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order. The Author explains each word in such a manner, that the Reader may perceive, at first fight, what is its original meaning, and in what signification it is employed by the abovementioned interpreters and writers. He points out its different significations, the Hebrew and Chaldaic terms, that bear the fame sense, and the use that the writers of the New Testament have made of it. All this is accompanied with philological and critical remarks, drawn from profane authors, concord. atges, glossaries, and the best critics and commentators, ancient and modern, which are adapted to illustrate each word, and to ascertain its various significations, according to the oce casions and subjects on which it is employed.
We thall infert here a single article of this volume (which carries the work to the letter E inclusive), that the Reader may judge of the manner in which the learned Author has executed his extensive plan.
'Apety, virtus, decus, gloria, honor, laus, 7777 decus, gloria, Hab. iii. 2. εκάλυψεν έρανες η αρετη αυτε, operuit καίες gloria ejus, i. e. gloriosa potentia ejus, fapientia et bonitas ę colo undequaque ita apparent, ac fi illud opertum quafi divinis illis perfectionibus effet. Quod hic apeti vocatur, Pf. xix. 1. dicitur δόξα. Αpud Η/ychium αρετη exponitur θεία δυναμις, divina potentia. Quæ tamen explicatio, fi ad prophetæ 1. c. ibi refpicitur, uti videtur, rem non fatis exhaufit. Zach. vi. 13. xai autos arbetat apothv, et ille affumet gloriam. Idem hic speth notat, quod Pf. viii. 5, et Heb. ii. 7.00€x xai Tigeni, gloria et bonor. 'Sic et apud poëtas Græcos opetý gloriam, honorem denotat; Homerus Il. ú. v. 242.
Ζευς δ' αρετήν άνδρεσσιν οφέλλει τε μινύθει τε
Jupiter autem viris honorem et auget et minuit. Hefiodus "Epy v. 311.
πλετω δ αρετή και κύδος οπησει
divitias autem honos et gloria comitatur. Confer quæ ex Plutarche de Audiend. Poet. p. 24, notat Lamb. Bos Obferv. Critic, p. 112, nobon laudes. Er. xlii. 8. on δόξαν με ετέρω και δώσω έδε τας αρετάς με τους γλυπλοις. Glorian meam alteri non dabo, neque virtutes meas fculptilibus. Er. xlii. 12. δώσεσι τω Θεώ δόξαν, τας αρετας αντε εν τοις νήσοις απαγγεhéos, dabunt Deo gloriam, virtutes ejus in infulis annunciabunt. Ε. xiii. 21. το γενος με το εκλεκτόν, λαόν με, ον περιεποιησαμην, 735 dpeta's rex dingeio fob, genus meum electum, populum meum, quem acquisivi, ut virtutes meas enarret. Quorsum respexit Peτrus, 1 Ep. ii. 9. υμείς δε γένος εκλεκτον-εις περιποιησιν, όπως 10.5 apeta's Earysianti, &c. vos autem eftis genus electum,-acquifitum, ut virtutes annuncietis ejus, qui ex tenebris, &c. El. Ixiii. 7. τον έλεον κυρία εμνήσθην, τας αρετάς κυριε εν πάσιν, οίς ήμιν artanodidwon, mifericordia domini recorder et virtutum Domini in
omnibus, quæ nobis retribuit. ' Sicuti autem LXX. nib.7 vertentes per a petes, virtutes, procul dubio intelligunt laudabiles perfectiones et proprietates Dei, ita nullus dubito, quin Petrus etiam, 1. c. eo sensu vocem acceperit. Imo nullus dubito, quin idem Apoftolus in verbis 2 Epift. i. 3. 78 m2.n.6o avtis nuãs do al do Ens και αρετής, per δοξαν και αρεταν, gloriofas et laudibiles perfectiones Dei, amorem, misericordiam, gratiam, veritatem intellexerit, et præpofitione dia causam impulsivam, ut Paulus in verbis Gal. i. 15, xanéces doc ons Xoepstas auto, indigitaverit. Efth. xiv. 10. ανοιξαι στομα εθνων εις αρετάς ματαίων, ut aperiant os gentium in laudes vanorum. Sap. viii. 7. 61 TróVOL TOUTNE sont apetos, labores ejus funt virtutes. Hesychius : 'Apetn 'n twy nadwo νομιζόμενων εμπειρία. 'Αρετή, εorum, φuα bana habentur exercitium.' Lex. Cyrilli MS. Brem. 'Apetn, apei Eis oq atin. 'Aperni, allio bona.
