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“ Tirenty gold crowns are offered in Rome, For the head of the outlaw-and see he is

down! Beppo, the brave, without a gróan,' His back against a rock has thrown

Of the Appenines But there's not a man, that visage brown That dares to face, with iis awful frown ; For a desprrale moment gleams his sword, Then he falls in death without a word ; And a renegade priest is asking grace, With cross and beads, and his sullen face

Turn'd the other way.”

These lines we hastily wrote, some years ago, in an interrupted attempt to translate some spirited lines, by a Freneh poet, on the death of one of the Pope's banditii.We had but recently been on the spot long celebrated by their depredations, and had passed along the coast of Terracina in a time of revolution and war.

There are two classes of mountain rolbers in Italy, or rather three—that is of persons who sometimes go by the name of bandits. First, those who are so by profession; next, their friends and neighbors, who, through love or fear, sometimes aid or conceal them; and last, outlaws, who resort to their fasinesses, and sometimes to their society for refirge, when driven from their homes in the city or country. Many of these last, especially in our day, are

among the most intelligent, patriotic, highspirited, well-educated and even of the noble families of Italy. After the late insurrections, particularly that of Rimini, numbers of the flower of The Italian youth were im. plicatrd, and fled to the mountains when overpowered by the foreign troops. The pope proclaimed them banditti, and this name was re-ecloed by some writers in the United States, wlio advocate his false and barbarous governinent; but the Grand Duke of Tuscany showed his opinion of their character, he refusing to betray the confidence they reposed in him by seeking refuge in his territory, and even by sending ibem safe to France. In fact, the greatest robbers of Italy inhabit the cities, and by arrogant claims on the poor victims of their oppressive system, wring the life blood from the country, and millions from other lands.

Our print gives a very just idea of the figure, dress, and whole appearance of a bandit

, in his gala dress. There is some. thing in the air which reminds us of the men we met in the solitary and gloomy regions of Terracina, after passing on foot and alone, over as much of the ill-repuled territory of Fondi as seemed prudent. Marks of a recent bullet hole throngh a centry-box, tales of robbery committed the preceding night, and the skill of a malefactor exposed in a box in the public quare, impressed the subject deeply on the mind.

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AFRICAN WARRIORS.

We have before given (see page 601,) a print of an Ashantee Warrior, with a brief account of the costume which an army of that nation displayed in the presence of the British expedition, sent to visit them a few years ago. Our present drawing gives a more just idea of the variety of war dresses, arms, and caparisons in use, in tha! and some of the viher military tribes of Western Af. rica. The following passage from Professor Jameson, gives a brief but interesting sketch of the history of the Ashantees, so far as it has been known in Europe.

This people were first mentioned in the beginning of last century, under the nanie of Assenie or Asienti, and as constituting a great kingdom in the interior,—the same ibat was described to Mr. Lucas, at Tripoli, as the ultimate destination of those caravans which, proceeding from that city, measure the breadıh of Africa. Being separated from the maritime districts, however, by Aquam. boc, Dinkira, and other powerful states, they did not come into contact with any European seitlement. It was not, indeed, till the commencement of this century thai these stales were obliged to give way before the growing strength of the Ashantee empire, which at lengih extended to the borders of the Faniees, the principal people on the Gold Coast. These last were ill fitted to cope with such formidable neighbors. They are a turbulent, restless tribe, and extremely prompt in giving offence, but in batile they are equally cowo ardly and undisciplined. The king of Ashaniee having, noi unwillingly perhaps, received from them high provocation, sent, in 1808, an army of 15,000 warriors, which entered their territory, and laid it waste with

