publication) and the labours of M. L:Lutzenbecher, paftor of the Lutheran church in the same place, in whose poffeffion the manofcript was, and who has taken great and successful pains to render the edition correct. The preface is the work of this learned ecclefiaftic, and does honour to his erudition and critia cal sagacity. The bookseller has also performed his part in a manner that deserves encouragement. The type is distinct, and the paper of the best kind.

We had scarcely finished this extract when we received the second volume of this valuable work, which contains 466 pages, and concludes with the word 'Ouvicv. *. II. , Memoria. sopra il Sel sedativo Naturale della Toscana, &c. i. e, A Memoir concerning the native fedative Salt of Tuscany, and the Borax which is composed by the Means of that Salt, as discovered by Mr. Hubert FRANCois HOEFFER, of Cologn, Die rector of the Elaboratories of the Druggists to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Member of the Academy of Sciences at Sienna, and of the Botanical Society at Florence. 8vo. Florence. 1778. We mention this publication rather late; but we could not omit it, now, on that account, as it contains a discovery in chemistry. Mr. HOEFFER, having procured some bottles of the mineral water of the marsh of Monterotondo, which is called Cerchiaco, and is situated in the Lower Sienna, he made with it feveral experiments, the result of which was, the discovery of a genuine native sedative salt. By adding to this some marine alkali, he produced a real borax; that is, he obtained from the mixture of these two substances a faline matter, soluble in water, susceptible of a crystallization somewhat like that of alum, and which, by being exposed to a red heat, is transformed into a kind of saline glass. The importance and utility of this discovery are palpable.


III. "Umflændliche Nachricht von der Hamburgischen Handlungs Academie : 1. e. A circumstantial Account of the Commercial Academy at Hamburgh. By J. G. Busch, Professor of Mathematics, and Inspector of this Eftablishment. 12mo. Hamburgh. 1778. We are the rather inclined to announce this small publication, as it may be of use to those parents who wish that their sons, before they enter on actual business in counting-houses, should acquire the previous knowledge which may afterward prove useful and ornamental to them.

We are aware that the best school for business, is business itfelf; but still, in every branch, there are certain elements which must be gained by study, independent of practice. Such, in the case of merchants, are languages, a certain degree of historical and geographical knowledge, and a general acquaintance with the theory of commerce. If to this be added, the useful application of the years of inactivity to which many young men are exposed before they can come into actual employment, we think we may recommend this establishment as likely to afford confiderable advantage. We must add, that the interior conftitution of it appears to be judiciously framed.

We refer those wbo wish to be farther informed concerning this institution, to the · Circumftantial Account' above mentioned, or to Mr. Ebeling, the director of the Academy. Dlarta.


For MARCH, 1780.

POLITICAL. . Art. 10. A Defence of the det of Parliament lately passed for the - Relief of Roman Catholics : Containing a true State of the Laws

now in Force against Popery : In Answer to a Pamphlet, intitled, an “ Appeal from the Protestant Association to the People of Great Britain, &c.” In a Letter to a friend. By a Protestant.

Svo. 6d. Johnson. 1780. TN our Review for January, we delivered our opinion respecting

I che merits of the pamphlet, to which this letier hath given a more particular reply. We are happy to find our sentiments confirmed by a writer of such abilities and candour, as the Author of this letter evidently appears to possess. He conducts his argument with spirit and propriety: while the confiftent Protestant, and the friend of humanity, appear in every page. We sincerely wish thar its circulation may be as extensive as that of the “ Appeal.” It is, we think, a sovereign antidote to the maligoant poison which the


ministers of Pseudo-Protestantism have been so alliduous to scartes abroad, to infe&t the mind with the most contagious part of that very religion which the Affociation professes to oppose and controul.

The principal and avowed object of our ingenious letter-writer is, to thew that the idea of toleration, as exhibited by the Author of " the Appeal," is so exceedingly defective, as by no means to deserve the name ;-chat his objections to the Act for Relief of Roman Catholics, are principally founded on an entire misapprehension of its nature; and therefore that he and his associates, in their endeavours to raise a ferment in the nation, and to excite mutual ani. moficies amongst the inhabitants of these kingdoms, so far from deserving to be considered as guardians of the constitution, are in fact, whether they know it or not, abectors of persecution, and enemies of civil and religious freedom.'-This is the object of the prefeot liberal and sensible pamphlet ; and we think the Author hath fully accomplished his generous design.

As a specimen of his manner of discussing so important an argu. ment as that in which religious liberty is concerned, and as a justic. cation of the applause we have honestly bestowed on the design and execution of the tract before us, we shall present our Readers with a passage or two, extracted from the conclufion.