We doubt not but this fpecimen will give such of our Readers, as are competent judges of a work of this kind, a favourable opinion of this excellent Lexicon. Those who have a taste for Grecian literature, and sacred erudition, will applaud the zeal of the learned Profeffor Barkey of the Hague (who appears, by the preface prefixed to this work, to have contributed much to its publication) and the labours of M. I:Iutzenbecher, paftor of the Lutheran church in the fame place, in whose poffeffion the manufcript was, and who has taken great and successful pains to render the edition correct. The preface is the work of this learned ecclefiaftic, and does honour to his erudition and critia cal sagacity. The bookseller has also performed his part in a •manner that deserves encouragement. The type is distinct, and the paper of the best kind.
We had scarcely finished this extract when we received the second volume of this valuable work, which contains 466 pages, and concludes with the word 'Ouviou.
II. Memoria sopra il Sel sedativo Naturale della Toscana, &c. i. t. A Memoir concerning the native fedative Salt of Tuscany, and the Borax which is composed by the Means of that Salt, as difcovered by Mr. HUBERT Francois HOEFFER, of Cologn, Director of the Elaboratories of the Druggifts to the Grand Duke of Tufcany, Member of the Academy of Sciences at Sienna, and of the Botanical Society at Florence. 8vo. Florence. 1778. We mention this publication rather late; but we could not omit it, now, on that account, as it contains a discovery in chemistry. Mr. HOEFFER, having procured some bottles of the mineral water of the marsh of Monterotondo, which is called Cerchiaco, and is situated in the Lower Sienna, he made with it feveral experiments, the result of which was, the discovery of a genuine native sedative falt. By adding to this fome marine alkali, he produced a real borax; that is, he obtained from the
mixture of these two substances a faline matter, foluble in water, susceptible of a crystallization somewhat like that of alum, and which, by being exposed to a red heat, is transformed into a kind of faline glass. The importance and utility of this discovery are palpable.
M. III. 'Umflændliche Nachricht von der Hamburgischen Handlungs Academie : i.e. A circumftantial Account of the Commercial Academy at Hamburgh. By J. G. Busch, Profeffor of Mathematics, and Inspector of this Eftablishment. 12mo. Hamburgh. 1778. We are the rather inclined to announce this small publication, as it may be of use to those parents who wish that their fons, before they enter on actual business in counting-houses, should acquire the previous knowledge which may afterward prove useful and ornamental to them.
We are aware that the best school for business, is business itfelf; but still, in every branch, there are certain elements which must be gained by study, independent of practice. Such, in the case of merchants, are languages, a certain degree of historical and geographical knowledge, and a general acquaintance with the theory of commerce. If to this be added, the useful application of the years of inactivity to which many young men are exposed before they can come into actual employment, we think we may recommend this establishment as likely to afford confiderable advantage. We must add, that the interior conftitution of it appears to be judiciously framed.
We refer those who wish to be farther informed concerning this institution, to the Circumftantial Account' above mentioned, or to Mr. Ebeling, the director of the Academy. Planta,
For MARCH, 1780.
Relief of Roman Catholics: Containing a true State of the Laws
Appeal from the Protestant Association to the People of
che merits of the pamphlet, to which this letier hath given a more particular reply. We are happy to find our sentiments confirmed by a writer of such abilities and candour, as the Author of this letter evidently appears to poffefs. He conducts his argument with spirit and propriety: while the consistent Protestant, aod the friend of humanity, appear in every page. We sincerely with that its circulation may be as extensive as that of the “ Appeal.” It is, we think, a sovereiga antidote to the malignant poison which the
ministers of Pseudo-Protestantism have been fo afliduous to scatter abroad, to infe&t the mind with the most contagious part of that very religion which the Afociation professes to oppose and controul.
The principal and avowed object of our ingenious letter-writer. is, to thew that the idea of toleration, as exhibited by the Author of “ the Appeal,” is so exceedingly defective, as by no means to deserve the name ;-that his objections to the Act for Relief of Roman Catholics, are principally founded on an entire misapprehenfion of its nature; and therefore-that he and his associates, in their endeavours to raise a ferment in the nation, and to excite mutual ani. mofities amongst the inhabitants of these kingdoms, so far from deserving to be considered as guardians of the conftitution, are ia fact, whether they know it or not, abectors of persecution, and enemies of civil and religious freedom.'--This is the object of the prefent liberal and sensible pamphlet; and we think the Author hath fully accomplished his generous design.
