historians admit, was introduced into Scandinavia by a foreign race, was the same with Buddh, whose rites were probably imported into India at the same time; though received much later by the Chinese, who soften his name to Fo." Paulus Diaconus, rerum Langobardic. Scriptor, remarks: "WODAN, (sane adjecta litera quidam GwODEN dixerunt,) ipse est, qui apud Romanos Mercurius dicitur, et ab universis Germaniæ gentibus ut Deus adoratur, qui non circa hæc tempora, sed longè anterius, nec in Germaniâ sed in Græciâ, fuisse perhibetur." was the name of an Arabian idol, and Lord Valentia observed in Arabia specimens of architecture resembling the Gothic; whence he inferred, that "the architecture we call Gothic existed in Arabia long before it was known in Europe." And with respect to the quotation from Paulus Diaconus, we may instance, that Odin, or Woden, was likewise called Gotam, Godam, and Votam, by the ancient Germans; which is undeniably the Sanskrit Godama or Buddha. The coincidence between the opinions of these people is striking: the Hindoos are prohibited from the use of wine by their sacred books; and the Geta were persuaded by Bærebistes (according to Strabo) to abstain from it, and to cut down their vines. Hu and Odin was one and the same character, worshipped under different titles by these idolaters; -Hu was called Buddwas, as appears from the Myvyrian archaeology, and we have shown Odin to be, in like manner, resolved into this mythological personage; so that whoever was the colonist celebrated under these names appears to have introduced the rites of Buddha.

We may closely trace the deities of the Sanskrit school, in the names of the Druidical Gods :-thus, one of Godam's names was Teithan,' which is well known to be Daitya, from whence Vishnu is called Daityarih: in one ode he is called by the name of the Indian Beli; in another he is styled Bûdd or Bûddwas. According to General Vallancey, Crishna is an Irish epithet of the sun :-in all these we may discover Bâli,-Daitya or Aditya,— Buddha, and Krishna. Add to these, he is denominated Prith; which is the Sanskrita of Prĭthŭ, already cited: but, as Prith, he is considered to be Rex Awyr, and Rheen Rym Awyr, King of the Air, Sovereign of the Power of the Air, probably analogous to Puruhūtǎb, one of the names of Indra, the Indian god of the firmament; yet, independently of this, the identity is established, because Vishnu is Indra, and Prithu is a title of Vishnu. The Celtic Ner, evidently the Nereus of the Romans, is the Narayěna

'Titan of the classics.

of the Puranas. General Vallancey adduces the following list of corresponding characters and names:




Soire, the rising sun, Ruan or
Aruna Aurora

Daghdaë, or Apollo, with a nu




Surya, preceded by Arun.

merous issue, gods and god-Daghdae Rath, or Daghda of desses of arts and literature.. the burning chariot. Dearmad, or Dearmatu, a poetical name of the sun, called Reis Dermad or King Dermad


Dherma-Raja, or


whose anniversary is called the Feast of Fire.

In addition to which he shows, that Ganesa was a deity of the pagan Irish.

The importance, which the Druids attached to bulls and oxen, forms another striking mark of coincidence. The Triads mention three mythological cows, and the Indian pages perpetually record the veneration paid to Surabhi and her descendants. Oxen were intimately connected with Hu in drawing the Avanc to land; the first cow was similarly connected with Brahma, and Krishna, the most glorious of the divine Avatāras, associated for the most part with them and Gopalas. Osiris, Gubernator Mundi, was also represented by a bull; and although it may be objected, that on particular occasions the Druids appear to have sacrificed these animals, it should be recollected, that in India as well as in Persia the Go-médha was practised in the earlier times. Horses were immolated in honor of the sun, by the Persians and Indians, as well as by the Scythians and Germans. The Druidical mysteries have been largely discussed by Mr. Davies, being nearly parallel to the rites of Bhawanee and Eleusis; and those celebrated by the ancient Germans, have been duly recorded by Tacitus. The Teutates of the Germans, according to the various modes of writing it in Cluverius, is clearly identified with Thoth, by many writers called Theuth: "At, si quis hic tandem fuit, Deus Mercurius antiquis simul Ægyptiis, simulque Celtis Theuth appellatus, a quo originem se ducere, Celta nostri prædicârunt." Pelloutier observes from the Greek writers, that the Thracians worshipped the god Teut. In some copies of Tacitus, the name Tuisto is written Bisto and Brotier remarks, "Utrum ipse Teut aut Teutates, Gallorum Hispanorumque cultu et fama celeberrimus, i. e. Rex, Herosve Celto-Scytha, qui magnam Asiæ et Europæ partem armis