• But it is not merely on account of the consequences to be ap. prehended from their repeal, that this Author wilhes to have all the laws against Popery stand in full force: he desires it likewise by way of retaliation for the cruelties of the Papists. The itacuies against Popery, notwithstanding their severity, he tells us, are mild when compared with the bloody edi&s now in full force against Proteftants in Popish countries. Whilst Papists in England are claiming toleration, Protestants in France are exposed to persecution by the repeal of the edict of Nantz: and in other Popish countries, Pro"testants are by law condemned to death. Astonishing contralt (adds he) that needs only to be confidered, to evince the impropriety of the late repeal. Now the plain English of this is that we muft pere secure Roman Catholics, because the Roman Catholics have perlecuted us! Is this the language of a follower of the meek and lowly Jesus? -of him, who said, “ Whatsoever ye would that men should do onto you, do ye even so to them?”-OF HIM, who taught us to love our enemies, and to do good to those who hate us? I challenge him to produce any thing in Popery more opposite and hostile to the fpirit of that New Testament which he professes to venerate.'

• As a private man, however, I believe Popery to be a corrap: religion; and therefore to be opposed. But how is this to be done? Not by force ; but by reasoning: not by penalties, but by persua. fion. If truth is to be maintained by the sword, Why was not Christianity so propagated at first? Why did not the Divine Author, instead of che sword of the Spirit, arm his followers with swords of teel? He who could command legions of Angels to his afillance, mieht surely have established his clergy in spite of all opposition. throughout the habitable globe. What other reason can be assigned for his not doing this, but that which he himself has given, and which ought long ago to have put to silence every advocate for church-authority-MY KINGDOM IS NOT OF THIS WORLD.'

B.....ki Art.

Art. Ir. Four Letters from the Country Gentleman, on the

Subject of the Petitions. 8vo. 6 d. Almon. 1780. Reprinted from Almon's news-paper, the London Courant ; in which we have observed fome well-written political essays. The Au. thor, who figns himself a Country Gentleman, is a ftrenuous and able advocate for the county petitions. Art. 12. A Letter to Lord North. With Free Thoughts on

Penlions and Places. 460. 6 d. Gainsborough printed, and sold by Bladon in Paternoster Row, London.

The production of a well meaning, but dim-fighted politician, who may be referred to Mr. Burke's printed speech (where he confiders the partial scheme of taxing placemen and pensioners) for better information. Art. 13. Observations on an Address to the Freeholders of Mid

dlesex, assembled ar Free Mason's Tavern; delivered to the Chair. man, and read to that Allembly, December 20, 1779. With a clear Exposition of the Design and Plan, therein proposed, of a Republican Congress, for new modelling the Constitution. Svo.

6 d. Bowen. · A political sneer, intended to ridicole and explode a very serious performance. See our account of the Address, in our Catalogue for January, p. 81. Art. 14. Esay on Modern Martyrs : With a Letter to General

Burgoyne. 8vo. 1 s. 68. T. Payne, &c. 1780.. • It has been left, says the Author, to the ingenuity of modern times, ever busy in researches, and fertile in improvement, to difcover a new system of martyrdom ; a system into which neither wheels, nor flames, nor axes, are permitted to enter; but in which triumph relults from punilh ment, and advantage spriags from cala. mity; by which the insignificant may rise to importance, and the indigent to affluence, by the efficacy of mock misfortunes, and the emolument of lucrative heroism.'

The Author divides modern martyrdom into three species, all of them political, viz.

1. i Those who claim merit from the avowal of deliberate malig. rity; whose public virtue is distinguished only by an opposition to public justice, and 'whose policy consists in taking advantage of that disposition in some minds, that considers all government as an op. pression, that feels all subordination as a misery.'-Under this head, ihe Reader will easily perceive that the Writer means to include such martyrs as Mr. Wilkes; against whom, however, the charge of malignity will not be readily admitted, by those who are personally acquainted with this jovial, witty, pleasant hero of the populace.

The second species of martyrdom-' confifts in the noble and difinterefied act of relinquishing some present advantage, in the supposed certain prospect of more exalted power, or more ample profit. Such a sylem is, indeed, from its nature, confined to the higher order of sufferers, and such as may be emphatically itiled the poli. fical, as those before described, may be rather termed the penal mar. tyrs. To sacrifice the pofseflion of a lucrative employment, wears at the first glance so strong an appearance of sincerity, that we al. molt overlook the folly of unsteadiness, and forget the treachery of


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