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Now it was examining a rain pipe which had been choked and allowed the water to leak in and drop on the best bonnet of the doctor's wife; at other times this important official would be seen chasing a dog which had strayed into the enclosure and mingled his canine devotions with the human voice. Sometimes I have seen him in full hunt after half a dozen urchins who had come into the lobby and were not too silent (said by some of the people to be the choristers of the parish church employed by the rector to disturb the schismatic congregation, but I, for one, never believed the scandalous report). Less frequently did I catch sight of this functionary through the window in his appointed seat near the door of the chapel (ready, you observe, for outside procedures), and generally he seemed to be expressing his unbounded satisfaction with the preacher's utterances by a series of the most solemn pods. This was observed to be more strictly carried out when the regular minister was present; but, as for many years the pastor was shortsighted, it is not known that he was edified and cheered by this full and manifest assent and consent of the evidently most important of the Salem hierarchy.

In the above passage the masculine pronoun has been used. It is, however, on the principle that the masculine includes the feminine, * for the office of this minister to whom the name of naophylax was given, which, done into the vulgar tongue, may be represented by chapel-keeper, was at times discbarged by one of the weaker vessels (although perhaps weakness ought not to be predicated at all of her, we should say more correctly not so strong, or presumably less strong). For many years this feminine ministrant was united in the bonde of matrimony to the officer of the first order ; indeed, it was found well that this union should subsist, for whilst her duty was co-ordinate with his, yet there was a more special office which the woman performed, and which the observations of the author led him to assign to the second place in the hierarchy. I have often watched that industrious and exemplary female stand demurely at the door, and, as the attendants arrived, conveyed them with a becoming solemnity to the places assigned them in the congregation. It is true the post was at times occupied by others, stout and well-to-do deacons, the younger additions to that office being now and then drafted off to keep the door and direct the congregation to their seats. This ministry is clearly distinct from the naophylakian, and it demands its separate place and its own peculiar name. It is the second order of ministry, thyroigos, if we would

* Vide Eton Latin Grammar. I have supplied this note for the benefit of any of the younger readers who may in these modern times at least doubt the statement of the text. I refrain from discussing the question, but leave it to a young writer (at least he seems so to me, who once met his father) I believe at one time M.P. for the city of Westminster.

worshippers and patithird place it see

be classical, door-keeper or pew-opener if we would be understood by the average worshipper at Salem.

It was only after a long and patient observation that I discovered the function which demanded the third place. There were at times certain persons, known as deacons, who, it seemed to me, from perpetual motion, demanded to be next determined. They were seen without the porch, often as ancient elders, teneath the gate, always employed, active, and I hope efficient. But Salem's wellbeing did not, on careful thought, seem to depend upon these. I felt that they must be relegated at once to the last class, to occupy, with the pastorate, the unimportant position of those that attended chiefly to the spiritual concerns of the place. Glimpses were far more often caught of one or two of the wives of these deacons, and I found—but this only by very minute and patient observation—that next to the pew-openers must come the ladies of the diaconate, probably needing, as we shall hereafter see, a further subdivision. Their duties were significant within the place. Fully to discharge them, they had to come early and to leave later than the rest. At the door, also, one or two of them were busier, for a short while at least, even than the chapel-keeper or pew-opener, and so I felt that they must receive the third place in the ministry of the congregation.

Then come a mixed class, difficult to define, and somewhat heterogeneous. The singers were part of them; the teachers, who sat among the children, are also to be numbered here; and probably we shall find that the widow of the preceding pastor will take a place in this mixed multitude. These I should call adjuncti, or, more properly, adjunctæ (from the predominance of the feminine element)—very helpful, but not absolutely necessary to the external life of Salem.

Then, fifth and lastly, let us number the servants of the church. These are the employed, consisting of the deacons and pastors. The church engages them, I found, and pays them a wage; the latter in the shape of money, the former with a coin of dubious character, of different metals; on the reverse sides of it, honour and faultfinding, I.fear, at times even descending to abuse, just softened by religious phraseology. This class may be called the ministers proper, the undignified clergy,—the other orders possessing (that is to say, as far as I could judge) immense powers, authority, and honour.

Such are the ministries, as observed from my study window. The reader will perhaps find this chapter dry. If so, I recommend him to skip it, and go on at once to the more detailed consideration of these orders in the church. Lest, however, he should find that by omitting the above he loses the intelligent following of the

whole subject, I have drawn out a scheme of this hierarchy which at a glance will display the orders of the service, and the relationship which they occupy. Let him study the following table, and he will find that the perusal of (the chapter becomes unnecessary :

A. Naophylax, or Templekeeper.
| B. Tbyroigoi, or Vergers and Doorkeepers.
| c. THE Women, or General Managers.

( a. Harmonious.
D. Adjuncti, b. Chaos Reducing.

( c. Reminder.

Church ORDERS.

E. Ministri, ( a. Money-paid.

{b. Objects of Universal Criticism.*

CHAPTER III.-Wherein the Author relates what he has observed of

Chapel-keepers, with Sundry Practical Remarks added for the benefit of the said Officials and any others whom it may concern. The intelligent reader who has skipped the preceding chapter, and rested content with a study of the scheme of officers thereto appended, will see that in my estimation the most important personage who holds office in our chapel is undoubtedly the keeper. His natural genius will help him to the reasons for such prominence, while the more devoted-must I say dearer ?-reader who has carefully mastered my discussion will naturally expect that I should treat herein of the naophylakian order.

