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DE PARASITO. p. 851. [355. B. ed. Salmur.] λοιπὸν, ὅτι καὶ ἀρίστη, (ἡ παρασιτικὴ τέχνη, puta.) δεικτέον. καὶ τοῦτο οὐχ ἁπλῶς, ἀλλὰ πρῶτον μὲν, ὅτι κοινῇ πασῶν διαφέρει τῶν τεχνῶν. εἶτα ὅτε καὶ ἰδίᾳ ἑκάστης. κοινῇ μὲν οὖν ἁπασῶν οὕτω διαφέρει. πάσης γὰρ τέχνης ἀνάγκη προσάγειν μάθησιν, πόνον, φόβον, πληγάς, ἅπερ οὐκ ἔστιν ὅστις οὐκ ἂν ἀπεύξαιτο. ταύτην δὲ τὴν τέχνην, ὡς ἔοικε, μόνην ἔξεστι μαθεῖν ἄνευ πόνου. “Omnis ars necessario adhibet disciplinam, laborem, metum, plagas," Gesner. Cæcutiit hic vir perspicax; nec minus (quod non tam mirabile) Reitzius, ut ex nota ejus manifestum est. Constructio est: ἀνάγκη γὰρ [ἐστὶ] μάθησιν πάσης τέχνης προσάγειν [τῷ μανθάνοντι] πόνον, φόβον, πληγάς.

DE PARASITO. p. 852. [356. A. ed. Salmur.] οἱ δὲ τὰς ἄλλας τέχ νας μανθάνοντες, μισούσιν αὐτάς. ὥστε ἔνιοι δι ̓ αὐτὰς ἀποδιδράσκουσι. τί δέ ; οὐ κἀκεῖνο ἐννοῆσαί σε δεῖ, ὅτι καὶ τοὺς ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς τέχναις προκόπτοντας, οἱ πατέρες καὶ μητέρες τούτοις τιμῶσι μάλιστα, οἷς καθ' ἡμέραν καὶ τὸν παράσιτον; καλῶς νὴ Δία ἔγραψεν ὁ παῖς, λέγοντες, δότε αὐτῷ φαγεῖν. οὐκ ἔγραψεν ὀρθῶς, μὴ δότε. οὕτω τὸ πρᾶγμα καὶ ἔντιμον, καὶ ἐν τιμωρίᾳ μέγα φαίνεται. Concinnius οὕτω τὸ πράγμα καὶ ΕΝ ΤΙΜΗ καὶ ἐν τιμωρίᾳ μέγα φαίνεται.

DE PARASITO. p. 852. [356. C. ed. Salmur.] ἡ δὲ παρασιτικὴ, μόνη τῶν ἄλλων, εὐθὺς ἀπολαύει τῆς τέχνης ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ μανθάνειν. καὶ ἅμα τε ἄρχεται καὶ ἐν τῷ τέλει ἐστίν. αἱ μέντοι τῶν ἄλλων τεχνῶν, οὐ τινὲς, ἀλλὰ πᾶσαι, ἐπὶ μόνην τὴν τροφὴν γεγόνασιν. ὁ δὲ παράσιτος, εὐθὺς ἔχει τὴν τροφὴν ἅμα τῷ ἄρξασθαι τῆς τεχνῆς.-Opinor ΚΑΙ μέντοι τῶν ἄλλων τεχνῶν οὐ τινὲς, ἀλλὰ πᾶσαι ἐπὶ μόνην τὴν τροφὴν γεγόνασιν.

DE PARASITO. p. 856. [360. Β. ed. Salmur.] ἐπειδὰν γοῦν καὶ τούτων ἀποδείξαιμι τὴν παρασιτικὴν πολὺ κρατοῦσαν, σχολῇ, δηλονότι τῶν ἄλλων τέχνων δόξει προφερεστάτη, καθάπερ ἡ Ναυσικάα τῶν θεραπαινίδων. Ironia est in σχολῇ : nisi forte reponendum ΠΟΛΥ δηλονότι τῶν ἄλλων τέχνων δόξει προφερεστάτη. quod mihi videtur.