As a specimen of his manner of discusing so important an argument as that in which religious liberty is concerned, and as a justif. cation of the applause we have honestly bestowed on the design and execution of the tract before us, we shall present our Readers with a passage or two, extracted from the conclusion.
• But it is not merely on account of the consequences to be apo prebended from their repeal, that this Author withes to have all the laws against Popery stand in full force: he desires it likewise by way of retaliation for the cruelties of the Papists. The statures against Popery, notwithstanding their severity, he tells us, are mild when compared with the bloody edi&s now in full force against Proteftants in Popish countries. Whilk Papists in England are claiming toleration, Protestants in France are exposed to perfecution by the repeal of the edict of Nantz: and in other Popith countries, Pro"testants are by law condemned to death. Astonishing contrast (adds he) that needs only to be confidered, to evince the impropriety of the late repeal. -Now the plain English of this is—that we must pere secure Roman Catholics, because the Roman Catholics have persecured us! Is this the language of a follower of the meek and lowly Jefus ?-of Him, who said, “ Whatsoever ye would that men should do onto you, do ye even so to them :"-Of him, who taught us to love our enemies, and to do good to those who hate us ?-I challenge him to produce any thing in Popery more opposite and hostile to the spirit of that New Testament which he professes to venerate.'
• As a private man, however, I believe Popery to be a corropa religioo; and therefore to be opposed. But now is this to be done? Noc by force ; but by reasoning: not by penalties, but by persuafion. If truth is to be maintained by the sword, Why was not Christianity so propagated at first? Why did not the Divine Author, instead of the sword of the Spirit, arm his followers with swords of teel? He who could command legions of Angels to his affittance, might surely have established his clergy in spite of all opposition, throughout the habitable globe. What other season can be assigned for his not doing this, but that which he himself has given, and which ought long ago to have put to filence every advocate for church-authority-MY KINGDOM IS NOT OF THIS WORLD.'
Art. 11. Four Letters from the Country Gentleman, on the
Subject of the Petitions. 8vo. 6 d. Almon. 1780. Reprinted from Almon's news-paper, the London Courant ; in which we have observed fome well-written political essays. The Author, who figns himself a Country Gentleman, is a ftrenuous and able advocate for the county peritions. Art. 12. A Letter to Lord North. With Free Thoughts on
Pensions and Places. 4to. 6 d. Gainsborough printed, and fold by Bladon in Paternoster Row, London. The production of a wel meaning, but dim-lgbted politician, who may be referred to Mr. Burke's printed speech (where he cone fiders the partial scheme of taxing placemen and penGoners) for better information. Art. 13. Observations on an Address to the Freeholders of Mid
dlesex, assembled ar Free Mason's Tavern; delivered to the Chair. man, and read to that Assembly, December 20, 1779. With a clear Exposition of the Design and Plan, therein proposed, of a Republican Congress, for new modelling the Constitution. 8vo. 6 d. Bowen.
A political fneer, intended to ridicale and explode a very serious performance. See our account of the Address, in our Catalogue for January, p. 81. Art. 14. EJay on Modern Martyrs : With a Letter to General
Burgoyne. 8vo. 1 s. 6d. T. Payne, &c. 1780. • It has been left, says the Author, to the ingenuity of modern times, ever busy in researches, and fertile in improvement, to difcover a new system of martyrdom; a system into which neither wheels, nor flames, nor axes, are permitted to enter; but in which triumph relults from punishment, and advantage springs from calamity; by which the insignificant may rise to importance, and the indigent to affluence, by the efficacy of mock misfortunes, and the emolument of lucrative heroism.'
The Author divides modern martyrdom into three species, all of them political, viz.
1. Those who claim merit from the avowal of deliberate malige rity; whose public virtue is distinguished only by an opposition to public justice, and whose policy confifts in taking advantage of that disposition in some minds, that considers all government as an op pression, that feels all subordination as a misery,'-Under this head, ihe Reader will easily perceive that the Writer means to include such martyrs as Mr. Wilkes; against whom, however, the charge of malignity will not be readily admitted, by those who are personally acquainted with this jovial, witty, pleasant hero of the populace.
The second species of martyrdom-' confifts in the noble and difinteressed act of relinquishing some present advantage, in the fupposed certain prospect of more exalted power, or more ample profit. Such a fyllem is, indeed, from its nature, confined to the higher order of sufferers, and such as may be emphatically filed the political, as those before described, may be rather termed the penal mar. tyrs. To sacrifice the posseflion of a lucrative employment, wears at the first glance so strong an appearance of lincerity, that we almot overlook the folly of unsteadiness, and forget the treachery of