What should we do without chapel-keepers ? This has been the subject of many a long meditation at my open window. Who would be able to answer the ring at the bell and modest request which is proffered by that demure lady in black who wishes to know where the clergyman of this church resides ? I am sure that is the question, for there is a long explanation ; that this is not a church, but a chapel ; that we do not call our pastor the clergyman, but the minister ; and then follows the pointing up the street, and the indication of the second turning to the left, and I know it as well as if I heard it—"the first door with ivy on it, and a brass knocker as is very conspikus," and the demure female makes

* Objection may be urged by some critic to the use by the author of Dames derived from several languages. It is hardly needful to point out the irrelevance and short-sightedness of this remark. The author has very suggestively indicated the fact that Salem is truly Catholic, that her service and life are the outgrowth and result of influences furnished by all people, -notably two or three. We are only sorry that the limitations of his strict and philosophical division did not allow of him to introduce many other languages; for example, all those into which the British and Foreign Bible Society have translated the Sacred Scriptures. It is only a matter of regret that his delicate state of health prevents him re-entering upon this classification, and extending it, as we have no doubt he very easily could, even to embrace orders whose names should be derived from the Hiji or Bechuana languages. This is only an illustration of the mode in which ecclesiastical gubjects grow upon their authors.-EDITOR.

a bow and hurries away, I know, with “the tickets of some deserving family to be redeemed out of the pawnshop;" or a request for aid to the fund for the support of the second and third wives of most interesting and hopeful South Sea islanders, who cannot very well retain more than one and their membership in the church, and are much troubled as to what shall be done with the rest; or, again, it is the inevitable foreigner, probably a German Doctor of Philosophy, or a French refugee who in Market Brampton wants a passage to La Belle France, who inquires at the église of the monsieur vare the gentlehomme the pasteur reside. Poor pastor! It is hard enough for him to make both ends meet without these harpies of charity to prey upon him and his. To be sure, I have seen one of this world's outcasts ask the way to the minister's. Poor lad! he knows he may gain a welcome for a while there, perhaps help, certainly a moment's pity and love, and that is much for such as he has become. What, I say, would these inquirers do if it were not for the chapel-keeper? Have you ever knocked at a church that is locked, no one in or near? Is there a more desolate sound than that echo of the raised bolt, that dull, heavy sbaking of the strongly fastened doors? Why should these be shut? I have often wondered. Even Salem might be left open; many a poor, tired wayfarer would go in there. The chapel-keeper's house is open, and a ring is answered. Why should not God's house be open too?

Is it a symbol of our selfish religion which bids us build places for our worship-in truth, conveniences whereby we may with most comfort and enjoyment say our prayers, but shuts them inexorably against many who would be glad of a quiet rest and retirement? Who knows?—perhaps thoughts and emotions would arise which would change the house from one of rest into one of prayer. Often do I pity the busy men who pass along our street who probably cannot the whole day long find either the place or the time of solitude. My friends the chapel-keepers would never so discharge their duties as when they were appointed to keep the chapel open.

It may be supposed that the writer has had no small experience of these church officers during his long life. From childhood they have been objects of his admiring, sometimes amused, sometimes most reverent contemplation. He remembers in the far back years the ancient keeper of the place, who had been there, if tradition speaks truly, ever since the pastorate of Dr. Ford ; indeed, according to some stories, was chapel-keeper when the doctor preached his probationary sermons. That, however, was very apocryphal, as it would have made the old fellow to be a score years or more over the century,-a demand upon belief which some young fellows who had been reading Sir George Cornewall Lewis declared was "simply absurd.” However that may be, I can well remember the old man. Short and sturdy, the thin skin drawn tightly over the cheeks, as closely fitting as the silk hose which he donned upon Sundays, and his eye bright and flashing like the silver top which adorned his cane, which cane had often done service upon the young rioters of Salem. I was a favourite of the old man, and he would take me before my accident, when I could clamber with the best, and show me the mysteries of the vestry, and even at times allow me to ascend into the chambers of the roof-memorials of the time when Salem worshipped not in quietness and peace, and was often compelled to retreat to the upper regions from the officers of Stuart justice. Mr. Penrose was fully alive to the glories of his chapel. What if there were ancient brasses and mediæval tombs in the parish church, were there not memorials quite as sacred in the little tablet above the pulpit which recorded the painful labours, life, and death of the Rev. Jedediah Armstrong, who had been ejected in 1662? or in the communion service, one plate of which had been used by some of Cromwell's Ironsides-good at battle and psalm-singing alike? “Tush!” would the old man say, with a contemptuous toss of his head. “What matters a few hundred years; and then, you know, Master Tim, we hold the truth, and do not cling to Popish errors like them,” indicating the heretics by a jerk of the thumb, supposed to be in the direction of the parish church.

It was my delight to watch Penrose trim the candles upon some early winter afternoon. Service would commence in the feeble rays of the dying light. But just about the time when our minister gave out his text it became the old man's duty to light the candles. What may have been the effect upon the elders is unrecorded, but to us youngsters it was very distracting, although it became a pleasant diversion to turn us from the weary hour that we were compelled to sit out upon high seats with very hard and straight backs. Twice during the progress of the discourse the candles needed snuffing. Dextrous though the snuffer was, at times the hand lost its cunning, and the candle was snuffed out. This once occurred with the pulpit lights, one of which, in his trepidation, was extinguished, to the delight of the boys and confusion of the preacher, who happened that day to be a stranger—a young and nervous minister from the neighbouring town.

But it was at christenings that our old friend shone out resplendently. He was master of the ceremonies, he was general marshaller of the hosts ; even the infantry were under his especial captaincy. If a child cried, Penrose was well supplied with restoratives in the shape of lollipop or cake; if a mother was bashful or a father slow, the old chapel-keeper was instantly to the fore. Then how he in

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