DE PARASITO. p. 857. [361. Α. ed. Salmur.] ἑτέρως μὲν γὰρ Ἐπικούρῳ δοκεῖ τὰ πραγμάτα ἔχειν. ἑτέρως δὲ, τοῖς ἀπὸ τῆς στέας. ἑτέρως δὲ, τοῖς ἀπὸ τῆς ̓Ακαδημίας. ἑτέρως δὲ τοῖς ἀπὸ τοῦ περιπάτου. καὶ ἁπλῶς, ἄλλος ἄλλην ἀξιοῖ τὴν φιλοσοφίαν εἶναι. καὶ μέχρι γε νῦν, οὔτε οἱ αὐτοὶ γνώμης κρατοῦσιν, οὔτε αὐτῶν ἡ τέχνη μία φαίνεται. ἐξ ὧν δηλονότι τεκμαιρέσθαι καταλείπεται. Solano interprete τεκμαιρέσθαι est, Mera opinio, Conjectura. Gesnerus vertit: “ Ex quibus nempe conjicere licet reliqua.”Legendum forsitan, ἐξ ὧν ΔΗΛΟΝ Ο, ΤΙ τεκμαιρέσθαι καταλείπεται. "Ex quibus non obscurum est, quid nobis hac de re conjicere relinquitur.”

DE PARASITO. p. 857. [361. ed. Salmur.] καὶ μὴν τὰς μὲν ἄλλας τέχνας, εἰ καὶ τί κατὰ ταύτας ἀσύμφωνον εἴη, καὶ παρέλθοι τις συγγνώμης ἀξιώσας, ἐπεὶ μέσαι τε δοκοῦσι, καὶ αἱ καταλήψεις αὐτῶν οὐκ εἰσὶν ἀμετάπτωτοι, προσδέκτες ἂν εἴη. φιλοσοφίαν δέ τις ὡς ἀναγκαίαν ἀνάσχοιτο μὴ μίαν εἶναι, καὶ μὴ δὲ σύμφωνον αὐτὴν ἑαυτῇ μᾶλλον τῶν ὀργάνων. Hunc locum, qui criticos plurimum exercuit, ex sententia mea scripfum exhibebo: ΚΑΤΑ μὴν τὰς μὲν ἄλλας τέχνας, εἰ καὶ τί κατὰ ταύτας ἀσύμφωνον εἴη, καὶ παρέλθοι τις, συγγνώμης ἀξιώσας, ἐπεὶ μέσαι τε

δοκοῦσι, καὶ αἱ καταλήψεις αὐτῶν οὐκ εἰσὶν ἀμετάπτωτοι, προσδέκτεον ἂν εἴη. φιλοσοφίαν δὲ τίς ὡς ἀναγκαίαν ἀνάσχοιτο μὴ μίαν εἶναι, καὶ μηδὲ σύμφωνον αὐτὴν ἑαυτῇ μᾶλλον τῶν ΟΡΓΑΝΙΚΩΝ; προσδέκτεον est ex conjectura Jensii. constructio, προσδέκτεον ἂν εἴη, εἰ καὶ τὶ κατὰ ταύτας ἀσύμφωνον εἴη, καὶ (εἰ) παρέλθοι τις συγγνώμης αξιώσας. μέσαι est, Usibus vitæ communibus subservientes. is dvaykaíav, Quasi sit vitæ communi necessaria, ideoque indulgentiá vel veniá digna. ¿pyavíkov, Artibus mechanicis ; quæ instrumentis, opyavois utuntur.