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fire and sword. At length they came to Anamaboe, where the Fantees had assembled a force of 9000 men; but these were rouled at the first onset, and put to death, except a few who sought the protection of the British fort. The victors,' then considering the British as allies of their enemy, turned their arms against the station, at ibat lime defend. ed by not more than iwelve men. Yet ibis gallant little band, supported by slender bul. warks, completely baffled the fierce and re. pealed assaults made by this barbarous host, who were repulsed with considerable slaughter. Şeized with admirali n and respect for British prowess, the Ashantees now made proposals for a negotiation, which were ac. cepied, and mutual visits were paid and returned. The English officers were peculiarly struck with the splendid array, the dignified and courteous manners, and even the just moral feeling, displayed by these warlike strangers. They, on iheir side, expressed an ardent desire to open a communication with the sea and with ihe British, complaining that the turbulent Fantees opposed the only obstacle to so desirable a purpose. A treaty was concluded, and a thoroughly good understanding seemed establislied between the two nations. The Ashantees, however, made several successful incursions in 1811 and 1816; and on the last occasion the Fantees were obliged to own their supremacy, and engage to pay an annual tribute. The British government judiciously kept aloof from these feuds ; but in 1817 a mission was sent, un. der Messrs. James Bodwich and Hutchinson, to visit the capital of that powerful kingdom, and to adjust some trifling dissentions which had unavoidably arisen.

The mission having set out on the 22d April, 1817, passed over a country covered, in a great measure, with immense and overgrown woods, with a beautiful scenery.

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INDIAN PICTURE WRITING. These rude and simple outlines very justly represent the ordinary style of drawing exhibited by the red-men in their attempts to delineate natural objects, or fancied creatures of different kinds. It seems somewhat strange, that ia all their practice, (for drawing is not uncommon among them,) there should never have been found any striking evidence of improvement in the art. Probably their want of skill, and even of taste, may be explained by the fact, that they have objects in view quite distinct from great accuracy of delineation and coloring, entirely independent of them, and always of more real or supposed utility. These are of three classes :

1st. To communicaie facts, as by marking on sand, bark, frees, &c., a few signs to indicate who had passed that way, in what direction, and sometimes under what circum

usually have relation to some peculiarity of Indian manners or superstitions, which can. not be fully understood without careful study, or indeed without information which sew, very few whilemen have ever obtaived. There is a clue to every one of them: but often, and probably almost always, it is by wo means so near the surface, as we, civilized men, profound thinkers and extensive readers, are naturally inclined to suppose.

Take the rude and simple figures above. That on the right hand somewhat resembles one engraved on the Dighion rock, ani may represent merely a common deer, if connected with a mere matter of fact record, of the first class, It, however, introduced into a group of the second or third kind, it may sigoily an imaginary, unreal animal, such as the painter has seen in a dream, or such as the priest, or juggler, has taught him to believe exists, with some strange, impossible properties. The animal with a mark drawn from its tongue to its heart, is one of the latier kind; for that mark indicates ibat the Indian claims a complete control over it, by some mystical power being able to reach its life at his pleasure.

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2d. To record events in the life of an individual, the buffalo or other skins are commonly used, of which they make their dresses.

3d. Mystical figures connected with their strange religious superstitions.

Two of these classes of drawing are often combined ; for the religious illusions of hea. thenism, among the Indians, as among many other pagans, are lamentably powerful and extensive in their influence upon the lives of their subjects --more so, alas! than the pure and ennobling doctrines of Christians are upon many of us. The motive which leads an Indian to make a record of an event in the history of his tribe, usually has something selfish in it; and he introduces somethiog connected with his own prowess, even when he engraves on Dighton Rock, or on the cliffs of the Mississippi or Lake Superior.

We wish our readers, however, lo receive one idea relating to this subject : and it is one which we never obtained until we had for many years directed an eager curiosity 10 Indian drawings. It is this; that they

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Here figure 11, simple as it is, bas a meaning which would require many words to explain to us in full. It is the ouiline of an Indian sweating.lent, or lodge, which was extensively in use among all the Algonquin race, and other tribes, we know not how far and wide. It is a vapor bath, on a most simple plan, but most convenient and effective for their purposes, and probably on the whole the best feature in their medical sys tem, in which it played an important figure. Our drawing presents a

section of the swealing tent. In the midule the Indian lay upon a narrow couch, often spread with sweet herbs, covered with buffalo robes, &c., after the heated stones had been placed be neath, and profusely wet with water, the steam of which filled the whole a nosphere. When covered with perspiration, le hurried 10 the river, and plunged in, sometimes in cold weather, wrapping himself again in a robe,

INDEX

To the American Penny Magazine, Vol. I.

