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being a revised edition of the former, was made up, when a copy of the original volume was not procurable, from some imperfect manuscript or from old note-books; I regard the 280 apophthegms printed in 1625 as those which we are most certain that Bacon himself thought worth preserving. I begin therefore by reprinting these from the original edition ; and so far I follow Mr. Montagu's example.

Secondly. Considering nevertheless that Bacon may possibly have revised this collection, and struck out some and altered others; and that Dr. Rawley may possibly have had by him some portions of that revised copy, or some memoranda of those omissions and alterations; I regard the variations as worth preserving.' I have therefore compared the two collections, marked with a † all the apophthegms which are not found in the later, and recorded in foot-notes all the more considerable differences of reading that occur in those which are; adding also for convenience of reference the numbers which they bear in the later collection.

Thirdly. Considering that Rawley had access to all Bacon's unpublished papers?, and had been in constant personal communication with him during his later years; and that Bacon had been in the habit of setting down such things from time to time in note books, and may very likely have made a supplementary collection with a view to publication ; I regard all the additional apophthegms which appear in the collection of 1661 as probably genuine, and as resting on authority second only to that which belongs to the original edition. These therefore I reprint from the second edition of the Resuscitatio, in the order in which they occur; and for more convenient

The substitution, in almost every case, of “the House of Commons” for “the Lower House” has a kind of historical significance.

? In a catalogue of Bacon's extant MSS. (Add. MSS. Brit. Mus. 629. fo 271.), not dated, but drawn up by Rawley after Bacon's death, I find the three fullowing entries:

“Apophthegms cast out of my Lord's book, and not printed.
“ Apophthegms of K. James,

“ Some few apophthegms not chosen." There is no allusion to any revision of the printed book. The first of these entries evidently refers to some apophthegms which had been struck out of the MS. before it was published; the last probably to some which had not been include in it. The " apophthegms of K. James " may have been the seven which stand first among the additions introduced by Rawley in his collection of 1661. If the MS. from which the collection of 1625 was printed remained in Dr. Rawley's hands, it would not be men. tioned in this catalogue, which relates only to what had not been printed. We may easily suppose therefore that some of the loose sheets were still preserved ; and that, when the original volume was not procurable, he made up his collection by incorpo. rating these with the unpublished ones mentioned in the catalogue.

reference, with the original numbers affixed. And at the same time, because in a common-place book of Dr. Rawley's which is preserved in the Lambeth Library and appears to have been begun soon after Bacon's death I find several of these additional apophthegms set down in a form somewhat different; and because I think it probable that Dr. Rawley, in preparing them for publication, occasionally introduced variations of his own in order to correct the language or clear the meaning; I have thought the original form worth preserving, and have therefore compared the versions and set down the variations in footnotes.

Fourthly. Considering that many of Bacon's original papers passed through the hands of Dr. Rawley or his son into those of Dr. Tenison, I regard the supplementary collection in the Baconiana as also probably genuine, and next in authenticity to the collection of 1661. These therefore I print next; also preserving in foot-notes such various readings as I find in Dr. Rawley's common-place book above mentioned.

Fifthly. In this same common-place book I find other apophthegms and anecdotes, not included in any of the three collections, - Bacon's, Rawley's, or Tenison's; a few of which I have thought worth preserving; some for their independent value, and some for a little light they throw on Bacon's personal character, manners, or habits. These I print next. They have probably as good a right to be considered genuine as any that were not published by Bacon himself; for they are set down in Rawley's own hand.

Sixthly. When all this is done, there remain 16 which rest upon no better authority than that of the unknown editor of the “ Witty Apophthegms.” These I regard as having no right to appear at all under Bacon's name, and accordingly remit them to a note, as spurious.

In a note to Bacon's preface, as given in the second edition of the Resuscitatio, Dr. Rawley expressly states that the collection was made from memory, “ without turning any book.” If I am right in conjecturing that the only collection made by Bacon himself was that of 1625, we must understand Dr. Rawley's remark as applying to that; and we must beware of attributing to it any great historical authority. It will be found that some of the sayings, especially those of the ancient philosophers, are assigned to the wrong persons. But what is interesting or memorable in them depends in general so little upon the persons who spoke them; and the traditional sayings of famous wits must always be in great part so apocryphal ; that I have not thought it worth while to investigate the authorities, or expedient to encumber the text with notes of that kind. The authenticity of the anecdotes relating to persons of more recent times would be better worth investigation; but in these cases Bacon is himself (either as a personal witness or as a preserver of traditions then current) one of the original authorities, whom it would not be easy to correct by a better. In these cases also his memory is less likely to have deceived him. But the whole collection is to be read with this qualification. Dr. Tenison adds that it was one morning's work. But he does not tell us upon what authority; and certainly Dr. Rawley has left no such statement on record. Perhaps he was confounding what Dr. Rawley said of “The beginning of the History of Henry VIII.” with what he said about the Apophthegms, and so put the two together. The statement is not to be believed without very good and very express authority.

The use and worth of the collection will be best understood by those who have studied Bacon's own manner of quoting apophthegms, to suggest, illustrate, or enliven serious observations. And it was greater in his time than it is now, not only because they were fresher then and carried more authority in popular estimation, but also because the ingenuities of the understanding were then more affected and in greater request. A similar collection adapted to modern times would be well worth making

"I have however noted two or three cases in which he appears to have relied upon an imperfect recollection of the Floresta española ; a circumstance which was pointed out to me by Mr. Ellis.

NOTE. In this edition, where a note is signed R., it means that such is the reading of the Resuscitatio, ed. 1661. The numbers within brackets are the numbers by which the several apophthegms are distinguished in that collection. The apophthegms marked † are not contained in it at all.

A POPHTH E G M E S

NEW AND OLD.

COLLECTED BY

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE

FRANCIS LO. VERULAM VISCOUNT ST. ALBAN.

LONDON. Printed for Hanna Barret and Richard Whittaker, and are to be sold at the King's

Head in Paul's Church-yard.

1625.

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