DE PARASITO. p. 860. [363. E. ed. Salmur.] 'Acoxívns μévτol ỏ Σωκρατικὸς οὗτος, ὁ τοὺς μακροὺς καὶ ἀστείους διαλόγους γράψας, ἧκέ ποτε εἰς Σικελίαν κομίζων αὐτοὺς, ὅπως; εἰ δύναιτο, δι' αὐτῶν γνῶθηναι Διονυσίῳ τῷ τυράννῳ. Corrigendum, ὅπως, εἰ δύναιτο, δι' αὐτῶν ΓΝΩΣΘΕΙΗ Διονυσίῳ τῷ τυράννῳ. Reitzius operam hoc loco perdidit.

CAMBRIDGE PRIZE ESSAY

ON

THE UTILITY OF CLASSICAL LEARNING

IN SUBSERVIENCY TO

THEOLOGICAL STUDIES.

ARGUMENT.

ADVANTAGES arising from the connexion between different branches of knowledge-Importance of the study of Theology-Evils which result from entering on it with a mind entirely neglected, or partially cultivated-General effects of Classical Learning on the mind the best preparation for Theological Pursuits-Necessity of an acquaintance with the Greek language in the study of the Scriptures-Advantages which follow in this study from a critical knowledge of the Greek tongue, and an intimate acquaintance with Classical Philology-Confirmation of the Mosaic history from Grecian Mythology, and the opinions of Philosophers-The Greek and Roman historians useful, as they convey to us the history of the world, from the dispersion of mankind, to the introduction of Christianity-enable us to compare the Prophecies of Scripture with the event-confirm the history of the New Testament-afford interesting information with respect to the state of the world at our Saviour's birth-An acquaintance with ancient Philosophy (particularly the Platonic) useful from the connexion between it and Christianity in the first ages of the Church-proves the necessity of Revelation-Utility of an acquaintance with the Ethical writings of antiquity-Objections against the application of ancient Learning to Theology refuted by an historical view of their connexion-Recapitulation-Conclusion.

ESSAY, &c.

THE connexion which exists between the different departments of science, by which they reflect light on each other, as it multiplies the sources of innocent enjoyment, and at the same time assists the useful labors of the learned, may justly be ranked among the benevolent appointments of Providence. Were the various branches of human knowledge entirely insulated, were it impossible to deviate from the line of study which leads to our particular profession, without materially impeding our progress, this single object would demand, in exclusion of every other, an undivided attention: our journey through the fair regions of science would be confined and irksome; and if we were sometimes tempted to leave the direct road, in order to take a nearer survey of the surrounding beauties, our curiosity might occasion a delay, which no exertion could retrieve. But the case is happily reversed; for if our literary employments are judiciously conducted, we may exercise and enlarge the faculties of the mind, by the acquisition of various information, which will, either directly or indirectly, contribute to our success in those studies to which we are more immediately devoted.

There is indeed no liberal profession in which the mind is competent to engage, before it has been enlarged, refined, and fitted for it by previous discipline. If this is essential in pursuits which are comparatively insignificant, it must be indispensably requisite that we should prepare ourselves, by a due cultivation of the intellectual faculties, for those inquiries which relate to the divine source from whence they are derived.

The greatest philosophers of antiquity considered the contemplation of the Supreme Being as the noblest employment of the human intellect. And yet they were directed only by the uncertain glimmerings of reason: we are guided by the sure light of divine revelation they could only infer his goodness towards man from the general laws by which he governs the material world; we view him in those mild and interesting relations to mankind, which he has made known in the benevolent scheme of Christianity. Nor is the study of theology confined to a mere speculative contemplation of the Deity. To examine with an unbiassed judgment the evidence for the divine origin of the Christian faith, to obtain a full acquaintance with its doctrines and precepts, and to furnish himself with all the means which may assist him in evincing their truth, and enforcing their superior excellencies,-these are the high duties of the theological student.

To the evils which arise from entering abruptly on these serious studies, without the necessary aids of human learning, experience VOL. XVIII. NO. XXXVI.