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[The numerous prints in this Volume are not specified in the Index: although many of the
subjects are illustrated by them. Many short pieces also are not noticed here.)
Pages.

Pages.
Agriculture.
Lowell coach-making,

570
American Institute Fair,

544, 586
Kenha wa sall-Wurks,

356
Address to Am. Inst. by Mr. Meiggs, 637 Improvement in Chinese types,

434
Farmers' Clubs,
154, 391, 508 Weaving,

529
Draining,
747 Tanning improved,

565
Improvement of farms,
653 Whitewash,

250
Farming in Ireland and Scotland 197 Cooking

223
Fruit culture, &c.,
134 Charcoal road,

250
Hemp,

526
Beer brewing,

578
Oxen-single,

711 Hatching eggs and rearing chickens, 584-5
Trees-Planting,
656 Progress of a pound of cotton,

603
Propagation,
782 Brick-making improved,

699
Ornamental,

Pottery (Juv.)

638
Prince's Garden, 34th catalogue,

778
Sugar-making, do.

628
Washington's farm,
157 Cashmere shawl manufactory,

730
Wheat. Dr. Underhili's method, 666 Ancient mills,

745
Products of different stales,
30 Suspension bridges,

727
Pruning
679 Glass making in Spain,

118
Spirits of Turpentine,

133
Animals, (See Quadrupeds, Ornithology, Ich-

Book-binding,
thyology, Entomology, Conchology, fc.)

166, 180, 199, 217
A modern landscape,

232
Antiquities
Steel pen manufacture,

239
American, Tumulus,

Carpet making,

319
Egyptian,
31, 117, 392 Wire aqueduct over Allegany r.

165
City of the Dead,

81
Balloons.

12, 98, 743
View from Cairo,
65 Muzzi's do.

280, 293, 303
Pyramid and temple restored, 83

Bible.
Coffin,

- 129
Stalues,

30
193

A divine encyclopedia,
Pyramids,

422
Its accuracy,

54
Palmyra,

257

Inscriptions in Bibles, 477, 551, 556,685, 720
Rome,

301

Birds. (See Ornithology.)
Trajan's Column,

263

Biography.
Marseilles-lunnel,
174 Dr. Abercrombie,

26
Nilevel,

29, 85 Fisher Ames,
Ruins in Mexico and Cent. America, 722, 821 Santa Anna,

340
England--Lewes Priory,
727 Bandeira,

271
Architecture.

Gen. Greene,
Burmah-temple,

651
Guizot,

25, 60
c. Chinese bridge,

21
Roger Griswold,

555
49

Judge Story,
c. Hindoo,

555
150

Pocabonias,
Tage Alahal,

336
449

Washington,
Roslin Castle,

88
Wesley,
,
466

1 17
Brazil,

375
Guess or Sequoyah,

159
Molument to Sir W. Scott,

681

Clement Marot (in French)
New York Exchange,

Gov. Colden,

462
Westminster Abbey,

Gen. Putnam,

462
Turkish Reservoir,

370
569 Murillo,
Tower of London,

463
641

Gov. Livinston,
John Bunyan,

273, 289
Astronomy.
Descartes,

256
Morions of the earth, (Juv.)
2 The Spoliswoods,

772
Moon through a telescope,

12

Olivier de Serres, first agr. writer in
Mars,

738
France,

427
Arts and Manufactures.
Wm. C. Woodbridge.

683
American mechanics in Russia,
531 Washington.

371
Loco-motive factory,
527 Roger Sherman,

395
Screw
do.
597 Thos. Paine,

423, 180

.