occupaverit, hominumque mores formaverit, variis agitatur dispu tationibus." Jablonski has too ably discussed the mythological character of Thoth, to leave us in similar perplexity; and as that deep investigator of Egyptian antiquities has observed, the custom of commemorating particular events on columns and the like, at first gave to Thoth that consequence and fame, which were almost universally assigned to him. The first month of the Egyptian year was by those astronomical theologians denominated eшOYT. The Dis of the Druids seems to be the same personage; and Capt. Wilford's remarks relative to the Dis of the classic school, may easily be applied to our subject. "The titles of Dis or Ades appear to me to be derived from Adi or Adin, one of the names of Vishnu. When Cicero says, 'Terrena autem vis omnis atque natura, Diti Patri dedicata est,—that is to say, that nature and the powers and energy of the earth are under the directions of Dis,-this has no relation to the judge of departed souls, but solely belongs to Vishnu." The names of Roman deities were, certainly, after the conquest of this island, affixed to their deities, without the destruction of their old appellatives: the rites of Bacchus were said to be celebrated here, and according to Strabo, those of Ceres and Proserpine were celebrated in "un adjoining island," in the same manner as those of Samothrace. Maurice has rendered it probable, that the Linga-Puja was not unknown to the Druids; and Pelloutier affirms, that both Celts and Scythians were chargeable with it. What these rites were, Herodotus must declare: Lucian and Diodorus Siculus are also sufficiently explicit. Mr. Maurice has shown the near correspondence between the Hhulee festival and our " April fool," and has cited the ceremonies attendant on the j, or New-Year's day.


The Celtic MENW, answering to the Indian MENU and the Egyptian MNEUES, requires a particular discussion. Diodorus Siculus remarks, καὶ τούτων τὴν Εὔρεσιν οἱ μὲν εἰς τὴν Ισιν ἀναφέρουσιν, οἱ δὲ εἰς τίνα τῶν παλαιῶν βασίλεων τὸν ὀνομαζόμενον ΜΗΝΑΝ. MENU and MNEUES, I consider to be one and the same person, although Diodorus likewise mentions the latter: Teloa pári πρῶτον ἐγγράπτοις νόμοις χρήσασθαι τὰ πληθῆ, καὶ βιοῦν τὸν ΜΝΕΥΗΝ, ἀνδρὰ καὶ τῇ ψυχῇ μέγαν καὶ τῷ βιῷ κοινότατον τῶν μνημονευομένων, x. T. λ. In this account of MNEUES, we evidently trace the life. of MENU, who was most probably the MINOS of the Greeks. Herodotus, likewise, makes mention of him. Ælian records an

'UÈнe in the Catalogue of Eratosthenes, &órios, lege alavíos.

ancient sacerdotal tradition, that this personage introduced the worship of the Mnevis,' which seems to be an etymological deduction of the name of the bull: Μνεῦιν βοῦν Αἰγύπτιοι ἡλίου φασὶν ἱερόν· ἐπεὶ τόν γε "Απιν ἀνάθημα εἶναι σελήνη λέγουσιν. There can, therefore, remain no doubt, that these Indian, Egyptian, and Celtic persons are to be coalesced into one individual, claimed as a distinct and indigenous character by each of these people in their several settlements. The Celtic Dwyvan and Dwyvach, who escaped from the bursting of the lake of Llion, are Deucalion and Pyrrha, or Menu and the Rishis transplanted to another soil; and as the oxen of the Gadarn are represented by the bards as drawing the Avanc out of the lake; so Vishnu, in his Matsyavatava, drew the Bahitra by affixing it to his horn. "Let truth" (say the Bardic Remains) "be ascribed to MEN WYD, the dragon-chief of the world, who formed the curvature of Kŷd, which passed the dale of grievous waters, having the foremost part stored with corn, and mounted aloft with CONNECTED SERPENTS." like manner the nine damsels of Ceridwen, and the corresponding virgins of Runic lore, may be identified with Apollo and the Muses, and Krishna and his Gopya :-like the Indians, the Druids also believed the earth to have been originally covered with water; and according to Borlase, conceived, that there were five zones to the earth, two cold, one hot and uninhabited, a fourth which contained the inhabitants of Paradise, and a fifth which is the dwelling of mortals, divided into Asia, Africa, and Europe. Suidas has preserved a fragment not very dissimilar, from Eratosthenes:

Πέντε δὲ αἱ ζῶναι, περιηγέες ἐσπείρηνται, κ. τ. λ.


Mr. Maurice has produced the Indian parallel, and as Halhed remarks, the Brahmănas imagine that there are 7 dwipas, or worlds; "Jumboo-dwipa, or this world, Pulkhoo-dwipa, Shoolmeloo-dwipa, Kooshud-dwipa, Keroonchud-dwipa, Shakud-dwipa, Pooshkerud-dwipa." There are also as many oceans as dwipas; Sumooder, the main ocean, surrounds this dwipa to the breadth of 400,000 cose, after which comes the second dwipa, and so on, the length and breadth of each wonderfully augmenting in proportion to the distance from the first. The first ocean, as Kindersley observes, is that of salt water, the second is that of fresh water, the third is that of curdled milk, the fourth is that of clarified butter, the fifth is that of cauloo, the sixth is that of liquid sugar, the seventh is that of milk, and the whole system is enclosed in one broad circumference of pure gold, beyond which exists nothing but darkness. Thus there are, according to Sir Wm. Jones's

translation, "eight original mountains, and seven seas. Brahme, Indra, the Sun, and Rudra, these are permanent :-not thou, not I, not this or that people; wherefore then should anxiety be raised in our minds?" Very similar fables may be discovered in the Thalmud.

The three mythological cows of the Triads answer to Surabhi and her descendants: Dor-Marth, the dog of Gwyn Ab Nudd, the Celtic Pluto, is likewise analogous to the Indian Cerbura, and classic Cerberus; and in the writings of some Celtic antiquarians, Annwyn does not seem considerably to differ from Tartarus. With respect to Cerbura, Capt. Wilford writes: "Yama has two dogs, the one called Cerbura, and Sabala, and the other Syama : the first is called TRISIRAS, with three heads:" therefore, Gwyn Ab Nudd must be Yama. The Druids entertained great respect for the selago, samolus, vervain, &c.; their usual epithets to their sacred trees and plants were, the fiends' aversion, the blessed oak, the enchanters' plants, &c.;-and the vervain was used in casting lots and foretelling events. The sesamé, cusa grass, and the like, are in the same manner revered by the Brahmănas, and deemed of indispensable importance in holy things. The Druids venerated the misletoe; and I have been assured by an officer in Scindia's army, that an excrescence from the oak has been discovered in India, which the natives regard with the highest honor. The Bun, likewise, of Celtic legends, corresponds with Azyornka and Proserpine; and the character of Elphin with that of Krishna. The boat of Garanhir immediately recalls to mind that of Charon; 1 and the Welsh bards record Cai as a fabulous hero of British lore, who possibly owed his name and origin to the celebrated Cai-Caus of Persian romance. Knowing nothing of the Celtic dialects, I cannot determine whether the Coll, which was famous among the Druids, has any reference to Kala, and therefore am unwilling to indulge in conjectures on the point. That the Druids persisted in sacrificing human victims, which is the Nera-Medha of Hindoōstan, is notorious; all barbarous nations probably, at some time, more or less indulged in this unnatural practice, although the fact may not have been recorded by historians. It is well known that the Brahmanas performed pilgrimages to certain holy places, and Mr. Davies (p. 476.) gives to us a succinct account of pilgrimages to the solemnities of the northern Druids. Whether the following passage of Taliesin may be referred to the Varahavatara, in which Vishnu, who is also Surya or the Sun, is the principal character,

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According to Diod, Siculus, this was an Egyptian character, probably, ХАРШ.


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