CI. JI.

X

bears abundant testimony. It has proved that the vigor of untutored genius only gives the power of pursuing error with perverted activity, and of more effectually extending its influence over others; while the fervor of piety, undirected by the prudent government of a cultivated understanding, either degenerates into the follies of superstition, or hurries us into the transports of enthusiasm. The effects which frequently follow a partial cultivation of the intellectual powers are equally dangerous. Natural philosophy, since it is calculated to give a more enlarged idea of the wisdom, power, and goodness of the Creator, deserves attention, as preparatory to the study of divinity: in the same point of view mathematical science is not without its use; for it imparts accuracy, strength, and soundness to the reasoning faculty. It should however be remembered, that natural philosophy, or mathematical science, if exclusively or intemperately pursued, has a very pernicious tendency. The former, by habituating the mind, thus employed on secondary causes, to the consideration of matter alone, inay render it sceptical or indifferent with regard to the agency of that great Being, by whom matter is endued with its properties. The latter, as it accustoms the understanding to demonstrative proof, may disqualify it for duly estimating the force of that moral evidence, of which only religion can admit.

But if an enlarged and general cultivation of ancient literature be united with these studies, by counteracting their injurious tendencies, it will ensure the beneficial effects for which they have very justly been recommended. The happy influence of a classical education is universally and proportionably felt throughout the different faculties of the mind: it enlivens the imagination, refines the taste, and strengthens the powers of the judgment; in a word, it tends more than any other study to preserve that just equilibrium among the mental powers, which,' as it is most favorable to virtue and to happiness, is also the best preservative against prejudice and error. Christianity, although it challenges the strictest scrutiny of reason, yet at the same time powerfully appeals to the affections of the heart; and certainly a very important object is attained, if the mind, before it is sufficiently advanced to enter on the study of theology, has received that general culture, which gives to both their proportionate influence. Such consequences may be expected from a classical education, which will thus animate the exertions of the student, by interesting the best feelings of his nature in the cause of his profes sion, while it subjects them to the control of an enlightened and manly understanding.

'Stewart's Philosophy of the Mind,

Having considered the general influence of classical learning on the mind, as preparing it for an effectual and judicious prosecution of theological inquiries, we may proceed to point out some of the most eminent advantages it affords, when we are actually engaged in these inquiries.

It may appear almost superfluous to insist on the necessity of some proficiency in the Greek language before we attempt to make the New Testament an object of professional study, when we reflect, that, even in the tongue to which we have been accustomed from our earlier years, different interpretations may often be annexed to the same words. As this ambiguity is considerably increased in a dead language, not only is every translation, however faithfully and judiciously executed, liable to positive error, but it is also, in many instances, impossible to transfuse the precise meaning of the original into another language, without either deficiency or excess in so serious a matter therefore as religion, a conscientious man, who is intended for the sacred ministry, and whose duty it is to examine attentively the history, the doctrines, and precepts of revelation, can never feel satisfied, unless he is able to form his own opinion of them by an acquaintance with the language in which they are conveyed. But if it be acquired merely from the sacred volume, his knowledge of the text will be imperfect and incorrect. The inspired writers have not unfrequently made use of a parti cular term, in order to express by analogy a new idea; and as they employ the word occasionally in the proper sense, if unacquainted with classical Greek, we are liable to the error of applying the theological meaning, where the primitive signification is required. Sacred criticism withholds its treasures from those who have not acquired some share of classical information. Unable, in obscure and disputed passages, to weigh the comparative merit of different interpretations, they must remain unsatisfied, or, by trusting im plicitly to the authority of others, incur the danger of adopting erroneous opinions.

While from these observations it appears sufficiently obvious, that the theological student cannot effectually prosecute his studies without some degree of classical learning, it is no less certain that a critical knowledge of the Greek language, and an intimate acquaintance with ancient literature, open a most interesting source of useful information in the study of the Scriptures. The keenness of sarcastic censure has been very indiscriminately applied to philological pursuits. When they revolve in their own narrow circle, and are considered as an end, they are indeed contemptible; they

'Michaelis, Introduction to the Study of the New Testament; where it is instanced in the word πίστις, to which may be added ἄγγελος, διάβολος, δε.

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