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525
100

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.

Web,

Frederick the Great,

423, 480
l'aul Jones,

532
Mahomed Ali,

561
Geo. Willis,

604
Wm. Wilberforce,

894, 708
John Cruger,

692
Benedict Arnold,

751
Major Andre,

419
Botany.
Bread fruit,

8, 20, 24
Chilian pine,

215
Cocoa plantation,

534
Chinese pea,

30, 495
Germupation of an acorn,

472
White oak,

472
Persian rose tree,

. 251
New Zealand ilax,

581
Vegetable beauties of S. Africa,

84
Propagation of shade trees,

782
Silver Fir,

615,689
Wild hemp,

704
Pitcher plant,

756
Ailanthus,

576
Sacred bean,

564
Silk plant,

429, 474
Camellia Japonica,

612
Great chestnut of Mount Etna,

564
Seeds germinating under colored glass, 556
Care of plants,

612
Fuschia introduced into England, 629
Peaches in Michigan,

Cities and Towns.
Algiers--a gate,

57
a street,

344
Bagdad,

258
Beiblehem,

305
Foo-choo-fuo,

91
Jerusalem,

113
at sunset,

198
New-York Park,

177
Moscow,
Shanghai,

189
Whampoa,

201
Hong Kong,

761
Hacrlem,

749
Conchology.
The Gaping Shell, or Mya,

712
Sea egg, Echinus,

708
Nautilus,

330.1
Large pearl,

639
Curiosities.
Labyrinth of Lambeth Palace,

776
A green rose,

346
Natural bridge,

501
Sea flowers,

358
Astronomical clock at Strasburg,

563
Niagara,

401
Vidocq's exhibition,

380
Maelzel's automaton chess-player, 533
American

do.

Discoveries.
At Niniveh,

29, 85, 325
In South America,

40
At Rome,

301
Ancient treasure,

309

Newburgh mastodon,

602, 635
Dr. Koch's fossil bones. (See Geology.)

Education.
Vocal music.-Its uses,

-15
Deaf and dumb,

427, 451, 517
Deaf, dumb, and blind,

195, 219
Ed. of adults i Boston,

720
School at home,

541, 590, 621
Normal school at Albany,

517
American schools in Athens, 469, 510
Charity school in Oahu,

21, 233
Maynooth College,

293
Tru h and fiction.

407, 422
Address to Sabbath school teachers, 766
Holyoke Female Seminary,

455
Fine arts for the people,

550
Insecls, Entomology.)
Flies' Feel,

183, 211
Spiders,

407
Ingenuity,

147

472
Locust,

269
Proboscis of the Gadfly,

552
Dragon-fly,

376, 424
Wasps' Nest,

488, 533
Bees Resting;

409
Water-beetle's transformations,

507
Butterfly's Chrysalis,

437
Exploring Expeditions.
American Antarctic.

178, 271
to Oregon,

676
English Arctic,

676
Geography.
Amazon in Peru,

606
Arabian Desert,

408
Moscow,

54
Bethlehem,

305
Algiers,

57
Italy, Statistics of Papal Slates,

807
Jerusalem,

113
China,

126, 189, 543
Dead Sea,

793
Cape of Good Hope,

489
Persia,

795
Mount Arafa,

187
Carmel,

33
Adam's Peak, Ceylon,

329
White Mountains, N. Hamp.

105
Geology

654, 699
Logs underground,

663
A favorite theory undernsined,

23
The inside of mountains,

797
Birds' tracks in stones,

564
Fossil and other remains,

157, 319
Animals,

319
Elephants,

815
“ Dr. Koch's Discoveries, 308, 505,513, 518
“ The big Tennessean,

776
American Mastodon,

716
Fishes.-(See Ichthyology.)

History.
Sketch of Geograpicai Discovery, 263
Walder.ses,

193
Algiers,

62;

54

.

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